Transcript Document

Understanding Native Health Equity: A Social Determinants Approach One Sky Center

Oregon Health and Science University R Dale Walker, MD Patricia Silk Walker, PhD Michelle Singer Health Equity Leadership Institute New York, New York April 2, 2011

Education Mentorship Opportunity, Research

One Sky Center

Training, Consultation, Technical Assistance Excellence Tribal Leadership


One Sky Center Outreach


One Sky Center Staff

Susan Michelle Patricia Doug Dale 4

Goals for Today

• Review An Environmental Scan for Natives • Discuss Fragmentation and Integration • Present Some Health Care Issues • Define Social Determinants of Health • Present Examples of Treatment and Prevention • Summarize Critical Issues for Native Peoples 5


“Indigenous peoples remain on the margins of society: they are poorer, less educated, die at a younger age, are much more likely to commit suicide, and are generally in worse health than the rest of the population."

(Source: The Indigenous World 2006, International Working Group on Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) WHO 6

INDIGENOUS PEOPLE WORLD MAP 370 million indigenous peoples living in more than 70 countries 7





Native Healthcare Resource Disparities


Agencies Involved in B.H. Delivery

1. Indian Health Service (IHS) A. Mental Health B. Primary Health C. Alcoholism / Substance Abuse 2. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) A. Education B. Vocational C. Social Services D. Police 3. Tribal Health 4. Urban Indian Health 5. State and Local Agencies 6. Federal Agencies: SAMHSA, VAMC, Justice


Behavioral Health Care Issues


Native Health Issues

1. Alcoholism 6X 2. Tuberculosis 6X 3. Diabetes 3.5 X 4. Accidents 3X 5. Poverty 3x 6. Depression 3x 7. Suicide 2x 8. Violence?

1. Same disorders as general population 2. Greater prevalence 3. Greater severity 4. Much less access to Tx 5. Cultural relevance more challenging 6. Social context disintegrated 15

Disease Burden by Illness – DALY

High Income Countries - All Ages – 2004

% of total DALYs

0 0 2 4 6 8 10

Unipolar depressive disorders Ischaemic heart disease Cerebrovascular disease Alzheimer's and other dementias Alcohol use disorder Hearing loss, adult onset Chronic obstructive pulmonary … Diabetes mellitus Trachea, bronchus, lung cancers Road traffic accidents 15.2% DALY = Disability-Adjusted Life Year (measures healthy life years loss to premature death and disability)


: World Health Organization – Burden of Disease Statistics, 2004

Adult Serious Mental Illness By Race/Ethnicity: 2001 SAMHSA Office of Applied Studies, 2001 17

Mental Illness: A Multi-factorial Event

Cultural Distress Psychiatric Illness & Stigma Edu., Econ., Rec.

Impulsiveness Substance Use/Abuse Hopelessness Family Disruption/ Domestic Violence


Family History Negative Boarding School Historical Trauma Suicidal Behavior Psychodynamics/ Psychological Vulnerability


Suicide Among ages 15-17, 2001 8 6 4 2 Death rate per 100,000 16 14 12 10

2010 Target Total Females Males

Source: National Vital Statistics System - Mortality, NCHS, CDC.


Models of Care


Practice (Service) Best Practice

Science & Scholarship

4/28/2020 Culture Values  Philosophies  Belief about causes of problems and solutions  Local innovation, trial and error  Medicinal use of wild plants and minerals  Healing procedures  Oral transmission of knowledge  Community evaluation and acceptance Using the OPRE Review 21

8. Long term (Impact) 7. Medium term 6. Short term 5. Operations Manual 4. Theory of Change 3. Strategy 4/28/2020

Logic Model

Outcomes 1. Causes Goals 2. Target Population Intervention Using the OPRE Review 22

Spectrum of Intervention Responses

Thresholds for Action No Problems

Universal/Selective Prevention

Mild Problems Moderate Problems Severe Problems

Treatment Brief Intervention 23

Domains Influencing Behavioral Health: A Native Ecological Model Risk

Individual Peers/Family Community/Tribe Society/Cultural

Protection 24

Risk and Protective Factors: Individual

Risk  Mental illness  Age/gender  Substance abuse  Loss  Previous suicide attempt  Personality traits  Incarceration  Failure/academic problems Protective  Cultural/religious beliefs  Coping/problem solving skills  Ongoing health and mental health care  Resiliency, self esteem, direction, mission, determination, perseverance, optimism, empathy  Intellectual competence, reasons for living 25

Individual Intervention

• Identify risk and protective factors counseling skill building improve coping support groups • Increase community awareness • Access to hotlines other help resources 26

Effective Interventions for Adults

• Cognitive/Behavioral Approaches • Motivational Interventions • Psychopharmacological Interventions • Modified Therapeutic Communities • Assertive Community Treatment • Vocational Services • Dual Recovery/Self-Help Programs • Consumer Involvement • Therapeutic Relationships 27

Culture-Based Interventions

• Story telling • Sweat Lodge • Talking circle • Vision quest • Wiping of tears • Drumming • Smudging • Traditional Healers • Herbal remedies • Traditional activities 28

What are some promising strategies?


Social Determinates of Health: Whitehall Studies

• Within a hierarchical society, there is a social gradient for morbidity and mortality . (Poverty, sanitation, nutrition, and shelter are controlled.) • Higher status folks live longer and healthier.

Health Care Improvement More Than Money: Needs • Opportunity, Empowerment, Security, Control, and Dignity….

Dec 9, 2006. Marmot Amartya Sen 1998 Nicholas Stern 2004 30


Biological Socio-cultural Socio economic Science & Technology Aging


Education Behavioral Gender Environmental Human Rights Social Justice

Role of Inequities in Healthcare

Simulation :Estimated % Contribution to Health Disparity

other 5% genes 3% health care 10% poverty 25% behaviors 20%

Adapted from V. Hogan

racism 15% culture 10% environment 15%

The Social Determinants of Health

• The conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age. • Shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels. • Are mostly responsible for health inequities the unfair and avoidable differences in health status seen within and between countries.


WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health | August 28 2008

Conceptual Framework of Health Determinants


Critical Elements for Native Peoples

• Self determination • Ecology and environment • Economic prosperity, fairness and equity • Leadership and capacity strengthening • Racism / dominance / imperialism • Healing, services, systems, structures • Cultural sustainability, protection, stewardship • Land • Human rights 35

Partnered Collaboration

State/Federal Grassroots Groups Community-Based Organizations Research-Education-Treatment


Six Key Principles

Evidence-based predictors of change • Leadership • Mobilization Community driven • Public health approach • Strength based • Culturally informed • Proactive 37

The Wharer





1. Indigeneity 2. Best / Wise Practice 3. Best / Wise Evidence 4. Indigenous Leadership a. Informed d. Connected b. Creditable e. Sustainable c. Strategic 5. Indigenous Leadership Influence 38

Areas for Action

Health Equity in all Policies Fair Financing Responsibility Early child development and education Healthy Places Fair Employment Social Protection Universal Health Care Good Governance Gender Equity Political empowerment – inclusion and voice

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