PERS2056GR Basic Persian Refresher

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Transcript PERS2056GR Basic Persian Refresher

Cryptologic Language
Training in a Global
WIIFM-What’s In It For
• Understand appropriate use of training
• Learn the desired outcome/requirements
• Know the challenges and attributes of the
• Apply appropriate methodology and techniques
• Teach to fish instead of simply providing the fish!
(Give them the tools and responsibility.)
• Raise the bar! If the bar is low, nothing more will
be achieved
Know the Purpose
What expectations and requirements
are different when training people
for cryptologic purposes instead of
training them for more academic
Cryptologic Language vs.
Academic Language Training
• There is a misunderstood difference between
learning a language for cryptologic purposes and
for other more generalized applications.
• The discovery method, inductive approach,
communicative approach, etc. are not efficient or
effective for our purposes.
• Due to time constraints and the critical nature of
our jobs, we are sharply focused on ROI (Return
On Investment).
Cryptologic Language vs.
Academic Language Training
• Our job requires a real-world colloquial,
cultural, and topically variant high-level
functioning in the language.
• It does not require extensive study of
poetry, literature, etc. although once a
3/3+ has been achieved some benefit can
be derived from it.
Cryptologic Language vs.
Academic Language Training
• We are not attempting to become scholars
of the language or earn PhDs.
• Our jobs and others’ lives depend upon us
utilizing training time effectively to learn
to function in the language to the highest
degree possible in a very short amount of
Cryptologic Language vs.
Academic Language Training
• We must:
– Instantly recognize and accurately translate
imperfect written and oral passages at the
3/3+ level with little or no reference material,
native help, or the benefit of the
speaker/writer present for questioning or
– Utilize analytical and deductive reasoning skills
to predict and/or explain happenings or to fillin missing information.
Cryptologic Language vs.
Academic Language Training
• Requires ACCURACY! Not a general idea. General
ideas/gists are extremely basic and fast disappearing in the
field. Our jobs require 3/3+ proficiency and higher to fully
– Tense Matters (Did it happen yesterday, today, or is
about to happen?)
– Active/Passive (Did it just spontaneously occur or did
someone do it?)
– Direct Object (What/who was effected by the event?)
– Numbers must be precise! (How many
far away/what time? and so forth…)
Know Your Audience
What attributes and challenges do
students of cryptologic language
training have that other primarily
academic minded students do not?
Traditional Methods Not
• Mostly young military members with highschool educations
• Some have English as a 2nd Language
• Accustomed to learning in a
structured/logical manner (Grammar)
• Adults burdened with many tasks
• Must function well under immense stress
• Must see benefit to participate
(Andragogy vs. Pedagogy)
Proficiency Testing
• The workforce must test on the DLPT 5
– English increases in difficulty with the foreign
– Answer selection requires attention to detail
and accuracy (“Best Answer”)
– Focused on “media” topics
– Passive comprehension skills versus active
utilization (multiple choice)
**A lot of incentive money and sometimes a
person’s career hinges on the score
The Effects of ILR
ILR Scale
ILR 3: In the passage,
you’ll work with:
•Supporting opinion
ILR 2 and 2+: You’re able to:
At ILR 3, cultural references
are no longer explained.
Has “rich text” a.k.a. more details!
• Work with assumptions
• Predict
• Understand Implications
• Detect emotion, attitude, tone
• Identify problems
• Understand difficult idioms
Especially at the 1+ level, answers may
not only represent a word or words in
the passage, but an idea.
The answer choices may be a
restatement of the details in the passage.
At the ILR 3, language shifts
from being concrete to abstract.
At the 2+ level, the passage is a
“rich text,” crowded with detail.
ILR 0+ - 1+: You are easily able to:
• Select among details
• Remember details
• Choose, decide, conclude
• Understand Idioms
Know the Proper
How can one address cryptologic
training needs in a global setting?
Follow Established
• The Cryptologic Training System Training
Standards (CTSTS) Final Learning Objectives
(FLO) document outlines and defines the skills
that must be acquired by language analysts during
basic acquisition training regardless of location or
language. The document could easily serve as the
primary source for all language training
development and testing if that training is to
support cryptologic purposes and arguably even if
it does not.
**Copies are available for review.
Utilize Best Practices
• Structure and Grammar must be taught with
constant review, practice, and assessments.
