Manufacturing processes 2
Sir Hassan Fareed sb
Iftikhar Ul Hassan Shah
Motorcycle manufacturing industry
INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATION:
Atlas Honda Limited is a joint venture between the Atlas
Group and Honda Motor Co., Japan. Atlas Honda is market
leader in motorcycle industry. It is emerging as a global
competitive centre of production & exports. AHL can
produce 600Kmotorcycles per annum. Being a dynamic,
profitable and growth oriented company. It is sharing
market leadership, maximizing exports & excellence in
AHL is producing 4 models with fulfilling its ISO 9002 & ESH
(ISO 14001) requirements. AHL is also committed to provide
green products /nonhazardous/environment friendly bikes to
fulfill its corporate citizen responsibilities. Currently, there are 2
plants working day and night to meet the demand of motorbike
in Pakistan. These plants are located in Sheikhupura and
Karachi. The head office is located at Karachi. Sheikhupura
plant manufactures all 4 models while Karachi plant only
prepares 1 model. SKP Plant comprises of 500K plant (Frame
&engine assy), HI TECH (Engine Plant), Casting Plant and
one of the leading automobile manufacturers of Pakistan. The
turn over here is less than 3 percent which is very less as
compared to other
Industries who expect 10 percent turnover per year..The
company has 250 dealers nationwide, who are responsible for
the sales of motorbikes. Further, there are 6400 service dealers
throughout the country, who are providing services of repairing
to the customers. They are also responsible for the sale of spare
parts. In this way, directly or indirectly, Atlas Honda is creating
job opportunities for almost 25,000 people.
Daily motorcycle production is 1325 units comprising 4 models.
Presently, Atlas Honda has to compete with 51 companies in the
market. Despite of such tough competition, Atlas Honda has 52
percent share in the total sales in Pakistan. This has only been
achieved by maintaining tough standards in quality. Further,
motorbikes are also exported in limited quantity to Bangladesh.
With market share of worth more than 55 rupees, Atlas Honda
is one of the leading automobile manufacturers of Pakistan. The
turn over here is less than 3 percent which is very less as
compared to other
Industries who expect 10 percent turnover per year.The company
has 250 dealers nationwide, who are responsible for the sales of
motorbikes. Further, there are 6400 service dealers throughout
the country, who are providing services of repairing to the
customers. They are also responsible for the sale of spare parts.
In this way, directly or indirectly, Atlas Honda is creating job
opportunities for almost 25,000 people.
Atlas group companies
Atlas Honda presently offers 4 products to the customers. They
The new attractively designed CD 70 is right there at the top
with aerodynamic shape, super power, a smoke-free 4-Stroke
engine and the special Honda 12-voltCDI technology. The new
eye-catching graphics, front and rear mud-flaps, comfortable
seat and the new utility box have made Honda CD 70 an ideal
combination of elegance and durability. Honda CD 70 has high
resale value. Its excellent petrol average makes it greatly
economical, and its easily available spare parts ensure troublefree companionship.
The new CD 100 has been designed to compete with Yamaha,
the biggest suppliers of 100cc bikes in Pakistan. It incorporates
many new features such as low fuel consumption with bigger
outlook resembling CG 125.
New Honda CG 125 is the ideal combination of elegance and
power. Its speed and performance symbolizes the true essence of
modern life. The 125 cc 4-strokeengine generates 11-Horse Power
with low fuel consumption.
It is ideal for high-speed, long runs and rough pathways. Honda
CG125 has a CDI Ignition System anda 12-volt battery (instead of
6-volt). The headlight and indicators are brighter, within easy
starting-up of the engine.
CG 125 DELUXE:
This new model has been designed keeping in mind the
demand for a bike with sporty outlook. The engine volume is
same as CG 125. The outlook is different. Disk brakes have been
incorporated to give a touch of heavy bikes.
PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL:
PPC deals with managing the details of what & how many
products to produce and when, and obtaining the raw materials,
parts, and resources to produce those items.PPC does this by
managing information. For this purpose PPC has to keep strong
interactions in terms of coordination, communication &
cooperation with 4 major sections of Production and service
departments like QA, Logistics, Maintenance, DCC/ Stores and
PPC Karachi as well. Further, it communicates with sales,
marketing to fulfill their day today requirements. PPC also
interacts with Govt. offices like Excise and Taxation office
Lahore to get permissions regarding Prefixes/ Engine/Chassis
Production planning is done to ensure the budgeted production
targets of AHL. The planning is majorly done at AHL, the
company sets its production targets. On the basis of these
targets following type of planning is done.
