Beer Basics Water Treatment in Brewing

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Transcript Beer Basics Water Treatment in Brewing

Beer Basics
Malt and Adjuncts
June 16, 2007
Today’s Topics
Malting Process
– Malting Steps
– Outcome from Malting
– Modification and Acrospire Growth
Types of Brewing Malt
– Base Malts
• Higher Kilned Base Malts
– Specialty Malts
– Adjuncts
Evaluating Malt
– Dry Basis Fine Grind
– Dry Basis Coarse Grind
– Fine Grind/Coarse Grind Difference
– Color
• Traditional Lovibond Scale
• Standard Reference Method
• European Brewing Conference
– Diastatic Power
– Protein Percent
– Soluble Nitrogen/Total Nitrogen Ratio
– Mealy Percent
– Example - Briess Malt Sheet
• Barley malt is a major component of beer.
Malt contributes aroma, flavor, and body to
beer. To make great beer, brewers need to
understand malting and mashing processes.
The first step in this direction is to understand
the malts and adjuncts used in brewing
Malting Process
Malting is sprouting grains in a controlled
environment until a certain level of
modification is obtained and then the kernels
are dried and kilned until a specific color is
Malting Process
Malting Steps
1. Steep the barley in water at 50-65 °F for two
to three days
2. Germinate for six to ten days at 50-70 °F.
After six days the length of the acrospire will
be ½ the length of the kernel.
3. After germination, the temperature is slowly
raised to 90 °F and held at this temperature
for 24 hours to allow enzymes to work
Malting Process
Malting Steps
4. The temperature is raised to 120 °F and held
for 12 hours to dry the malt
5. The malt is kilned at the prescribed
temperature to achieve the correct color
Malting Process
Outcome From Malting
• Develop enzymes that will reduce starches
and proteins during malting and mashing
• Breakdown grain cell walls to allow enzymes
to start modification
• Modification, which means appropriate
breakdown of starches and proteins in order
for the malt to be mashed properly
Malting Process
Modification and Acrospire Growth
• The amount of modification is connected to the
growth of the acrospire relative to the kernel.
• The malt is fully modified when the acrospire is
fully grown, i.e. the acrospire has grown the
entire length of the kernel
• It is desirable for the acrospire to grow to at least
¾ the length of the kernel for well modified malt
Types of Brewing Malt
Base Malts
• Base malts comprise the majority of the brewing grain
bill. Typically, they are lighter in color and provide
enough enzymes to convert their own starches and the
starch from other malts.
• Base malts include:
Two row barley
Six row barley
Base Malts
Two Row Barley Malt
• Grains only grow on two rows on the ear.
Only two of the six flowers are fertile
• Typically has lower protein and enzymes than
six row barley.
• Thinner husk compared to six row barley,
which means less tannins that can cause off
flavors in beer
Base Malts
Six Row Barley Malt
• Grains grow on six rows on the ear. All six of
the flowers are fertile. Yields more per acre
than two row barley malt.
• High in proteins and enzymes. So good with
adjuncts like rice and corn which are weak in
proteins and enzymes.
• Thick husk and more tannins than two row
barley malt.
Base Malts
Higher Kilned Base Malts
Higher kilned base malts are kilned at a higher
temperature than other base malts. As a
result, these malts are darker in color and
contain fewer enzymes for starch conversion;
however, they usually have enough enzymes
to convert their own starch
Higher Kilned Base Malts
Vienna Malt
• Malt dried to 5% moisture and then kilned at
210 to 230 °F for about one hour
• Provides sweet toasty malt aroma and flavor
• Contributes a golden to amber color in beer
(3.5 to 4 degrees Lovibond)
• Used in Vienna lager and Oktoberfest
Higher Kilned Base Malts
Munich Malt
• Kilned at up to 240 °F for darker Munich malt
• More aromatic than Vienna malt. It provides
a sweet toasty malt aroma and flavor
• Also darker than Vienna malt, usually Munich
malt is 8 to 10 degrees Lovibond
• Used in Vienna, Oktoberfest, Dunkels, and
Types of Brewing Malts
Specialty Malts
• All malts not included as a base malt. These
malts are added to the grain bill to increase
flavor, body and beer color.
• Usually constitutes a small portion of the total
grain bill
• Low to no enzymes for converting starches
and proteins during the mash.
Specialty Malts
Crystal and Caramel Malt
• Typically sold by Lovibond color rating ranging
from 20 to 120 degrees Lovibond
• Contains no enzymes
• Depending on Lovibond rating, can impart a
caramel, toffee or nutty flavor to beer
• Fully modified and kilned at 50% moisture
content, which mashes the starches into
sugars inside the grain husk.
