Sprints (100m, 200m, 400m)
Sprints (100m, 200m, 400m)
Shelia Burrell, Two –Time
Sprints, Hurdles, Jumps Coach
Cliff Rovelto – Head Coach Kansas State University
Gary Winkler – Former Head Coach University of Illinois
Tony Wells – Colorado Flyers Track Club
Bob Kersee – Former Head Coach UCLA, Olympic Coach
Dennis Shaver – Head Coach Louisiana State University
Tudor Bompa – Periodization: Theory and Methodology of Training
Todd Henson – Former Coach Olympic Silver Medalist in Pole Vault, Toby Stevenson.
Currently Director of Athletic Development in Germany
Vince Anderson – Assistant Coach Texas A & M University
Ralph Mann – The Mechanics of Sprinting and Hurdling
YOU MUST HAVE A PLAN
A bad plan is better than no plan at all….. At least you are
going in a direction.
With no plan you go no where….
“those who know why will always be victorious over those who
only know how”
Sound training principles and good intuition will make up
for places of faulty planning.
“people perish for lack of vision”
“in all your getting get an understanding”
Know what works for you… Continually tweak and develop
your own system that fits your coaching style.
“eat the fish and spit out the bones”
Those who know WHY will always be
victorious over those who only know
Rhythm, Rhythm, Rhythm.
SPRINT TRAINING INVENTORY
0 – 30m
30m – 60m
60m – 150m
Aerobic, Muscular, Core, General Strength.
Specifically address role of specific “sprint muscles”
Gluteals, Hamstrings' and gastroc/soleus complex
Eccentric, Concentric, Static, Elastic and Dynamic
Front Side Mechanics
Hip Mobility, Dynamic Flexibility
Intrinsic Motivation, Aggressiveness,
WHAT ARE WE WORKING WITH?
# of Strides to Hurdle #1
# of Hurdle Clearance Strides
# of Strides between hurdles
# of Strides from H10 to Finish
TOTAL # OF STRIDES
Distance to Hurdle #1
Distance b/t Hurdles
AVERAGE STRIDE PATTERN START LINE TO HURDLE #1
Stride pattern to hurdle #1: (8 stride pattern is recommended)
Measurement begins from the starting line in meters for the average pattern.
Trail leg (power) should be in the front block setting.
Start Line| .60 | 1.65 | 2.95 | 4.40 | 5.95 |
100 METER HURDLES
Start Line| .60 | 1.70 | 3.05 | 4.55 |
110 METER HURDLES
Sprinting through the Hurdle
Active foot plant at Take Off
Leading with the knee
Angle of attack (Depends on height of athlete)
Shoulders forward - “Step Down”
Trail arm action
Flight Path of Center of Mass (determined @ TO)
Front Side Mechanics (Action/Reaction)
Low heel recovery between hurdle (Shuffling)
Posture at Touch Down, run off trail leg
Sprinting away from the Hurdle
TRAIN TO RUN GOAL RHYTHM UNITS (UR)
Hurdle PR =
Time to H1 =
Time off H10 =
Time H1 – H10=
Avg R U for 9 Hurdles =
1.21 se (10.90 / 9)
Avg Velocity for R U’s =
Velocity = distance divided by time
76.6m / 10.90 = 7.03 m/s
Set up Hurdle Drill at 7.03m
Hurdle PR =
Time to H1 =
Run off to finish=
Time H1 – H10 =
Avg. R U for 9 Hurdles =
Avg. Velocity for RU’s =
Set drill w/ hurdles @ 7.54m
Goal is to run 1.00 seconds for RU
Increase each step by: 10 cm
100m + 2.0
100m + 1.5
100m + 1.0
100m + 4.5
100m + 3.5
TASK SPECIFIC HURDLE DRILLS
6.5meter Drill : 3 step, Lead, Trail, Over Middle emphasize each
8.2m up to 4th or 6th Hurdle
Reduce each Hurdle by 10cm (8.5m, 8.4m, 8..3m, 8.2m, 8.1m, 8.0m…etc)
Stagger the Height of hurdle (30”/33”)
Lower Hurdle @ 4th Hurdle where speed usually drops
One Step Drills, Propulsion Drill, 3 Step Drill, Trail Leg
5 step to increase speed into next hurdle
H1-H2 @ 8.0 , H3 @ 11.8 , H4 @ 7.8m
HURDLE SPECIFIC STRENGTH & MOBILITY DRILLS
Straight Leg Tuck x 25
Trail Leg Bouncing 2x10
Sitting Upright while raising legs Up/Down x 25
Lead Leg Swings 2x20 (Standing b/t Hurdles)
Sitting Upright – Leg Circles x 25
Lead Leg Thrust (H Toppers) x 15 (Hurdles back to
Sitting Upright – Criss Cross Legs x 25
Over and Backs x 15
Seated Single Leg Raise x 20 ea.
