Marketing Management

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Transcript Marketing Management

Product Life Cycle:- To say that a product has a life cycle is to assert four
things: Products have a limited life.
 Product sales pass through distinct stages, each posing different challenges,
opportunities, and problems to the seller.
 Profits rise and fall at different stages of the product life cycle.
 Products require different marketing, financial, manufacturing, purchasing
and human resource strategies in each life – cycle stage.
Most product life – cycle curves are portrayed as bell – shaped.
This curve is typically divided into four stages:
Introduction:- A period of slow sales growth as the product is introduced
in the market. Profits are nonexistent because of the heavy expenses of
product introduction.
Growth:- A period of rapid market acceptance and substantial profit
Maturity:- A slowdown in sales growth because the product has achieved
acceptance by most potential buyers. Profits stabilize or decline because of
increased competition.
Decline:- Sales show a downward drift and profits erode.
At the same time not all the products exhibit a bell – shaped
Product Life Cycle (PLC). There are three common alternate
Growth – Slump – Maturity Pattern, often characteristic of small
kitchen appliances. Sales grow rapidly when the product is first
introduced and then fall to a ‘petrified’ level that is sustained by
late adopters buying the product for the first time and early
adopters replacing it.
Fig:- Growth – Slump – Maturity Pattern
The Cycle – Recycle Pattern often describes the sales of new drugs.
The pharmaceutical company aggressively promotes the its new
drug, and this produces the first cycle. Later, sales decreases and the
Company gives it another promotion push, which produces a second
cycle but it is usually of smaller magnitude and duration.
Fig:- Cycle – Recycle Pattern
Another common pattern is the Scalloped PLC. Here sales pass
Fig:- Scalloped Pattern
through a succession of life cycles based on the discovery of new – product
characteristics, uses, or users. The sales of nylon, show a scalloped pattern
because of the many new uses – parachutes, hosiery, shirts, carpeting,
automobile tires – that continue to be discovered over time.
Style, Fashion, and Fad Life cycle:- A Style is a basic and distinctive mode of
expression appearing in a field of human endeavor. Styles appear in homes,
clothing and art. A style can last for generations and go in and out of vogue.
A Fashion is a currently accepted or popular style in a given
field. Fashions pass through four stages: distinctiveness, emulation,
mass fashion, and decline. The length of the fashion cycle is hard to
predict. One view is that fashions end because they represent a purchase
compromise, and consumers start looking for the missing attributes. Ex:Automobiles.
Fads are fashions that come quickly into public view, are
adopted with great zeal, peak early, and decline very fast. Their acceptance
cycle is short, and they tend to attract only a limited following who are
searching for excitement or want to distinguish themselves from others.
Fads fail to survive because they don’t normally satisfy a strong need. The
marketing winners are those who recognize fads early and leverage
them into products with staying power.
Marketing Strategies: Introduction Stage and the Pioneer
Advantage:1. Inform potential consumers:2. Induce product trial:3. Secure distribution in retail outlets. At this point, firms focus on
those buyers who are the most ready to buy, usually in higher –
income groups. Prices tend to be high because costs are high.
Further, companies that plan to introduce a new product must
decide When to Enter the Market.
One study found that products that came out six months late –
but on budget – earned an average of 33% less profit in their first five
years; products that came out on time but 50% over budget cut their
profits by only 4%. Most of the studies indicate that the market
pioneer gains the greatest advantage. Ex:- Coca – Cola, Hallmark.
Carpenter and Nakamoto found that 19 of 25 companies that
were market leaders in 1923 were still the market leaders in 1983, 60
years later, and most of them are still the market leaders. Robinson
and Min found that in a sample of industrial – goods
businesses, 66% of pioneers survived at least 10 years, versus
48% of the early followers.
The advantage is that early users will recall the pioneer’s
brand name if the product satisfies them. Pioneers can have
more effective marketing spending and enjoy higher rates of
consumer repeat purchases. An alert pioneer can maintain its
leadership indefinitely by pursuing various strategies.
The pioneer advantage, however, is not inevitable. Ex:- Apple,
Reynolds. Steven Schnaars studied 28 industries where the imitators
surpassed the innovators. He found several weaknesses among the
failing pioneers, including new products that were too crude, were
improperly positioned, or appeared before there was strong demand;
product development costs that exhausted the innovator’s resources;
a lack of resources to compete against entering larger firms; and
managerial incompetence or unhealthy complacency.
