Segmentation, Targeting & Positioning

Download Report

Transcript Segmentation, Targeting & Positioning

Segmentation, Targeting & Positioning
Overview: Segmentation, Targeting & Positioning
Why do this?
Market Segmentation - Principles
• Segmentation Variables
– Geographic
– Demographic
– Psychographic
– Behavioral
– Other (anything!)
• No single best way to segment a market.
• Often best to combine variables and identify smaller, betterdefined target groups.
Geographic Segmentation
• Divide markets into different geographic units.
• Examples:
– World Region or Country: North America, Western
Europe, European Union, Pacific Rim, Mexico, etc.
– Country Region: Pacific, Mountain, East Coast, etc.
– City or Metro Size: New York, San Francisco
– Population Density: rural, suburban, urban
– Climate: northern, southern, tropical, semi-tropical
Demographic Segmentation
• Use Differences in:
– age, gender, family size, family life cycle, income,
occupation, education, race, and religion
– Most frequently used segmentation variable
• Ease of measurement and high availability.
– Usually the worst variable to use.
Psychographic Segmentation
Psychographic segmentation
divides a market into
different groups based on
social class, lifestyle, or
personality characteristics.
People in the same demographic classification
often have very different lifestyles and personalities.
Behavioral Segmentation
• Occasion
– Special promotions &
labels for holidays.
– Special products for
special occasions.
• Benefits Sought
– Different segments
desire different benefits
from the same products.
• Loyalty Status
– Nonusers, ex-users,
potential users, firsttime users, regular users.
• Usage Rate
– Light, medium, heavy.
Loyalty Status Segmentation
Split loyals
Shifting loyals
User & Loyalty Status Segmentation
Geodemographic Segmentation
• PRIZM, by Claritas
– Organized by ZIP code
– Based on U.S. Census data
– Profiles on 260,000+ U.S. neighborhoods
– 62 clusters or types
Claritas’ Prizm
Requirements for Effective Segmentation
Segments must be
“Lefties” are hard to
identify and measure, so
few firms target this
– Measurable
– Accessible
– Substantial
– Differentiable
– Actionable
Evaluating Market Segments
• Segment Size and Growth Potential
– Sales, profitability and growth rates
• Segment Structural Attractiveness
– Competition, substitute products,
– buyers & supplier power, new
entrants (Porter’s Five Forces)
• Company Objectives and
– Core competencies
– “What business do we want to be
Targeting Segments - Overview
Market Preference Patterns
Undifferentiated (Mass) Marketing
– Ignores segmentation opportunities
Differentiated (Segmented) Marketing
– Targets several segments
and designs separate offers
for each.
– Coca-Cola (Coke, Sprite, Diet Coke,
– Procter & Gamble (Tide, Cheer,
Gain, Dreft, etc.)
– Toyota (Camry, Corolla, Prius, Scion,
Question du Jour
Should the same company produce and market brands
that compete with each other?
Niche Marketing
– Targets one or a couple small segments
– Niches have very specialized interests
• Tailoring products and marketing programs to suit
the tastes of specific individuals and/or locations.
Flexible Marketing Offerings
• “Naked”/Core solution
– Product and service
elements that all
segment members
• Discretionary options
– Some segment
members value
– Options may carry
additional charges
Patterns of Target Market Selection:
Product x Market Matrices
Socially Responsible Targeting
• Controversies and concerns
– Targeting the vulnerable and
• Cereal, Cigarettes, Alcohol, Fast-food
– The “Catch-22” of Targeting
• Psychological Reactance
• Failure to target seen as prejudice
The place a product occupies in consumers’
minds relative to competing products.
Positioning Example
eBay’s positioning: No
matter what “it” is, you
can find “it” on eBay!
Positioning Example
To (target segment and need) our (brand) is a
(concept) that (point-of-difference).
“To busy mobile professionals who need to
always be in the loop, Blackberry is a wireless
connectivity solution that allows you to stay
connected to people and resources while on
the go more easily and reliably than the
competing technologies.”
Positioning Maps: Luxury SUVs
Price vs. Orientation Dimensions
Positioning Strategy
• Competitive advantages
• Points of Parity
• Points of Difference => Differentiation
Positioning results from differentiation and
competitive advantages.
Positioning may change over time.
Sources of Differentiation
Product Design
Additional Services
People (Staff)
Choosing the Right Competitive Advantages
• The best competitive advantages are…
Affordable (to company and consumer)
Moral: Avoid meaningless differentiation.
Positioning Errors
• Under-positioning:
– Not positioning strongly enough.
• Over-positioning:
– Giving buyers too narrow a picture of the product.
• Muddled Positioning:
– Leaving buyers with a confused image of the product.
Generic Product Positions
& Value Propositions
Question du Jour
Which is more important: Product or Positioning?
In-class Activity
• Describe how each of the following brands,
companies, or products is positioned:
In-class Activity, Part 2
• Choose one of the companies/brands and…
– Identify relevant direct competitors
– Choose the two dimensions that are most
important to consumers
– Develop a perceptual positioning map
– Are there any opportunities in this category?
In-class Activity, Part 3
• Choose a company and invent a segmentation scheme for
that company’s customers using the variables we discussed in
In-class Activity –
Developing a Segmentation Scheme
• Develop a PSYCHOGRAPHIC/USAGE segmentation scheme for each of the
following types of consumers.
– Segment the market into three or more substantive groups.
– Be sure to think of the key psychological/usage drivers of consumption.
– Name your segments – the more creative, the better!
• Consumers
Internet Users
Restaurant Patrons
Eco-friendly product consumers
Smartphone Users
Grocery Store Shoppers