Quality Indicators of “Educationally Appropriate” and

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Transcript Quality Indicators of “Educationally Appropriate” and

Intensified Level 1 Supports
Building a foundation of intensified
supports that manage behavior and
teach critical skills
Intensified Level 1 Supports
• What all students receive:
School-wide positive behavior supports
Social skills & Social emotional learning curricula
Proactive classroom management strategies
Good behavior game (classroom management)
Token economy with levels that grant access to
increasingly more desirable privileges
Standardized teaching interactions
Effective academic instruction*
Honors room/Outings
Boring room to encourage better behavior
The Components of Schoolwide PBS
1. Establish 3-5 common behavioral expecations;
e.g., Safe, respectful, responsible
2. Clear definitions of problem behaviors and the
consequences associated with each one;
3. Regularly scheduled instruction and assistance in
desired positive social behaviors is provided;
The Components of Schoolwide PBS
4. Effective incentives and motivational systems
are provided to encourage students to behave
Keep ratio of positive to negative statements in mind
5. Staff receives training, feedback and coaching
about effective implementation of the systems;
6. Systems for measuring and monitoring the
intervention’s effectiveness are established and
carried out.
Top 10 School Social Skills!*
Listens to Others
Follows Directions
Follows Classroom Rules
Ignores Peer Distractions
Ask for Help
Take Turns in Conversations
Cooperates with Others
Controls Temper in Conflict situations
Acts Responsibly with Others
Shows Kindness to Others
*Based on surveys of over 800 teachers rating importance of social skills
6-Step Instructional Sequence
Tell (Coaching)
Show (Modeling)
Do (Role Play & Behavioral Rehearsal)
Feedback (how did it go?)
Monitor Progress (Performance Feedback)
Social Emotional Learning
© 2006.
Collaborative for
Social, and
"the process through which children develop the skills
necessary to recognize and manage emotions, develop
care and concern for others, make responsible decisions,
form positive relationships, and successfully handle the
demands of growing up in today's complex society"
(CASEL, 2002, p.1 ).
These skills include the ability to:
• Recognize and manage emotions
• Care about and respect others
• Develop positive relationships
• Make good decisions
• Behave responsibly and ethically
Meta-Analysis of School-Based SEL Programs
Outcome Area
Post N
Social-emotional skills
Academic achievement tests
Disciplinary actions
School bonding
Positive social behavior
© 2006. Collaborative for Academic, Social, and
Emotional Learning (CASEL).
Effect sizes denoted with * are statistically significant, p<.05
Collaborative for Academic, Social,
and Emotional Learning (CASEL)
• University of Illinois at Chicago
• www.casel.org/about/index.php
Two Critical Variables for Learning
▫ Time devoted to instruction (TDI)
 How much time throughout the day is
devoted to learning activities
 Direct instruction, small group
activities, independent seatwork
▫ Academic engaged time (AET)
 Learning does not occur if the student is
not paying attention (NO DUH!)