Trail Leg Tuck x 20
HURDLE DRILLS CON’T
Hurdle Position Raise x 10
Side Slides x 10 ea.
Trail Leg Step Over
Hurdle Leg Split x 10 (change directions)
Guided Trail Leg/ Resisted Trail/Regular Trail Leg
Lateral Lunge Split x 20
Hurdle Walk Overs 2x10 (hands over head)
Partner PNF/ In & Out x 20sec
SLB over Hurdle 2 x 60m (6.3=w 6.94=m)
Toe Touch (V-Up) and Hold x 10 sec( Single leg)
Hurdle Taps on Command (no hurdle)
400 METER INTERMEDIATE HURDLES
Intensive Tempo (Lactacid Capacity)
–Hills (Long and Short Hills)
- 80% intensity runs (Intensive Tempo)
- Sets of 4- -6 runs with recoveries of 3- 6’
- Breakdowns: e.g. 1 x 500, 3 x 300, 3 x 150 or 500, 300,
Constant recoveries, constant pace
Decreasing recoveries, constant pace
Constant recoveries, increasing intensity
Density of application: 1- -2 times in 7 days
Runs over 10-12 Hurdles x 6 – 10 (100mh marks)
3 x 300mh (85%), 1 x 300m afterwards (Spec. Prep)
Runs H4-H8 emphasizing rhythm and stride pattern.
Hurdle Work at 85-90% of Goal Pace
Do strength work over the flat
add last 3 hurdles in a given strength workout or finish the
workout with runs over 100mh.
Repeat 400’s, Repeat 500’s, 2 x 8 x 200m (60-90” rest)
3-4 600m’s (400m @ 50% effort last 200mh @ target pace)
2 x (200m (45”) 200mh (45”) 200m)
SPEED ENDURANCE FOR 400H
Repeat Runs over 4H (95% goal pace) jog back
120m (30” rest) H6-H10 (full) x 3-4 (95%)
Starts over 5H – rest 30”Stand @ H4, Attack H5-H8 – rest 30”
Stand @ H7, Attack H8-H10
Run at target goal pace, allows you to work zones.
H5–H6-H7-H8 (25m run in and run out) x 3-6
Stop when RU goes below race pace.
S P E E D DEVELOPMENT
Speed has TWO and ONLY two components
To improve speed, one or both of these components must increase.
Find the athletes optimal stride length and stride frequency. Because
of Anthropometric difference (height, leg length, body build) you
have to decide which component will give you the most bang for
It is possible to improve one at the expense of the other and still see
All efforts of improve stride length and stride frequency must be
taught within the parameter of sound technique.
***Never let training stray away from your pursuit of happiness, i.e.
SPEED and more SPEED.
You don’t run slow to run fast, your run fast to run faster!
I agree with Vince Anderson that it is very important to teach all
athletes how to run 100m even if they will never run the 100m.
In the 2004 Olympic Games, Pole Vault Silver Medalist Toby
Stevenson spent the previous year improving his acceleration
mechanics and max speed.
All acceleration activities in the sprints, hurdles and jumps are a
variation of the 100m pattern.**
Acceleration mechanics and power development go together. The
more powerfully an athlete can apply force to the track the better
their acceleration will be.