• Aggregate planning
• Master production schedule
On the basis of forecasting, a schedule from SAP, according to
the production capacities & company’s strategies, is generated
which includes the planning of whole year. It includes the
production breakup of motorcycles for whole year into model
wise, plant wise & month wise breakups.
Master production schedule
On the basis of aggregate planning, such a monthly schedule is
made which includes day wise (2- shift wise), model & color wise
Planning is nothing without control. PPC ensures & arranges the
necessary resources for implementation of production plan. For
this purpose PPC has an eye on the in-house, vendor, import
items &ensures that all the material for the next day production
are available. if there is any shortage, then they collaborate with
vendor procurement to ensure availability of part in time. The
other function of PPC is that if there are deficiencies in the
resources available for production due to any reason, they work
to save the company from production loss.
This plant provides castings in raw form for the engine plant to
do machining operations on it.PPC gives monthly plan to
casting shop. The casting shop takes daily target from customer
shop i-e cylinder head machining shop. Then according to their
requirement they generate their own schedule. They determine
that how many castings & how many shot blasts (finished
according to C/H machining shop), the casting shop will
Following RM’s are received by casting shop from general stores
by I. R. Aluminum ingots, RCS sand. There are three types of
castings done in this plant they are:
LOW PRESSURE DIE CASTING:
This type of casting is done in only Atlas Honda in Pakistan.
There is no other industry using this type of casting process.
Here, four parts are made:
• Cylinder Head of CD 70
• Cylinder Head of CD 100
• Cylinder Head of CG 125
• Cylinder Head of CG 125 Deluxe
Details of processes & machines used
Melting of Al ingots:
First of all, raw aluminum alloy in form of ingots is melted in
The furnace is an automatic controlled furnace which melts Al
ingots at 7300C
A fork lifter takes the liquid aluminum out of the furnace and
pours it into Gas bubbling filtration machine which degassing
molten Al i-e removing air/hydrogen contents.
After GBF, the liquid aluminum is poured into the LPDC
machine where dies are available. The liquid metal goes into the
die to form the casting. The pressurizing time for the die is 120
seconds. After this, water is passed through the die to cool the
aluminum for 15 seconds. There are sand pores placed inside the
die for giving shape to the casting.
After this, the casting is removed from the die and sand pore is
removed by a process called sand breaking on chipping
Then gate cutting machine is utilized to cut the gate with the
casting. The gate is the extra material attached with the casting
which is formed when liquid aluminum entering the die is
solidified. Thus, gate represents the pathway for the liquid
aluminum and has to be removed.
Then welding is performed on Tig Welding Plant. This is done
only when required. It is mostly not used. Workers then perform
finishing of the casting by dry grinders.
Heat Treatment process:
Heat Treatment process is then performed to strengthen the
material of the cylinder head casting. Quenching is done by
heating the casting up to 500 degree centigrade and then
immediately dipping it in water at temperature of 50 degree
Next, shot blasting machine is used to coat the part with steel.
In shot blasting machine, steel balls are fired on the casting with
high momentum. They strike the part and leave their impact on
the casting in form of steel coating. The part is now ready to
Core preparation section:
There is another section in LPDC where dies are coated with
special material and their service is performed. The sand cores
used in the dies are also prepared in a machine. This machine
utilizes special sand called TSC to prepare sand cores. This sand
is imported from Malaysia and Taiwan at cost of rupees 20 per
kg through HONDA TRADING. Sand is first roasted at 300
degree centigrade and then compressed to a compact form to
give it desired shape
GRAVITY DIE CASTING:
This section produces three parts:
Case Bottom for CD 70
Case Bottom for CG 125
Case Bottom for CG 125 Deluxe
The sequence of operations is as following
• First of all, aluminum alloy is melted in melting furnace. The
furnace used is same as that of LPDC section.
• Then liquid aluminum alloy is poured into the dies by the
help of Gravity Die Casting Machines.
• Afterwards, gate cutting operation is performed on the casted
part by the help of gate cutting machine.
• Then glow pasting operation is performed.
• Crack detection is made to check if any crack has been
developed in the casting during its production.
• Then finishing is done. If required, repairing can also be
• Final inspection of the castings is done to ensure there is no
defected part produced. Now, part is ready to be delivered to
HIGH PRESSURE DIE CASTING:
In this section, following four parts are casted:
R Crank Case of CD 70
L Crank Case of CD 70
R Cover for CD 70
Cylinder for CG 125
The sequence of operations is as follows:
• Aluminum alloy of HD2BS1 grade is melted in the electric
• Then liquid aluminum alloy is poured in the HPDC machines
to form casting.