• Focusing primarily on vocabulary acquisition
should be avoided. A large vocabulary bank is
useless if the language analyst does not know
how to translate words and phrases in the
proper order and tense while maintaining the
complete meaning of the original.
• Focus should be on the use of proper form and
technique. The vocabulary will follow naturally
with practice.
Utilize Best Practices
• Once the foundation is solid, if given the proper
tools (critical thinking & analysis) students can
easily determine unfamiliar word meaning in
context or quickly find it in a dictionary.
• Vocabulary, concepts, and topics should be
repeated throughout the course to aid memory.
(Incorporated into different exercises, not using
the exact same content. On average it takes using
a word 7 times to retain it in long-term memory.)
• Emphasize ACCURACY in everything from the
beginning. (Ezafe usage & Pronunciation too!)
Utilize Best Practices
• Student centered learning should be used so that
the individual student has the benefit of
completing each exercise instead of passively
listening to the instructor or fellow students.
• Instructors should not give students the answer,
but should lead them through the analytical
process and tools to find it for themselves.
• Emphasis should be placed on utilizing active skills
that require synthesis and production in the
language (Writing, Speaking, Translation, &
Remember the Three
Skill Connection
• Writing-Requires solid understanding of structure,
grammar, and proper word order & usage.
• Speaking-Same as above to include colloquialisms and slang
as well as proper pronunciation and stress.
• Transcription-Same as above to include precise listening,
verbatim recording, and spelling. Grammar mistakes will
show. Helps improve accuracy, speed, prediction, dictionary
usage, and helps tune the ear for better listening comp.
**All of these skills require active use of the language vice passive
comprehension. This facilitates true holistic language learning. All
of the above are consistently graded for accuracy and feedback
continuously provided to the students for improvement.
Utilize Best Practices
• Avoid the following time-expending
techniques to the extent possible:
– Group Work (Most don’t like it, one student
usually carries the group, & it’s not efficient)
– Lecture
– Around the room questioning as the activity
(students get 1/10 of the activity & zone out
the remainder of time)
**Adult learners become very agitated with the
above techniques because their time is valuable
The Learning Pyramid:
Retention Rate
Audio Visual
Discussion Group
Practice by Doing
Teach Others/Immediate Use
Adapted from The Learning Triangle: National Training Laboratories, Bethel Maine
©mindServegroup 2005
Our Course
An Example…
Pre-course Work
• English Grammar
– To refresh English grammar skills
– Used to correlate Persian Grammar points
– To improve accuracy of English translations
• Country in Perspective-The tutorial gives important
information on the country and the culture and sets the
foundation for covering the topics in Farsi later in the
• Learning Style Questionnaire-Draws student’s attention to
his/her preferred learning style and allows him/her to
choose appropriate study methods that suit his/her
preferred style.
Course Content
Includes everything previously mentioned plus:
– Explicit enabling and terminal objectives with proper lessons and tests
(All tied to Final Learning Objectives FLOs)
– Rubrics for all skills
• Guidance for preparation and grading
– Tips
• Best practices for all skills
• Vocab acquisition techniques tied to learning styles
• Using context clues to derive meaning
– Study Guide
Critical Thinking, Analysis, & Deductive Reasoning
Time Management
Learning in Class
How to Study Effectively
How to Perform Better on Tests
• Hour 1: Speaking & Writing
• Hour 2: Grammar in context
• Hour 3: Listening Comp & Translation
• Hour 4: Reading Comp & Translation
• Hour 5: Transcription
• Hour 6: Culture & History (R & L)
**FLO topics and sub-topics repeat over
various days and skills throughout 6 weeks
Course Details
• Class size 10
• 2 instructors in class the entire 6 hr day (1 Native
Persian Speaker & 1 Native English Speaker)
- More one-on-one time
- All gaps covered to improve accuracy (Students must
have an equally strong grasp of English as they do
• 2 hrs of homework per day (writing & review/completion
of day’s activities)
• Constant feedback & suggestions for improvement given
Results: It Works!
• Students take learning more seriously and are
more motivated because they see the logic behind
the process and receive constant feedback and
• Senior Linguists in the work centers have
reported “definite improvements” in job
• Command Language Program Managers for the
services have reported consistent minimum
increases of one-half to a full level in each mode
(reading & listening) on the DLPT 5.
Mrs. Kelli Rupprecht & Mr. Rick Turner
Georgia Center for Language (GCL)
[email protected]
[email protected]