Successful imitators thrived by offering lower prices,
improving the product more continuously, or using brute
market power to overtake the pioneer. None of the companies that
now dominate in the manufacture of personal computers –
including Dell and Compaq – were first movers.
Golder and Tellis conclude that although pioneers may still have
an advantage, a larger number of market pioneers fail than has been
reported, and a larger number of early market leaders succeed. Ex:IBM over Sperry in mainframe computers, Matsushita over Sony in
VCRs and GE over EMI in CAT Scan equipment.
The pioneer should visualize the various product markets it could
initially enter, knowing it cannot enter all of them at once.
Fig:- Long – Range Product Market Expansion Strategy (P= Product; M= Market)
The pioneer should analyze the profit potential of each product
market singly and in combination and decide on a market expansion
path. Ex:- As shown in the above example, because if the above
explained game plan works, the pioneer firm will own a good part of
the first two segments and serve them with two or three products.
Marketing Strategies: Growth Stage:- The growth stage is marked by a
rapid climb in sales. Early adopters buy the product and additional
consumers follow it up. New competitors enter, attracted by the
opportunities and introduce new product features and expand
Prices remain where they are or fall slightly, depending
upon how fast demand increases and or how fast the competition
increasing. Companies maintain their promotional expenditures
at the same or at a slightly increased level to meet competition
and to continue to educate the market. Profit keeps on
increasing as promotion costs are spread over a larger volume
and unit manufacturing costs fall faster than price declines,
owing to the producer learning effect. Firms must watch for a
change from an accelerating to a decelerating rate of growth in
order to prepare new strategies. Ex:- Men’s fairness cream market in
India in particular is at this stage of PLC.
During the growth stage, the firms uses the following
strategies to sustain the rapid market growth:
It improves product quality and adds new product features and
improved styling.
It adds new models and flanker products (i.e. products of different
sizes, flavors and so forth that protect the main product).
It enters new market segments.
It increases its distribution coverage and enters new distribution
It shifts from product – awareness advertising to product –
preference advertising.
It lowers prices to attract the next layer of price – sensitive buyers.
A firm in the growth stage faces a trade – off between high
market share and high current profit. By spending money on
product improvement, promotion, and distribution, it can
capture a dominant position. It forgoes maximum current profit
in the hope of making even greater profits in the next stage.
Marketing Strategies: Maturity Stage:- This stage normally lasts longer than
the growth stage and poses big challenges to marketing management. Most
products moving in the market are in their maturity stage of the PLC.
The maturity stage is divided into three phases: Growth,
Stable and Decaying Maturity. In the Growth phase, the sales growth
rate starts to decline. There are no new distribution channels to fill. New
competitive forces emerge.
In the Stable phase, sales flatten on a per capita basis because of
market saturation. Most potential consumers have tried the product,
the future sales are governed by population growth and replacement
In the Decaying Maturity phase, the absolute level of sales starts to
decline, and customers begin switching to other products. This phase
poses the most challenges. The sales slowdown creates over – capacity in
the industry, which leads to intensified competition. The advertising and
trade & consumer promotions increases. The R&D budgets also increased
as the companies try to develop product improvements and line extensions.
A shakeout begins, and weaker competitors withdraw & the industry
eventually consists of well – entrenched competitors whose basic drive
is to gain or maintain market share.
Some companies abandon weaker products to
concentrate on more – profitable and new products. Ex:- Bajaj – one
of the largest manufacturers of scooters in the world, focused on
Three potentially useful ways to change the course for a brand are
Market, Product and Marketing program modifications:
Market Modification:- A company might try to expand the market
for its mature brand by working with the two factors, that make up
sales volume. Volume = Number of brand users * Usage Rate per
 Expand the Number of Brand Users:
Convert nonusers:- Ex:- The significant growth of the shampoo market in
India is attributable to the small – sachet packaging that attracted many
nonusers to this category. Small packaging at low – price points is now
spurring the growth of many product categories in India by attracting
Enter new market segments:- Ex:- Johnson & Johnson successfully
promoted its baby shampoo to adult users who have sensitive skin.
Pears soap has introduced a pink soap specifically targeted at children.
Attract competitors’ customers:- Ex:- Marketers of the Surf detergent
powder are always wooing Ariel Customers and vise - versa.