16 Proactive Classroom Management Strategies
Organizing a productive
Establishing positive
relationships with all students
in the class
Positive greetings at the door to
precorrect and establish
positive climate
Classroom rules/expectations
and procedures are visible and
known by every student
Transitions are managed well
Independent seatwork is
managed and used when
Communicating competently
w/ students
Teach, model, and reinforce
prosocial skills
Teacher proximity
Motivation system to reward
desirable behavior
Goal setting and
performance feedback
Visual schedule of classroom
Effective cuing systems to
release and regain attention
5 to 1 ratio of
Smiling and positive affect
Frequent opportunities to
Good Behavior Game –
Barrish, Saunders, & Wolf (1969)
• Classwide behavior management strategy
• 20 independent replications across different
grade levels, types of students, and settings
• Prevents substance abuse and antisocial
• Interdependent group contingency
• Capitalizes on human nature
▫ Social influence and competition
Steps to implementing GBG
1. Decide time and setting to implement
2. Identify and behaviorally define
inappropriate behaviors
3. Identify rewards
4. Teach the students the rules to the game
5. Play the game
Issues with GBG implementation
• Bullying or social isolation
▫ Teach at the outset that bullying or isolating
students for earning point fines will not be
• Dealing w/ the saboteur
▫ Remove from game
▫ Don’t count behaviors against team
▫ Put saboteurs on the same team
Good Behavior Game(s)
Using group contingencies
• www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/
• www.evidencebasedprograms.org/Default
• www.pent.ca.gov/for/f7/bspdeskreference07
The Points
• Establishes a currency system in which students
earn points based on engaging in appropriate
decision-making and behavior
▫ Behavioral expectations and individual target
• Points are exchanged for privileges and access to
the ‘honors room’
• 17 out of 20 days of reaching daily point goal
results in promotion to the next level
The Levels
• Graduated levels that grant access to increasingly better
privileges, activities, autonomy, freedom and
▫ Designed to increasingly mimic life outside the
restrictive setting as students demonstrate improved
social-emotional functioning and decision-making
• Levels –
▫ Daily
 Basic privileges, access to honors room, bank points for school
▫ Weekly –
 Intermediate privileges, access to honors room, weekly offcampus outings, bank points for school store
▫ Natural –
 No points card, access to all privileges and outings
De-escalation Strategies
• Get on the student’s level
▫ Your eye’s below the student’s
• Use a calm voice
• Fewer words the better
• Non-threatening body posture
▫ Do not stand over the student
▫ Stand to the side
• Caring statements
▫ Empathy, perspective-taking, encouragement
• Give the student a way out
▫ Alternative activity, “Not now, later,” “why don’t you take a
break and get some water”
• Avoiding shaming, ridiculing, and/or embarrassing the
Progressive Response to Problem
Behavior: PROMPT Method
• The aim is to begin with less intrusive and
intensive tactics and progressively use more
intrusive and intensive tactics to respond to and
correct the problem behavior.
• Proximity control and mobility
• Redirection tactic
• Ongoing Monitoring to reinforce desirable
• Prompt desirable behavior with clear command
• Teaching interaction to deliver consequence
7 Step Teaching Interaction
Empathy statement
Label the inappropriate behavior
“Right now you are talking out loud and distracting other students.”
Describe the appropriate alternative behavior
“Instead of talking out loud, you should be working quietly on the
assigned work.”
Provide a rationale for appropriate behavior
“I understand that class can be boring and difficult, BUT”
“When you work quietly on your work, you and the other students can
get your work done, which will help you get a better grade.”
Check for understanding
“Do you understand what you are supposed to do.”
Deliver consequence
“Because you needed a few reminders to work quietly, you do not get to
have lunch on your own.”
Deliver feedback or praise
“Since you accepted your consequence without arguing or getting upset,
you only have to spend half of your lunch with the supervisor.”
Labeling the Inappropriate
• Purpose: to describe the problematic behavior to the
• How to:
▫ Be specific
 Describe the inappropriate behavior precisely
▫ Be calm
 Use a soft voice tone, get on the students level, do not threaten
or humiliate
▫ Be genuine and sincere
 Avoid sarcasm, be yourself,
• Example:
▫ “Right now you are talking to your peer while I am
trying to deliver a lesson, which is distracting to your
Empathy Statement
• Purpose: gets the teaching interaction off to a good start
▫ eases the tension and de-escalates rather escalates a
• How to:
▫ Consider the student’s perspective to understand why the
exhibited the problem behavior
 E.g., school work may be boring, irritating to be teased, etc.
• Example:
▫ “I have been teased before too, so I can understand how
frustrating that is for you. It is not right that he teased
you. But, calling him a bad name back does not solve the
problem, since he did it in the first place to get you mad.”
Describe the Appropriate
Alternative Behavior
• Purpose: to provide the student with the alternative behavior that is
expected instead of the inappropriate behavior
▫ Gives the student with a way out of avoiding more intense
• How to:
▫ Consider what you want the student to do instead of the
inappropriate behavior
▫ Often incompatible with the inappropriate behavior
 e.g., On-task vs. off-task; sitting vs. standing; hands to self vs.
hands on others
▫ Describe clearly and precisely what you want the student to do
• Example:
▫ “Instead of talking to your peer, a better choice would be to quietly
pay attention to the lecture and wait to talk him after class.”