There are three machines used in this section. Two machines
have pressure of 650 tons each. One machine has pressure of
500 tons. There is water cooling system in the die for cooling the
die. Cycle time is 49 seconds. The machines are automatic i.e.
they themselves pick up the liquid aluminum from a tank and
pour them at the inlet. Then a cylinder pushes the liquid
aluminum into the die which consists of two parts. These 2 parts
clamp each other with immense pressure as high as 650 tons.
The life cycle of one die is 1,25,000 shots.
• Then finishing of the casting is performed which includes
removing burrs on the casting. There is die maintenance section
in HPDC which checks the quality of die and decides whether it
is to be repaired or not.
• Die is sprayed from inside after each cycle with a separate
material so that casting does not sticks with the die.
Stores dept. at AHL performs following functions.
• Manages the receiving, stacking & issuance of parts &
materials to the shop.
• Ensures the provision & dispatches of required parts to SKP &
KHI plant, spares part division & vendors.
• Handles the rejections & damages from all shops
• Handles the scraps & wastes generated in the factory
Division of stores:
Stores dept. at AHL has been divided into a no of small stores
according to the typeof material being stored and
functions/services provided by the store.
The division is shown as follows
At AHL, following handling techniques are used.
• For handling from shop to shop especially designed trolleys,
and pallets are used.
• Imported motorcycle components are received in steel &
wooden cases &pallets.
• Local vendor parts are received from receiving section in
Movement of materials from stores:
FROM STORES TO SHOP
CKD, in-house, sub contractor parts & sub assemblies Paint
shop, Engine & Frame Assy Press parts Welding, Paint shops
RM, CKD, subcontractor parts Cushion, Casting, Engine, gear,
camshaft shop, crankshaft & cylinder head shop
This plant has two shops:
Fuel tank welding shop, Fuel tank paint shop
FUEL TANK WELDING SHOP:
In this shop, fuel tanks of all the 4 models are manufactured
The following processes are done:
• Emblem spot where Mechanical press is used to produce
frame of the bike from sheet metal.
• Fuel tanks of the bikes are not casted in a single piece. They
are available in 2 pieces. They are joined together by welding.
Then grinding operation is done to remove any material
appearing at the point of weld. Then a leak check is performed
to check the efficiency of fuel tank.
FUEL TANK PAINT SHOP:
Here, spray painting method is used to paint the parts produced
in the fuel tank welding shop. The sequence of operations is as
• First of all, the fuel tanks are cleaned by immersing them in
hot water for some time.
• Then they are dried in a drying chamber.
• Then the workers start painting them in a special way using
spray painting. The paint used is of silver color and is the base
paint. This method is of low efficiency i.e. 15-20%.
• Then parts are dried.
• Monograms are placed on the fuel tank and side covers.
• Parts are delivered to the store department
All machining processes on the engine parts are performed here.
So, this plant is of great importance. The accuracy and stability
of engine is dependent on the quality of machining being
performed here. The engine plant is divided into following
GEAR MANUFACTURING SHOP:
This shop produces following products:
Gear train for CD 70
Gear train for Cd 100
Gear train for CG 125
Gear train for CG 125 Deluxe
Transmission shafts and main shafts of CD 70, CD 100 and CG
Total 33 parts are manufactured here. The gear trains of CD 70
and CD 100 consist of 9 gear pieces. The gear train of CG 125
consists of 8 parts while that of Deluxe 7 parts. All the parts are
provided by the vendors. Following processes are performed on
• Lathe processes like turning, boring and facing are
performed on the gears initially in CNC machines. Two
such machines are installed which perform these
• Two broaching machines are present to performing
broaching operations on the gears to form holes at the
center of the gears for main shaft.
• Teeth are being cut on the gear profile in teeth cutting
machines. This process is done on 2 types of machines i.e.
GEAR SHAPING MACHINE and HOBBING MACHINE.
• In finishing section, grinding, honing and final inspection is
made of the parts.
• Honing is done for grinding internal diameters of gears. It is
done to lessen the wear between gear and shaft. Final inspection
is made to check if there is any error in the gear profile. This is
done on special testing machines which draw the graphs of the
gear and represent the tooth profile of the gear.
• Then Heat treatment is done on the gear to increase its surface
This shop performs the operation of machining and finishing
the camshaft for the bike engine. Camshafts for all four models
are machined here. The camshaft castings are imported from
Japan. Following sequence of operations are performed here:
• First of all, facing operation is done on the casting to remove
material on the shaft leaving the cams.
• Then cylindrical profile grinding operation is performed to
machine the cam profile in a special machine.
• Then holes are made for lubricating oil passage. Drilling,
turning and reaming operations are performed. The holes are
checked for the oil passage by passing coolant through them.
