Modern Engineering & Technology Seminar 2012

Download Report

Transcript Modern Engineering & Technology Seminar 2012

Modern Engineering & Technology Seminar 2012
Clean Energy :2012
Latest Trends and Developments
Dr. William Kao
November 11-14, 2012
Taipei, Taiwan
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
• Renewable Energy Update: Solar, Wind, Bioenergy
• Biomimicry Applications in Clean Energy
• Smart Grid Update:
- Use of Sensor Networks in Smart Cities
- Green Data Centers
• Energy Storage Update
- Utility Scale Storage
- Lithium Ion Batteries
• Summary and Conclusion
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
• Biofuels (global production of ethanol and biodiesel) from $56.4 billion in 2010, reached $83
billion in 2011, is projected to grow to $139 billion by 2021.
• Wind power (new installation capital costs) from $60.5 billion in 2010, to expand to $71.5
billion in2011, to $116.3 billion in 2021.
• Solar photovoltaics (including modules, system components, and installation) increased
from $71.2 billion in 2010 to a record $91.6 billion in 2011. Project the market to continue to
expand to $130.5 billion by 2021.
• Combined global revenue for solar PV, wind power, and biofuels, surged by 31 percent over the
prior year, growing from $188.1 billion in 2010 to $246.1 billion in 2011, it will go to $385.8
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
billion by 2021. 7/17/2015
Biofuels for Aviation
• Without any mitigation efforts, CO2 emissions from aviation – about 2% of
global emissions today and 13 % of the world’s emissions from transportation
fuels – are expected to quadruple by 2050.
• Starting in January 2012, the European Union’s airline emissions cap will go
into effect, requiring all carriers flying to and within Europe to cut CO2 by two
percent from 2005 levels and an additional three percent in 2013.
• The International Air Transport Association, with 230 member airlines in 140
countries, estimates that 15 percent of all jet fuel is expected to be bio-derived
by 2020,and 50 percent by 2040.
• Many of the leading players in next-gen biofuels, among them Amyris,
ClearFuels, Sapphire Energy, Solazyme, and Solena Fuels, have made aviation
fuel a major focus, often in partnerships with airlines and manufacturers
(Lufthansa, Virgin Atlantic, Qantas, Alaska Airlines, British Airways).
• The U.S. military, particularly the Navy and Air Force, is a key booster of
biofuels. The Navy has mandated that all its aircraft (and ships) be powered
by a 50-50 bio/petrol blend by 2020. As the largest fuel purchaser in the world,
the U.S. Pentagon “will play an absolutely game-changing role in this space”
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Solar Biomimicry: the eyes of dragon flies
• South Korean inventor Jong-Eun Lee made
headlines worldwide this week when he received a
patent in near-record time for his solar invention
inspired by dragonfly eyes.
• Jong-Eun Lee got the idea from the eyes of
dragonflies. Almost all the existing solar energy
systems in the world use panels, which take up a lot
of space and expense, whereas Jong-Eun Lee’s
system uses only relatively small ball-type lenses
that will collect sun light easily from every angle,
virtually 360 degrees.
“A dragonfly’s eye consists of over 20,000 balltype lenses in one big ball and it can see from over
300 degree angles,” Lee said.
• His invention uses mirrors in multiple raised
circles coming off a larger ball. The difference is
that the concentration is greater and more compact
in Lee’s configuration, which will allow his solar
dragonfly eyes to produce more power using less
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Gemasolar, Spain: Thermal solar plant
Radially staggered heliostat configuration
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Solar Biomimicry: Innovative Heliostats Field Design
Based in Fermat Spiral Positioning, like Sunflower Seeds
Biomimicry by
MIT, Aachen U.
• Golden angle 137.50
between mirrors
• 20% land area
reduction , plus
increased solar
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
What is Biomimicry 仿生學?
• Biomimicry (from bios, meaning life, and mimesis, meaning to
imitate) is a new discipline that studies nature's best ideas and then
imitates these designs and processes to solve human problems.
• One can think of it as "innovation inspired by nature" .
• The core idea is that nature, imaginative by necessity, has already
solved many of the problems we are grappling with. Animals, plants,
and microbes are the consummate engineers. They have found what
works, what is appropriate, and most important, what lasts here on
• This is the real news of biomimicry: after 3.8 billion years of
research and development, failures are fossils, and what surrounds us
is the secret to survival.
• The conscious emulation of life's genius is a survival strategy for the
human race, a path to a sustainable future. “The more our
world (human) functions like the natural world, the
more likely we are to endure on this home that is
ours, but not ours alone.”
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
New Solar Cells: MJ, transparent polymer
• Use of multi-junctions to increase solar cell efficiencies.