Provide a Rationale for the
Appropriate Alternative Behavior
• Purpose: to provide a reason for engaging in the
appropriate alternative behavior
▫ Everyone deserves to know the reason for a decision
 Saying “because I said so” only escalates behavior
▫ Your attempt to sell the child on choosing the
alternative behavior instead of the inappropriate one
• How to:
▫ Link the rationale to the inappropriate and
appropriate behaviors
• Example:
▫ “It is important to pay attention in class, because you
and other students will be able to pick up on
information that will show up on the test, which
Check for Understanding
• Purpose: to make sure the student
understands the rationale for engaging in
the appropriate alternative behavior
▫ Provides an attempt to gain compliance
• How to:
▫ Ask a question that checks for understanding
of the rationale
• Example:
▫ “Do you understand why I want you to pay
attention during class rather than talk to you
Deliver the Disciplinary
• Purpose: to decrease the likelihood of the problem
behavior occurring in the future
▫ The child will lose something for continuing to
engage in the problem behavior
• How to:
▫ Consider least to most intensive consequence
▫ Start with loss of privilege or overcorrection and
proceed to more intense consequence
• Example:
▫ “Because you continued to be disruptive by talking to
your classmates, you have lost your ability to have
preferred seating in this class for the rest of the week.
Now, you have to sit right next to my desk.”
Loss of privileges
• Loss of privileges is a negative behavior
management intervention (removal of a
desired activity/privilege) though its results
may be positive
• Response cost
• When this is applied - a portion of the
child’s present or future positive reinforcers
are taken away following the exhibition of
the target behavior.
Guidelines for loss of privileges
• Be sure the child understands the relationship between the
target behavior and the privilege to be lost.
• Avoid warning, nagging or threatening with no follow
• Do not debate the punishable behaviors, the rules, or the
punishment once these have been established
• Do not become emotionally involved. Don’t feel guilty when
the child loses a privilege. If the child knows the rules and the
consequences of the behavior, then they have chosen to break
the rule and suffer the consequence.
• Be consistent
• Be ready to reinforce appropriate behaviors when those occur
Deliver Feedback and Praise
• Purpose: to provide the student with feedback about how
well they handled the teaching interaction
▫ Accepting a consequence is a skill to be learned
 Allows staff the opportunity to reduce or eliminate the consequence
depending on how well the student accepted the consequence
• How to:
▫ Process how well the student accepted the consequence
and provide specific feedback
• Example:
▫ “Because you cooperated well by listening and not arguing,
you can earn half of your lunch period back to spend with
your friends. I really appreciate you accepting the
consequence without arguing (pat on the shoulder).”
Things to Consider
• Look at inappropriate behavior as a problem to be
solved rather than an nuisance
• Be calm throughout the interaction
▫ Anger begets anger & calmness begets calmness
• Don’t get into content with the student
▫ Arguments require time and escalate behavior
• Don’t humiliate
▫ Nobody likes to be humiliated in front of their peers
• Always provide the student with a way out
▫ If the student has his/her back against the wall, they
will engage in “fight or flight”
Honors Room & Outings
• The honors room and outings allow for
programmatic leveraging to increase students’
motivation and teach and reinforce appropriate
social-emotional skills
• Helps creates the contrast in which learning can
take place
▫ Access to activity contingent upon students meeting
behavioral expectations
▫ Withholding access to activity room based on failure
to meet behavioral expectations
Activity Room
Service Learning - Defined
• Enables students to learn and develop through
active participation in thoughtfully organized service
experiences that meet actual community needs
• Most effective when integrated in academic
curriculum, providing structured time for students
to reflect
• Opportunities to apply newly acquired skill and
knowledge in real life situations in their own
• Helps foster the the development of a sense of civic
responsibility and caring for others
(Kelshaw, Lazarus, Minier 2009)
Available resources
The Boring Room
• If sent to the boring room, the student gets a
▫ Cannot access privileges or honors room
▫ If on weekly, may lose the ability to go on the
• While in the boring room, the student cannot
access any reinforcing or fun activities
• They must perform academic or restitution tasks
in order to get out of the boring room
• The goal is for the boring room to take on a life
of its own, so students want to avoid going to it