Empire extended along
the Pacific coast and
from northern border
of modern Ecuador to
Maule River in central
Inca originated in
village of Paqaritampu, about 15mi
south of Cuzco
Earth creation myth
Pachacamac, the sun, rose slowly
from lake Titicaca
He was so bright that nothing else
could be seen (during the day), so
he made some stars, the moon and
some planets for the night.
The Moon – Pachamama became
his wife and they ruled the
heavens and the earth
They made the first humans from
the stones a a huge rock
Stone people – stupid, couldn’t survive.
Sun and Moon have two kids (son and daughter) send them to earth to help
stupid stone people.
Son – teaches men (stupid stone people) how to plow, plant fields and build
Daughter – taught women the art of weaving and how to prepare food
Pachacama tells his children to….”teach the humans to be fair and kind,
and I will provide light and warmth every day without fail, but make sure
they never forget their creators.”
Pachacama’s son became the first Inca. He and his sister wife ruled the
They take a long journey to discover a place to settle.
Along the way, they put a golden rod into the ground, this would be a
symbol of where to build a city.
They ventured into the valley of Huanacauri, the golden rod sank….
This is where the first temple of the sun should be, and capital city of
CUZCO should be established.
Manco goes North, and his wife go south in search of their people.
People of surrounding villages were moved by their stories and followedthem to the valley of Huanacauri.
Two cities are settled – followers of Manco in Northern city of HananCuzco. Southern followers of her, settle in Hurin-Cuzco
From then on all cities are divided into southern female part, and northern
Inti –The Sun God
The Inca religion was polytheistic, which
means that they worshiped many gods.
The Incas created gods for everything.
They had minor gods and major gods.
One of the major gods worshiped by the
Incas was the sun god.
He was worshiped because farmers
needed sun to grow their crops and keep
the Incas booming economy going.
The Incas even hade a booming economy.
They mass-produced their products and
shipped them out of the city using a series
of intricate pathways and roads.
Amazingly the Incas found a way to farm
in the Andes Mountains.
They built terraces or level pieces of earth
in the mountain side and built irrigation
systems in order to bring water to the
The first Inca who unified all the warring tribes in the
Andes started the empire around 1200 AD.
From the first unified INCA to the Spanish (1532)
seemed to be only 300 years, but…
Viewing their superior architecture, stonework,
metallurgy and their effort in domesticating local
animals, the Incan civilization in the Andes has
existed for more than a thousand years.
Many tribes, groups, etc, existed in the area long before 1200,
and many were unified under a single ruler, but none ruled
over all the people until approx 1200
Conception to overthrow
Creation Story – to 1200 AD – INCA
Empire was a loosely grouped tribal
based society spread out over many
miles. (in fact, its not called an empire because of this, until
Huayna Capac 1488-1528
At Huayna Capac's death (ca. 1528) in Quito
Equador, this vast territory was divided
between two of his sons:
Huáscar, who won the imperial throne in the
capital city of Cuzco to the south, and his halfbrother …
Atahualpa, who gained the northern portion of
the kingdom, with its center in the city of
When the Spanish arrive in 1532, INCA
empire was involved in a civil war between the
half-brothers, reaching a peak in 1532 with the defeat
and imprisonment of Huáscar.
At this point the Spaniards entered Peru. Francisco
Pizarro and about 180 men reached Atahualpa's base
at Cajamarca in November 1532.
The confrontation between the Spanish conquistador
and the Inca, who had thousands of troops camped
nearby, took place in the main square of the town.
How does 160 men beat thousands?
Pizzaro was viewed as a God
because he had horses, “great
beasts twice the size of alpaca
and more fierce” said to
control “thunder and
lightning”, (cannons and
guns) had metal shields and
But they also wore “pots on
Pizzaro meets the leader.
Pizzaro’s prists present the Bible and tells
him, this is the only God, “obey him and
you will be spared”
“This book doesn’t speak to me…throws
on ground….= act of war.
Pizarro then ordered his strategically placed troops to
attack the soldiers with Atahualpa and the Inca was
seized by the Spaniards.
Unable to conceive that these 160 men were
the spearhead of a full-scale invasion and
encouraged by Pizarro's words that "the
fighting men were seeking nothing more
than gold", Atahualpa offered his famous
"Atahualpa said that he would give a room full of gold.
The room measured 22 feet long by 17 feet wide (6.7m
x 5.2m) and was to be filled to a white line half way up
its height (about 2.5m)... he would fill the room with
various objects of gold... he would also give the entire
hut filled twice over with silver. And he would
complete this within two months".
Atahualpa's willing collaboration with the
Spanish ensured their security and lent them
an air of authority with the Indians.
Pizarro accepted more than 11
tons of gold
($6 million at the time) dishes,
icons, ornaments, jewelry, &
vases, but never released
Keeps him prisoner for a year, to
ensure their safety against the
INCA civilization which greatly
out numbered the Spanish.
While in captivity Atahualpa
orders Huáscar’s death.
July 26, 1533: Atahualpa was
charged with his brothers murder- he
is killed (by strangulation) then
beheaded in the main square, arms
and legs off and scattered,
demonstration of power.
After capture of Atahualpa
Pizzaro appoints Manco Inca new leader In Quito. He was
Atahualpa nephew who opposed his uncle, and would
Atahualpa Capital City (Quito)
Atahualpa base camp ( CAJAMARCA)
The Incan leader Pachucutec
originally named the city Qusco,
meaning “Navel of the World."
Huascar kingdom located in
the Capital City of CUZCO
Entry into Cuzco
On November 15, 1533, Francisco Pizarro and Manco Inca –
appointed leader of conquered city of Quito, led the victorious
conquistadors into Cuzco.
For Pizarro, this represented their ultimate goal - the
occupation of the capital city.
For Manco, this represented a homecoming after months of
hiding from Atahualpa's forces. The alliance was mutually
Looting of CUZCO
With the help of Manco Inca – looting begins.
Pizarro sacked Cusco, eventually capturing the capital. The Spanish looted
the city, melting down its gold in a matter of weeks. They also took
advantage of the Quechua's superb masonry skills and built their cathedrals
and churches on top of Inca-period structures. This architectural blend of
native and colonial elements remain in place to this day, making Cusco a
historical gem of the Americas.
Appoints Manco Inca the new leader, then leaves to explore
rest of Peru.
Remaining Spaniards do not get along with Manco, and
second battle of CUZCO erupts.
INCA defeated, and empire finished.
New Capital LIMA established.