AP World History Review

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Transcript AP World History Review

What advantages were realized by
the wide extent of the Mongol
• The Pax Mongolica allowed for exchange of
ideas through cultural diffusion including ideas of
• Trade was enhanced by connecting Europe,
Middle East, Russia and East Asia together
through their connection of the Mongol empire
• Threat of Mongol invasion spurred the
neighboring countries to vigorously develop
their own defenses, technology and political
How was iron smelting an
important skill of the Central Asian
nomadic tribes?
• Since they lived a nomadic life that
depended heavily on the use of horses,
iron became necessary for bridles,
stirrups, cart fittings and weapons.
• Central Asians improved iron smelting
• Note: Temujin (Genghis Khan) means
What were characteristics of the
Mongol conquest strategies?
• Psychological warfare-a reputation for brutality would
precede them and persuade people to surrender
• Extraordinary horsemen, ability to use deadly accuracy
with a bow and arrow while riding at a full gallop (A skill
still used today for competition in Mongolia). They used a
thumb lock mechanism to facilitate the smooth release of
the arrow.
• The bow, made of layered lacquered wood, bone and
leather could shoot farther than the bows of their
• First, they used arrows to kill the opponent’s marksmen
Continued next slide
Mongol war strategies continued…
• 2nd- used sword, lance and javelin etc to
do hand to hand fighting.
• Used flaming arrows and catapults
• Used siege to force capitulation
What were the technological
advancements of the Mongols?
• Improved iron smelting techniques
• Funded advancements in medicine and
astronomy-built several observatories
• Devised a more accurate calendar
• Extended Grand Canal towards Beijing (Daidu)
• Built network of roads
• Developed a new “square script” language but it
never caught on
• http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/mongols/china/china3_e.htm
List the Mongol Khanates
Kipchak (Golden Horde)
Great Khan (Yuan under Kubilai Khan)
Il-Khan ruler Ghazan
• Muslim
• Supported the arts, especially literature
• Economic problems-promised reduced
taxes but need for revenue forced him to
renege on that
• The high taxes caused resentment,
fighting and de-stabilized the government
• Separated from the other Mongol Khans
How did the Mongols treat the
conquered people in their empire?
• Resistance meant mass slaughter and
starvation; surrender meant food, shelter
and protection
• Allowed religious expression
• As long as the taxes were paid to the
Mongol Khan, the villagers were left in
• Conquered people had to provide military
How did Buddhism and Islam
impact the Mongols?
• Buddhism
• Khubilai Khan had his
son tutored by a
Confucian and he used
Confucian ideas
• Buddhist “lamas” became
popular teachers. The
idea of a “universal ruler”
bringing the whole world
to Buddhism was
• Islam
• Repulsed by Mongol
worship of idols
• Animal sacrifice beliefs
were completely opposite
• Caused tension between
Khanates of Muslim and
• Islamic value of culture,
science and learning
influenced Mongols in this
What was the role of women in
Mongol society?
• Marriages were arranged to combine
resources and make important alliances
• Women had some power in negotiation
and management but took the risks as well
• Women responsible for the livestock
• Mothers of rulers often managed the
empire between the death of one ruler and
ascension of another
What is the Yuan dynasty?
• The dynasty to rule over China created by
Kubilai Khan
• Beijing, the capital, became the center of culture
and economy
• Kubilai Khan re-united China and restored much
of the Chinese culture
• Persian, Arab and Uighur tax administrators
were hired to take census and collect taxes
• Muslims hired to create calendars and continue
Yuan dynasty continued…
• Government was organized and systematic with
local governors, tax collectors and garrison
• Merchants became the new elite, corporations
• Mongolian-influenced Chinese language
• Cities began to cater to the tastes of the new
merchant class with restaurants, shops and
• Cottage industries provided goods to the cities
What were the negative factors
about the Yuan dynasty?
• Mongol princes evicted many farmers
• Imposed brutal taxation that left many
• Neglected dams and dikes so flooding
caused much damage
• Warfare, low food and bubonic plague took
a toll on population.
What were the lasting impacts of
the Mongols on China?
• Brought unity to lands between Europe
and China
• Trade was stimulated through protection of
trade routes & encouraging industrial
• Cultural diversity in government operations
• Astronomy and math inventions
The political structure of the
Mongols in the 13th century was…
• Mongols were warriors and leaders
• Central Asians and Middle Easterners
were census takers and tax collectors
• Provincial governors appointed by the
central authority
What are the characteristics of
Islamic art?
• Beautiful calligraphy of verses of the
Quran in Arabic
• Nature subjects such as flowers, trees,
• Intricate geometric designs
What were the major trade routes
of the 13th to 15th centuries?
Silk Road
Black Sea-Baltics
Indian Ocean
How does the Mayan civilization
compare to the early West Asian
• Civilization that was
never unified into a
single empire
• Major contributions in
astronomy, math and
• Civilization that was
divided into several
“khanates”, never
unified into one large
empire under one
• Supported research in
astronomy, math and
new, more accurate
What areas were conquered by
Genghis Khan?
• Northern China
• Central Asia
• Iran
Where did Marco Polo and Ibn
Battuta travel?
• Marco Polo-born in
Venice, Italy.
Travelled through
Iran, Central Asia,
China to Beijing. He
also travelled to Viet
Nam, Sumatra, and
• Ibn Battuta-born in
Morocco, travelled
throughout the Islamic
world through the
Middle East, Central
Asia, India, China,
Southeast Asia,
Muslim Spain and
sub-Saharan West
What issues were between the
various khanates?
• Division over Islamic beliefs. Some Khans
were Muslims, others were not
• Incursions into each other’s regions
What problems were caused by the
tax-farming methods of the IlKhan?
[In the Il-Khan khanate the Mongol government sold tax collecting contracts to small partnerships
(usually merchants) who could use any method they wanted to collect the money and could keep
any amount collected over the contracted amount.]
• The unregulated tax farmers/collectors charged exorbitant fees and
forced many landowners into debt and eventually poverty
• Agricultural production went down
• The government couldn’t get enough food for the military so took
over land to grow their own grain.
• The government land wasn’t taxed, of course so the tax-payers
became smaller and the financial needs of the government grew
• Eventually, financial depression, unrest and resentment led to
fighting between the Mongols and de-stabilized the government
What were some of the cultural and artistic
exchanges between East Asia and the
Middle East because of the connection of
the Mongol Empire?
• Chinese silks, porcelains, and artistic methods to portray
clouds, rocks and trees were prized in the Middle East.
They also sent scholars and texts to share stabilized
sighting tubes for astronomy, and armillary spheres to
show celestial movements
• Middle Eastern engineering, astronomy, mathematics, as
well as medical knowledge and weapons manufacture
were sought after in China
What was the relationship between the
Orthodox Church and the Mongols?
• The Mongols of the Golden Horde granted
privileges to the Orthodox church to help
facilitate control of their Russian lands
• The Mongols recruited Russian princes to
act as their tax collectors and census
What was the role of Moscow
during the Mongols rule?
• With the urging of Prince of Novorod
(Alexander Nevskii) several other Russian
princes agreed to submit to the Mongols
and in return Novgorod and the emerging
town of Moscow began to gain economic,
political and cultural ascendency over the
previous capital of Kiev.
• Moscow slowly became the political center
How was Mongol rule in Russia
• Ivan III ( Prince of Russia)
• took the title of “tsar” and as the Mongols
control of their vast regions began to
crumble the independence movements of
many states such as Lithuania and Russia
allowed them to break free of the Mongol