Increase the Usage Rates Among Users:
Have consumers use the product on more occasions:- Ex:- Use of
sweetened condensed milk brands such as Milkmaid (from Nestle) or
Mithaimate (from Amul) for making a variety of dessert preparations at
home. Serve Monaco biscuits with different toppings as snack food. Take
Kodak pictures of your pets.
Have consumers use more of the product on each occasion:- Ex:- Drink
a larger glass of orange juice. Coca –Cola for every occasion.
Have consumers use the product in new ways:- Ex:- Use low dose of
aspirin daily as a medicine for reducing chances of a stroke.
Product Modification:- Managers also try to stimulate sales by
modifying the product’s characteristics through quality
improvement, feature improvement, or style improvement.
Marketing Program Modification:- Product managers also try to
stimulate sales by modifying other marketing program elements. The
following questions have to be asked:•
Prices:- Would a price cut attract new buyers? If so, should we lower the list price
or lower prices through price specials, volume or early – purchase discounts,
freight cost absorption or easier credit terms? Or would it be better to raise the
price, to signal higher quality?
Distribution:- Can the company obtain more product support and display in
existing outlets? Can it penetrate more outlets? Can the company introduce the
product into new distribution channels?
Advertising:- Should we increase advertising expenditures? Change the message
or ad copy? The media mix? What about the timing, frequency, or size of ads?
Sales Promotion:- Should the company step up sales promotion – trade deals,
price – off, coupons, rebates, warranties, gifts, and contests?
Personal Selling:- Should we increases the number or quality of salespeople?
Should we change the basis for sales force specialization? Revise sales territories
or sales force incentives? Can we improve sales – call planning?
Services:- Can the company speed up delivery? Can we extend more technical
assistance to customers? More credit?
Marketing Strategies: Decline Stage:- Sales decline for a number of reasons,
including technological advances, shifts in consumer tastes, and
increased domestic and foreign competition. All can lead to
overcapacity, increased price cutting and profit erosion. The decline might
be slow, as in the case of sewing machines, or rapid, as in the case of 5.25
floppy disks. Sales may plunge to zero, or they may petrify at a low level.
As sales and profits decline, some firms withdraw from the
market. Those remaining may reduce the number of products they
offer, and may withdraw from smaller market segments and weaker
trade channels, and also cut their promotion budgets and reduce
prices further. Unfortunately, most companies have not developed a
policy for handling aging products.
Unless strong reasons for retention exist, carrying a weak
product is very costly to the firm – and not just by the amount of
uncovered overhead and profit : there are many hidden costs. Weak
products often consume a disproportionate amount of management’s
time; require frequent price and inventory adjustments; incur
expensive setup for short production runs; draw both advertising and
sales force attention that might be better used to make healthy
products more profitable; and cast a shadow on the company’s
Failing to eliminate weak products delays the aggressive
search for replacement products. In handling aging products, a
company faces a number of tasks and decisions:To establish a system for identifying weak products.
Many companies appoint a product – review committee with
representatives from marketing, R&D, Manufacturing, and finance
who, based on all available information, makes a recommendation
for each product – leave it alone, modify its marketing strategy,
or drop it.
Some firms abandon declining markets earlier than
others. Much depends on the height of exit barriers in the
industry. The lower the exit barriers, the easier it is for firms to
leave the industry, and the more tempting it is for the remaining
firms to stay and attract the withdrawing firms’ customers.
Ex:- Liquid soap Market.
If the company were choosing between Harvesting and
Divesting, its strategies would be quite different.
Evidence on the PLC Concept:- One recent research study of 30
product categories unearthed a number of interesting findings
concerning the PLC:
New Consumer Durables show a distinct take off, after which sales increase
by roughly 45% a year, but also show a distinct slow down, when sales
decline by roughly 15% a year.
Slowdown occurs at 34% on average, well before the majority of
households own a new product.
The growth stage lasts a little over eight years and does not seem to shorten
over time.
Informational cascades exist, meaning that people are more likely to
adopt over time if others already have, instead of by making careful
product evaluations. One implication, however, is that product categories
that show large sales increases at takeoff tend to have larger sales
decline at slowdown.
Critique of the PLC Concept:- The critics of PLC concept claim
that life – cycle patterns are too variable in shape, and duration to be
generalized, and that marketers can seldom tell what stage their
product is in. A product may appear to be mature when actually it
has reached a plateau prior to another upsurge. Critics also charge
that, rather than an inevitable course that sales must follow, the PLC
pattern is the self – fulfilling result of marketing strategies and that
skillful marketing can in fact lead to continued growth.