• After final Inspection, the camshaft is forwarded to be ued.
CYLINDER HEAD MACHINING:
The cylinder head is casted in the casting plant and supplied to
this shop by the stores department. Here following sequence of
operations are performed:
Face milling and end milling of the upper and lower sides is
Drilling operations along with reaming, boring and counter
boring is done. After this, extra parts are attached to the cylinder
head. They include valves, springs other small accessories.
In the end, again the part is checked for the quality.
Crankshaft is an important part of bike engine. It is the
responsibility of this part to transfer the force of the cylinder to
the wheels. So, special attention is required while
manufacturing this part.
Following sequence of operations are performed on it:
• Plain turning of the shaft.
• Facing operation.
• Gun drilling operation is used to drill holes in the shaft for
• Boring is done
• Profile grinding is performed as a finishing process.
• After completion, run-out is observed by hit and trail method.
It is done to balance the crankshaft during its performance.
CRANKCASE MACHINING SHOP:
Following parts are machined here:
L/R cases for CD 70 and CD 100.
R cover for CD 70 and CD 100.
L/R case for CG 125 and Deluxe.
L.R cover for CG 125 and Deluxe.
• First, dry facing is performed on the upper and lower portions
of the castings.
• Then operations like drilling, reaming, tapping etc. are
performed on the parts.
• Then part is washed in the washing machine.
• Then inspection is performed e.g. leak tests and other
observations. If any fault is found, part is rejected.
500K ASSEMBLY PLANT:
All parts of the motor bike are supplied here by the stores
department and are assembled to prepare a bike. This plant is
very efficient one. The production rate is high with a motorbike
manufactured in 35 seconds. There are four shops in this plant.
Their detail is given below:
FRAME WELDING SHOP:
The frame body of the bike is welded here. Three types of
welding are being used presently:
ED PAINT SHOP:
The welded frames from the frame welding shop are shifted to
the ED( electrode deposition) paint shop for painting. The parts
which are painted here are:
• Frame body
• Bracket muffler
• Side & main stands
ENGINE ASSEMBLY SHOP:
This is the most critical shop of the assembly plant. It The
assembly line consists of a conveyor belt. It also has sub
assembly zones where engine parts are assembled and then
subsequently shifted to the main engine assembly line. All four
models CD 70, CD 100, CG 125 and CG 125 Deluxe engines are
assembled here. Pneumatic guns are provided for the workers to
mount nuts and bolts on the engine. Checks are made at many
places for leakage of the engine. If found any fault, engine is sent
to the re-work area where problem is removed.
FRAME BODY ASSEMBLY:
This shop has 100 meter long conveyor having capacity of 90
jigs. These jigs are used to clamp the frame of the bikes. This
shop is also divided into sub assembling zones. Different parts
are assembled and transferred to the main assembly line. This
frame assembly has three QUALITY GATES. The purpose of
each quality gate is to check and repair the faults in the
assembled bike. This shop produces a bike after every 46
seconds. It has the capacity of producing a bike after every 27
FINAL INSPECTION AREA:
It has the responsibility of checking the bike and finding faults
related to any shop. For this purpose, inspectors are appointed,
who check the whole bike in 1 minute. In this checking
operation, they drive it, observe it and may even use tools for
The main responsibility if this dept. is ensuring part availability
in right quantity & in right time.
This dept. is for local vendors in Pakistan.
The purpose is to inform developed vendors (in the start of the
new year)that during this new year, AHL will buy the parts in
such quantities and at such rate. This basically helps vendor to
do his aggregate & capacity planning.
QA dept. administers Quality management & quality control
functions. QA dept. identifies quality related problems in
vendor & in-house parts & takes preventive action for their reoccurrence.
WARRANTY & FINAL INSPECTION:
Warranty Claim Data Collection:
At AHL, warranty system is emphasized a lot. When a customer
has any complaint, he contacts to antenna dealers (authorized
with warranty). Antenna dealers generate a warranty claim
report & then communicate with AHL warranty center for
working on it.
This section of QA is located in final assy section of 500K plant.
This section is formed for the final analysis of the complete
motorcycle that comes out of the frame assy.
Stages of final inspection:
Test bench, functional & visual tests are performed. The details
of theses tests are as follows
Test for engine efficiency
Test for accuracy of speedometer
Test for working of brakes
At the second stage visual check is performed. In this test,
inspectors check the bike visually according to the criteria &
inspection points provided to them.
It includes the Co & HC emission test & head light testing. Final
inspection dept. generates the straight pass of the motorcycles
which shows the no of O.K parts as compared to total no of