Acceleration is POWERFUL not “quick”. As most developing athletes are learning how to
accelerate they always say “but that feels slower.”
To accelerate optimally, the athlete must learn how to powerfully extend completely
from the hips through the shoulders.
Make your athletes STRONGER and you will improve their ability to accelerate. Both
specific strength and overall strength is necessary.
Posture and Rhythm – Always enforce good
posture and teach a sense of rhythm.
Even as your athletes get stronger and more
powerful their rhythm and body position during
the acceleration phase never change.
For example as they start covering more ground in the first 0 – 5
steps the rhythm should remain the same.
An efficient high school athlete vs. Walter Dix, both of their rhythms
can be the same but Dix covers more distance with each step
therefore runs faster.
ONE WAY TO TEACH GOOD ACCELERATION
The only acceleration pattern chart that allows
you to train at lower intensities and models
progressive acceleration rhythms is Vince
Anderson’s Chart for Progressive Acceleration.
Distances are competition specific ranging from a 13 second 100m
rhythm to a 10.10 second rhythm.
Acceleration Rhythm for Long Jump (17’0” feet to 28’6” feet) and Pole
Vault (16’6” feet to 19’6” feet) are also outlined.
Charts are Available during Clinic
WHAT TO LOOK FOR
Full extension of knee, hip and shoulder (Hip
Front shin angle as it relates to body angle. You
want to see a straight line from support leg to
Recovering shin angle should be less than
parallel to ground for first 3 steps
Cue – “ push push push” “bomp bomp bomp”
HOW TO DEVELOP STRENGTH & POWER
Specifics- Acceleration is determined by the strength qualities of
the prime movers and the angle of the body in relation to the
To develop explosive muscular strength, the most important quality
to possess is high levels of maximal strength. There is no conflict
between the possession of maximal strength and the application of
dynamic strength. A higher level of max strength allows an athlete
to readily obtain dynamic strength.
1. Short Hills (10m-40m)
2. Sled Pulls or Drags
3. Weight Training - Develop max strength in the prime movers.
4. Standing Long Jumps
5. Sprints (10-60m)
6. Box Jumps
7. Speed Squats
8. Limited Depth Jumps (Timing important)
In maximum speed sprinting the following muscles are
responsible for hip extension: the gluteal muscles, the
adductor muscles, the hamstrings.
Max Speed Mechanics
Step over the opposite knee
MAX SPEED DRILLS
Shorter Than Drill
Longer Than Drill
Straight Leg Bounds
“Hips up” – Frequency
“Full extension”- Length
Muscles responsible for stabilizing the body. The
quadriceps and gastrocnemius are responsible
for arresting the body during the stance phase of
the max speed.
A goal is to decrease ground contact time during
this phase. Athlete must contact the ground
with the foot in front of their center of mass.
Athletes who can produce equal relative
“negative” foot speed in relation to how fast
they are running, decrease the braking forces at
The recovery is dominated by hip flex action
of the free leg. The hip flexion at maximal
sprint technique is controlled by the rectus
abdominal, iliopsoas, and rectus femoris.
The major muscles involved in max speed.
Of all the performance variables upper leg
rotational speed is the most critical in sprint
performance. Frequency! This speed is
critical in recovering the leg after takeoff
and producing the beneficial “high knee”
position. (Ralph Mann)
The prime movers of the Take -off in max
speed technique are the erector spinae,
hamstrings and gastrocnemius.
Full extension at take off to get the most out
of the ground has been shown NOT to
increase performance times. The small
increase in force is not worth the decrease
in stride frequency.
The key to high knee recovery is to limit the
leg extension action after take off. (Ralph
Analogy of riding a skate board. Tap Tap Tap
FULL EXTENSION/FLIGHT PHASE
The key to high level sprint performance is
emphasizing “FRONT SIDE” Mechanics and
minimizing “Back Side” Mechanics.
Muscles responsible during full extension of max
speed: Gluteus Maximus, Rectus Abdominis,
Hamstrings, Internal & External Oblique.