• A new type of polymer solar cell adds to the growing field of transparent solar technology, and offers
reasonably impressive efficiency for such a device. Researchers at UCLA ( materials science and
engineering professor Yang Yang) have created a cell that absorbs primarily infrared light, allowing much
of the visible spectrum to pass through; the cell is 66 percent transparent, with an energy conversion
efficiency of 4 percent.The new cell involves a photoactive layer sandwiched between transparent
electrodes. The photoactive layer is made of a near-infrared light-sensitive photovoltaic polymer PBDTTDPP (poly benzo dithiophene pyrrolo).
• The economics of covering every skyscraper in energy-producing glass (BIPV) has undeniable
potential. In 2010, buildings accounted for 41 percent of all electricity consumption in the U.S.
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
from shallow to deep water
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Offshore wind turbines mounted on seabed foundations are limited to
shallower waters, floating structures can be deployed at depths greater
than 50 meters.
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Vertical Axis Turbines
the Future of Offshore Wind Power?
C.G. Center of Gravity
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Biomimicry applied to wind power
• Humpback whales have small
bumps known as tubercles along the
leading edge of their fins.
• According to West Chester
University biology professor Frank
Fish , adding tubercles 結節to
standard turbine blades bumped up
the efficiency by 20 percent.
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Imitating schooling fish
• The biggest challenge with current wind farms is
lack of space. The horizontal-axis wind turbines -those with large propellers -- have to be fairly
dramatically spaced out—10 turbine diameters
apart or more, therefore require a substantial
amount of land to perform properly.
• But with help from the principles supplied by
schooling fish, and the use of vertical-axis turbines,
that may change. It may be possible to produce more
than 10 times the amount of energy currently
provided by a farm of horizontal turbines.
• John Dabiri, associate professor of aeronautics and
bioengineering at Caltech, while studying the
vortices left behind by fish swimming in a school,
Dabiri noticed that some vortices rotated clockwise,
while others rotated counter-clockwise.
•The biomimetic idea involves copying how
schooling fish take advantage of eddies 漩渦 in the
water caused by the other fish in the school.
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Flying Wind Generators(1)
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Flying Wind Generators (2)
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Smart Grid (Energy Transmission & Distribution)
Smart Grid is a transformed electricity transmission and distribution network or "grid"
that uses robust two-way communications, advanced sensors/meters, and distributed
computers to improve the efficiency, reliability and safety of power delivery and use.
Think of a Smart Grid as an “internet routing network” for Electricity, instead of for Data.
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
HAN connections in a home
Source: “Home Area NetworkPrepared
(HAN) Overview”,
PG &Kao
E, January 2009
by Dr. William
Applications of WSN to Smart Cities
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Green Data Centers
• With the recent growth of the Internet, social
media and cloud based computing, all the
information generated - videos, pictures, emails,
status updates, news, tweets - ends up in giant
data storage facilities called data centers.
•These facilities consume huge amounts of
electricity, amounting to 1.5 to 2 percent of
global energy demand (3 percent in the U.S.) –
and it's growing at a rate of 12 percent a year.
•Data centers are thus becoming the fastest
growing users of energy.
• Industry leading companies like Google, Apple,
Facebook, and Yahoo to make heavy investments
in renewable and clean energy to power their
data centers.
• Clean tech fuel cell 燃料電池 companies are
now targeting their fuel cell line products at data
center operators as a new market for distributed
cleaner power.
Green Data Centers
Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) measures the energy
efficiency of a data center
Measuring the data center’s two key
• Power usage efficiency (PUE), which is
total facility power divided by IT
equipment power, and
• Carbon usage effectiveness (CUE), a
metric by which data center operators can
gauge the intensity of their carbon
emissions per kilowatt-hour of energy
• Google touts the energy efficiency
numbers of its facilities, Google’s quarterly
average PUE is 1.17.
• Separate hot and cold aisles to keep the
hot and cool air separated more efficiently
Use of RE and Fuel Cells in Green Data Centers
• Industry leading companies like Google, Apple, Facebook, and Yahoo to
make heavy investments in renewable and clean energy (solar, wind,
hydro, geothermal, and fuel cells) to power their data centers.
• Google and Microsoft selected states like Iowa, Oklahoma and Oregon as
site for their new data centers to have access to that state’s wind power.
They built data centers in the northwest for hydropower. Google also
supports geothermal energy by investing more than 10 million on
Enhanced Geothermal Systems.
• Apple’s Maiden, NC facility include:
-20 MWs of solar panels from San Jose based SunPower Corporation.
-4.8 MWs of fuel cells from Sunnyvale based Bloom Energy Corp
-200 MWs of wind power from local utility grids to lower the carbon
footprint from its operations.
• Yahoo’s new data center in Lockport, New York will be powered in part
by hydropower, and claims the power-use effectiveness (PUE) for the
facility is 1.08.
