TCP/IP history - College of Business Administration

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TCP/IP history
Skills: none
IT concepts: Internetwork
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The TCP/IP history
• Internet concepts
– Applications
– Technology (TCP/IP)
– Implications for
• Individuals
• Organizations
• Society
• Internet skills
– Application development
– Content creation
• Text
• Images
• Audio
• Video
The vision
Vannevar Bush’s “memex” from As We May Think, 1945
The vision
“In a few years, men will be able to communicate more
effectively through a machine than face to face”.
“What will on-line interactive communities be like? ... They
will be communities not of common location, but of common
interest. In each field, the overall community of interest will
be large enough to support a comprehensive system of fieldoriented programs and data”.
Licklider and Taylor, On-Line Man Computer Communication, 1968
(revision of a 1962 conference paper)
The vision
Doug Engelbart, 1968, demonstrating systems designed
to augment human intelligence (begun in 1962)
The ARPANet -- December 5, 1969
• Connected dissimilar computers, not networks
• Like a widely dispersed local area network
• Like a LAN with Macs and Windows PCs
TCP/IP motivation
ARPA wanted to connect several separate, dissimilar
networks to create an internetwork.
Above is a figure from the paper proposing TCP, an
internetworking protocol …
A Protocol for Packet Network
Intercommunication,” IEEE Trans on
Comms, Vol Com-22, No 5 May 1974.
Vinton G. Cerf
Robert E. Kahn
TCP demonstration, October 1977
Interconnected three networks: ARPANet, SATNet, and
the San Francisco Bay area packet radio network
TCP/IP milestones
• March 1978, TCP split into TCP and IP because packet
voice applications required fast transport without error
checking (UDP)
• January 1 1983, ARPAnet converts to TCP/IP, and splits
into Milnet for operational applications and ARPANet for
• 1985, The U.S. National Science Foundation initiates
the NSFNET program with the goal of connecting all US
and many foreign universities
• 1986, NSF deploys a six node network with 56 Kbps
links using TCP/IP
Which day was the “birth of the Internet?”
Other early protocols
• IBM System Network Architecture, 1974
• Digital Equipment Corporation DECNet,
• International Organization for
Standardization model, 1978
Cool historic video
Computer Networks – Robert Kahn describing the ARPANet, J. C. R.
Licklidder on motivation and applications, and others.
The Demo, Douglas Engelbart demonstrates personal computer and networking
prototypes that inspired generations of products and research