Speciality Malts
Chocolate Malt
• Under modified barley malt dried to 5%
moisture and kilned at high temperatures to
achieve brownish black color
• Contains no enzymes
• Imparts a nutty or toasty aroma and flavor
• Used in porters, stouts, brown ales and dunkel
Specialty Malts
Black Malt (Black Patent Malt)
• Under modified barley malt dried to 5% moisture
and kilned at higher temperature than chocolate
malt, which produces darker color compared to
chocolate malt
• Contains no enzymes
• Adds a sharp burnt flavor to beer
• Used in porters and stouts and to a lesser degree
in Scotch ales
• Small amounts can be used for color adjustment
Types of Brewing Malts
• Adjuncts are unmalted grains that provide
additional starch. Examples include rice, corn,
barley, wheat, oats, and rye.
• The starches in adjuncts must be gelatinized
before they are mashed. This gelatinization
can be achieved by cooking or by flaking
through hot rollers.
Corn and Rice
• Used by large American brewers to make
Standard American lager.
• Corn and rice have low protein levels. Therefore,
they are normally used in conjunction with six
row barley malt that has high protein levels.
• Large brewers use a double mash to gelatinize
the starches in the corn and rice.
• Corn imparts a sweet flavor while rice is more
flavor neutral
• Used in belgium Wit beers and Oatmeal stouts
• Provides a silky creaminess and oiliness.
Unmalted Wheat
• Used in belgium Wit beers and Lambics
• Imparts a malty spiciness
Malt Analysis
Moisture Content
• It is recommended that malt should have a
moisture content less than 6%. The moisture
content should be less than 4% for colored
• High moisture content can lead to mold and to
loss of aroma and flavor during storage
• For large scale brewers, moisture increases
the cost of the malt
Malt Analysis
Dry Basis Fine Grind (DBFG) Extract Yield
• Assumes zero moisture content which is not true
in real setting.
• Uses ASBC laboratory mash. The grains are
crushed on a Buhler-Miag disc mill set to .2
• Indicates maximum potential yield.
• The higher the DBFG yield the better. Malts with
a DBFG yield less than 78% are below standard.
Malt Analysis
Dry Basis Coarse Grind (DBCG) Extract Yield
• Assumes zero moisture content which is not true
in real setting.
• Uses ASBC laboratory mash. The grains are
crushed on a Buhler-Miag disc mill set to .7
• Indicates possible extract yield. However, brewhouse yield is always less because of malt
moisture content and better efficiency of
laboratory mash
Malt Analysis
Fine Grind/Coarse Grind Difference
• The difference between the dry basis fine
grind and coarse grind indicates the degree of
malt modification. The smaller the difference
the more modified the malt
• Normally the difference is less than 2%
• A DBFG – DBCG up to 2.2% is OK if decoction
mash is employed. For infusion mash, the
difference should be less than 1.8%
Malt Analysis
• Traditional Method developed by Lovibond. The
scale is implemented by comparing colored slides
or glasses to a sample to visually see which slide
agreed with the color of the sample
• Current standards for measuring color
– Standard Reference Method (SRM) developed by
American Society of Brewing Chemists (ASBC)
– European Brewing Convention (EBC) color rating
– The two methods can be compared by the equation
EBC = 1.97 * SRM
Malt Analysis
• The current methods use spectrophotometers
• All three scales goes from low to high, with
lower numbers assigned to light colors
• For light colored beers the SRM method is
very close to the Lovibond scale
Malt Analysis
Alpha-amylase (Dextrinizing Units)
• ASBC metric that measures dextrin units per 100 grams
• Over modified malt normally has lower dextrin units.
For less modified malts, the dextrinizing units needs to
be greater to apply an infusion mash.
• Typical ranges for 100 grams:
Six row malt 35-45
American two row malt 40-50
Pilsener malt 44-48
Vienna malt 40-45
Malt Analysis
Diastatic Power (Degrees Linter)
• Measures the enzyme content of the malt. Specifically,
the enzyme strength to convert starch to sugar
• Higher diastatic power malts convert starches faster
than lower diastatic power malts
• Well modified malts with low protein content typically
have a diastatic power between 35 and 40. On the
other hand, it can be as high as 160 for six row brewers
• Diastatic power decreases as malt color increases.
Malt Analysis
Protein Percent
• Equals 6.25 times the total nitrogen content
• The protein percent for Barley malt should be
9 to 11%
• Enzymes are proteins, so higher protein levels
correspond to higher enzymatic strength.
Malt Analysis
Soluble Nitrogen/Total Nitrogen Ratio
• The ratio of soluble nitrogen to total nitrogen
is a measure of malt modification. A higher
ratio indicates higher malt modification
• For lager malts, 30-33% indicates under
modification and 37-40% indicates over
• For infusion mashing, the ratio should be 3842%
Malt Analysis
Mealy Percent
• Malt is characterized as mealy, half-glassy, and
glassy. Mealy malt is very chewable, whereas,
glassy malt is very hard.
• Well modified malt is mealy.
• For infusion mashing, the malt should be at
least 95% mealy. Malt should be at least 92%
mealy for decoction and step mashes.
Malt Analysis
Let’s review a typical malt analysis from Briess
Malt and Ingredients Co.