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Use of RE and Fuel Cells in Green Data Centers
• Microsoft Corporation’s green data centers in Texas plans to use recycled water,
sometimes called gray water, in its cooling systems, and a significant portion of its
electricity is generated by wind.
• Ebay new data center in Utah will rely on a 6 MW fuel cell array supplied by Bloom
Energy. It will be the largest stationary fuel cell bank ( thirty Bloom cells) ever
installed in a non-utility setting, and the first time a data center has been designed to
rely on fuel cells as its primary energy source, with the grid serving as backup.
• IBM's India Software Lab in Bangalore has set up a 50-kilowatt rooftop solar array
to power about 20 percent of its data center. When IBM realized that modern IBM
servers can run on high-voltage direct current, they thought to use solar panels, which
produce direct current, as a source.
• Greenpeace criticized Facebook’s Prineville data center citing that this 300,000
square-foot facility runs primarily (53% ) on coal. Greenpeace urged Facebook to put
forward a strong infrastructure siting policy that prioritizes access to renewable
energy and establishes a comprehensive greenhouse gas mitigation strategy.
• Recently Facebook chose Lulea, Sweden for its third major data center site because
of the large amount of hydroelectric capacity.
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
PUE, CUE, wireless monitoring
Hot, cold aisles,
natural air
Clean sources
Typical 1.6
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Green Task Scheduling Algorithms with Speeds
Optimization on Heterogeneous Cloud Servers
Currently, a large number of cloud computing servers waste a tremendous amount of
energy and emit a considerable amount of carbon dioxide. Thus, it is necessary to
significantly reduce pollution and substantially lower energy usage. Six innovative
green task scheduling algorithms have been implemented, that have two main steps:
1. Assigning as many tasks as possible to a cloud server with lowest energy, and
2. Setting the same optimal speed for all tasks assigned to each cloud server.
A newly proven theorem can determine the optimal speed for all tasks assigned to a
computer. These novel green algorithms are developed for heterogeneous cloud servers
with adjustable speeds and parameters to effectively reduce energy consumption and
finish all tasks before a deadline.
Based on sufficient simulations, three green algorithms that allocate a task to a cloud
server with minimum energy are more effective than three others that assign a task to a
randomly selected cloud server.
Sufficient simulation results indicate that the best algorithm among the six algorithms is
Shortest Task First for Computer with Minimum Energy algorithm.
Reference: Luna Mingyi Zhang, Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom), 2010 IEEE/ACM Int'l
Conference on & Int'l Conference on Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom)
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Energy Storage 儲能技術
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Utility Scale Energy Storage 儲能技術
Pumped hydro抽水, Molten Salt熔鹽,
60% NaNO3, 40% KNO3
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Lithium ion batteries are popular for use in portable applications (laptops, cell phones) owing to
their high energy density 能量密度. However, with the increasing interest in plug in hybrid electric
vehicles the focus has shifted to enhancing power densities 功率密度in lithium ion batteries.
Market research has projected the global lithium ion battery revenue to expand from $11.8 billion
in 2010 up to $53.7 billion in 2020.
For anode (-) materials the aim has been to develop a material capable of absorbing lithium
reversibly with a higher capacity than carbon/graphite 石墨 : carbon nanotubes (CNT)碳納米管,
nanowires 納米線, tin (Sn), silicon (Si), and nano-composites 納米複合材料 like lithium titanate
spinel ( Li4Ti5O12) are promising.
For electrolyte 電解液 development, current ongoing work is to find new readily available
materials that have reasonable conductivity, are easy to manufacture and are less acidic and more
stable than lithium hexaflurophosphate (LiPF6). One of the most promising new electrolyte salts
being investigated is lithium bis-oxalato borate LiBOB ( LiBC4O8).
Cathode (+) materials must be able to accept and release lithium ions repeatedly (for recharging)
and quickly (for high current). New cathode material alternatives to replace the most commonly
used lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) as the standard cathode material are:
1. Layered structures 階層式結構 LiMnxNiyCozO2,
2. Spinel structures 尖晶石結構 such as lithium manganese phosphate (LiMn2O4),
3. Olivine structures橄欖石結構 such as lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4).
4. Vanadium 釩compounds 化合物 such as orthorhombic 支鏈 V2O5, and monoclinic單斜LiV3O8
are also being investigated.
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Li-Ion Cathode(+) & Anode(-) Materials
Spinel 尖晶石
lithium titanate spinel
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Summary and Conclusion
• Continuing upward economic and technical growth of
• Clean energy paced by policies and politics (FiT, ITC)
• Several new applications of biomimicry in clean energy
• Latest trends/developments in:
- solar (multi-junction, transparent) ,
- wind (deep offshore, vertical axis, flying),
- energy storage (large scale utility, batteries),
- green data centers (RE , fuel cells),
- sensor networks for green cities.
• Keep tuned in for the future…
Prepared by Dr. William Kao
Prepared by Dr. William Kao