Maximize force production at the ankle, knee, and
John Smith describes this phase as “Jumping down
the track”. Force production at contact determines
WOMEN’S 60 METER
WOMEN’S 60 METER
TASKS TO DEVELOP MAX SPEED
Flying 30m’s (5min rest)
Run in is based on ability of athlete to achieve maximum
speed usually 15-35m
Teach athlete to sprint RELAXED. Focus on feeling what
their body is doing.
“Six second rule” – after six seconds its impossible to
run any faster in a 100m.
Downhill running (2-5% grade)
Over Speed Training
Shorter Than drill
Longer Than Drill
Flying 30s w/ weight vest
Sprint-Float-Sprint or Float-Sprint-Float
Power technique – Activator Belt
Speed endurance is an athletes ability to maintain high levels of speed for long periods of time.
One approach is to develop Maximum Speed over short distances and stretch it out over longer
distances while maintaining high level of speed.
**The higher the maximum speed your athlete can attain, the faster they will be able to run
when performing at sub-maximal efforts.**
Max speed can be held for about 10m-40m. (90-100% effort)
Speed Endurance is trained in the 60m-150m zone (90-100% effort)
Special Endurance (Long Speed Endurance) is trained in the 150m-300m zone. (80-100% effort)
Special Endurance (Lactic Acid Tolerance) is trained in the 300m-600m zone. (80-100%)
KEEP THE INTENSITY OF WORK BETWEEN SUB-MAXIMUM AND MAXIMUM. Allow the athlete to
run as far as their technique will allow.
MAXIMUM VOLUME RANGES
MOST BANG FOR YOUR TIME ($$)
MEAN IMPROVEMENTS IN RACING TIMES
Long & Steady .10
Interval Series .20
Endurance Intervals .10
Pace Intervals .30
100M RACE MODEL
100 RACE MODEL
200M RACE MODEL
0 – 60m
Accelerate “Get out” take advantage of 6-7 secs
of FREE ATP
Transition “Relax/Maintain” but don’t slow
down. Take a breath
90 – 150m
Accelerate “Surge” off the turn. Open up
increase stride length, cover
upper body, take a breath
Short and quick, increase frequency, drive
elbows back, stay forward.
TASK SPECIFIC DRILLS
Straight Leg Bounds to dynamically strengthen gluteus and upper hamstrings
as it relates to actual sprint cycle -
Speed Bounds to develop Hip/Flexor and Hip Extensor Strength and teaches
correct cycling – Dynamic Strength
Shorter Than Drill to develop stride frequency and front side mechanics
Longer Than Drill to develop stride length and teach how to push from track
to get stride length WITHOUT overextension
Lunges (LOTS OF LUNGES) contributes to Acceleration, flexibility, stride length,
strength/muscular endurance, hip mobility/flexibility – Static Strength
Long Hills/Stairs Workouts help in developing strength endurance and/or
power development, ground contact time - Dynamic Strength
Strength Circuits use in general preparation as part of general conditioning.
Be sure to include exercises that condition specific muscles involved in
TASK SPECIFIC DRILLS
Ins and Outs, Sprint/Float/ Sprint teaches breathing techniques and how to run relaxed while focusing on mechanics
Short Hills/Sled Pulls/ Bullet Belt helps teach and develop acceleration mechanics, hip flexor and extensor strength
Hurdle Hops/Straight Leg Hurdle Hops, Single leg hurdle hops develop hip flexor and extensor strength, ground
Sand Routines (barefoot) excellent for developing foot strength, lower leg endurance, elasticity and stability, power,
acceleration, muscular endurance
Multiple Throws (A MUST) helps with power development and serves as a low level plyometric exercise. Teaches
motor firing patterns,
Multiple Jumps : ex) Skip for height, skip for distance, double leg hops fwd and bkwd, single hops, LLRR, Lunge
exchange. Explosive Strength, Acceleration
Balance Stability/ Core/ Physioball – If not incorporating core in your training programs start now! Contributes to
athletes ability to hold positions and correct posture. Good core strength clears pathway for force application.
Corrects imbalances and some biomechanical weaknesses.