Libraries and the Enchancement of E

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Transcript Libraries and the Enchancement of E

Libraries and the Enhancement of E-learning: OCLC Task Force

Pat Albanese CIO and Executive Director of Library Mount Holyoke College April 1 2005

Background on the E-learning Task Force

 Composition Diverse geographically, functionally and institutionally.

 Charge To explore issues of interaction of the academic library and e-learning and what role OCLC has to play in this arena.

 Timeframe Spring to Fall 2003.

What is E-learning?

 Technology enriched classes and learning environments.

From e-reserves to fully online collections.

From syllabus posting to online communities.

Both distance learning and hybrid courses.

A promise of enriched teaching and learning experiences.

 An environment and set of services that crosses traditional institutional lines.

Key Component:Learning Objects

 What are learning objects?

Small teaching packages that can be shared and recombined to form new teaching packages.

Various forms: e.g., Powerpoint presentations, Word documents, hyperlinks, digital images, audio and video clips, simulations and combinations of forms.

 Reusable digital content often stored in repositories

Learning Objects,


Some Examples of Learning Objects: A QTVR Interface for Ancient Greek Archaeological Sites Annotated poems by John Milton Flash animations illustrating astronomical distances

Audio files of speeches by US Presidents

A murder mystery that allows students to select their French proficiency level before attempting to solve the crime

Learning Objects,


 Composites of: Object itself Context that the object is used within Metadata must recognize this composite nature  Reusing and sharing learning objects requires metadata and careful management.

 Similar nature and issues as with other library content, but dynamic and more complex.

Digital Repositories

 Collections of learning objects and other digital information   Multiple formats Experiencing huge growth  Lack of common standards  Often self contained searching  Single or multiple content areas

Course Management Systems (CMS)

 Course Management Systems Also known as Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) and Learning Management Systems (LMS)  Software applications that manage a course’s electronic elements.

Aggregation point for E-learning elements

Course Management Systems,



 Electronic elements might include: learning objects, course content, online discussions, e-reserves, hyperlinks, etc.

 CMS vendors include Blackboard, WebCT, eCollege, and others.

 Open source and homegrown CMS: Sakai Project - (four university partners include MIT the University of Michigan, Indiana University and Stanford) Moodle- a favorite among small liberal arts colleges Segue- Middlebury

50% 40% 30% 20%

Course Management Systems,


Growth in Use of CMS in College Courses 2000-2003 Source: Campus Computing Project Survey 33.6% 26.5% 20.6% 14.7% 10% 0% 2000 2001 2002 2003

Course Management Systems,


Rising student enrollment in CMS at Mount Holyoke College, 2000-04.

1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 Fall 00 Fall 01 Fall 02 Fall 03 Fall 04

Why is E-learning Important?

 High use and growth on campuses and in courses More than 70% of colleges engage in some form of distance learning More than 80% of colleges offer hybrid courses  Significant (and growing) campus investments  Control spending increases – need to leverage resources and opportunity

Why is E-learning Important?,


 Core service enhancement with improved learning outcomes  A new pedagogy Intersection of technology with content, teaching and learning Changes in how students and faculty access, create and use information Student expectations  Window into the teaching/learning activity of campus

Why is E-learning Important?,


 Potential of convergence of services and resources Easy and convenient access to services at the point of use  Shift to a student-centric learning environment

Parallel Developments:

 Internet resources  E-content (books, journals, images, audio etc)  Metadata activity (ie Dublin Core)  Web services  Digitization Projects

Some Issues

 Institutional and multi-institutional repositories Significant growth in number and type Bridge the silos Discovery across repositories

Some Issues,


 Ownership, management and support of learning objects and repositories Cross organizational project and can create institutional tensions Ownership of materials versus aggregation for wide access and use Multiple approaches to collaboration

Some Issues,


 Cultural barriers Crosses traditional boundaries Seamlessness is essential, yet different systems Service convergence but organizational barriers Lack of common language/values  Perspective shift to integration/interoperability of e-learning management systems and library content

Some Issues,


 Interoperability requires the creation of new standards Search for and development of specifications and standards for E-learning communities Creation of international standards for managing and sharing learning objects and embedding access to information resources in course management systems National and regional efforts at standards creation (e.g., Ariadne, EDUCAUSE, SCORM, METS) International effort: IMS Global Learning Consortium

How Does It Fit Together?

 Requires multiple skill base Metadata Technical skills Instructional design New pedagogy Information integration  Crosses traditional boundaries Faculty, students, library, administrators, IT department, instructional designer No common view of e-learning infrastructure and associated issues

How Does It Fit Together?,


 Questions of ownership and management of learning objects and other information repositories  Service and/or organizational convergence  Close alliances with faculty/learners  Some steps to integration may include: Embed library resources in course management systems Customize portal facilities for storing personal preferences Provide bibliographic tools that permit easy searching and reference completions

Some Common Ground: Needs/Skills

 E-learning - Needs       Shared repositories Connect educators and learning objects Metadata development Quality control/version control Repository selection Intellectual property  Libraries - Skills        Federated searching Locate material Connections with users Metadata creation Standards Collection development Copyright/IP education

Findings of the Task Force White Paper  E-learning broadens avenues for teaching and learning  Course management systems (CMS) allow faculty instructional designer and IT staff to work together CMS as technological glue joining these groups  Hence the rise of enterprise wide CMS deployments

Findings of the White Paper,


 On campus: A genuine need for cooperation to leverage resources, create seamless environment Cultural barriers and political elements Lack of cooperation between groups within institutions  Among campuses: A need for collaboration An overwhelming need for standards

Vision for Libraries and E-Learning

 What would it change if: Teachers and learners had a common way to search for learning objects and other information resources?

Teachers and learners had help in identifying existing learning objects?

There was quality control on learning objects?

Vision for Libraries and E-Learning, cont.

 What would it change if : Learners had a common place where their research elements could be accessed, managed and organized?

Learners had a common place and set of tools that helped with managing citations, bib and webliographies and other writing tools?

Vision for Libraries and E-Learning, cont.

 What would it change if : We had interoperable metadata standards?

Content and other library services were seamlessly available to E-learning environments?

The best way to predict the future is to invent it.

Alan Kay