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The Foundation of Christian Society in Western Europe By Basil Kuriappuram, Jack Sheehan and Troy Mauriello

Part One Search for Political Order

• • •

Foundation for Development of European Society

After the disruption of invasions and depopulation, the people of western Europe restored order.

Began a process of economic recovery, did not large cities or generate a powerful economy.

Built an institutional framework that enabled the Christian church to provide religious leadership.

Germanic Successor States

• • • • • • In 476 C.E Germanic General Odoacer deposed the last of Roman Emperors.

By the late 5 th Century a series of Germanic place of the Roman empire Visigoths – Spain Otrogoths – Italy – Until Justinian's resassertment in the 530s’ Lombards – Italy - after departure of Justinian's forces

The Franks

• • Influenced the political, social and cultural development of western Europe Constructed society based on the agricultural resources of Europe

Clovis (481-511)

• • • • Under Clovis the Franks became a military and political power in western Europe.

In 486 Clovis led his forces on a campaign to wipe out the last of Roman authority Organized campaigns against peoples whose states bordered the Franks Transformed the Franks into the most powerful and dynamic states in western Europe

Reason for Rapid Rise

• • Originally most invaders were polytheists, but as the settled around the Roman Empire, many converted to Christianity. (accepted Arian Christianity which was popular at the time) As a result the Franks gained the allegiance of the pope and the western Christian church, thus strengthening them.

After Clovis…

• • • Franks lost much authority after Clovis’ death His successors ruled until the early 8 th century Frankish Kings were displaced by aristocratic Carolingians

Carolingian Empire

• • • • • Takes name from founder, Charles Martel (known as Charles the Hammer for military skill) In 732 at Battle of Tours Charles Martel turned back a Muslim army that had ventured from Spain Victory persuaded rulers of Spain it was not worth it to further venture into western Europe Never was king but served as deputy for the last of Clovis’ descendants In 751 his son Charlemagne claimed his thrown

Charlemagne

• • • • • • • • Ruled from 768-814 High point of Frankish society Temporarily reestablished centralized rule (like King Harsha) Barely literate, but very intelligent (could speak Latin, understood Greek, and conversed with other educated men) Maintained relations with the Byzantine Empire and Abbasid Caliphate By the time of his death, he had extended rule to northeastern Spain, Bavaria, and Italy Capital – Aachen Spent most time traveling to maintain authority

Missi Dominici

• • Charlemagne's’ Counts often had other ambitions To bring them under control Charlemagne instituted officials known as missi dominici (envoys of the ruler) who traveled every year to all local jurisdictions and reviewed the local authorities

Charlemagne the Emperor?

• • • Charlemagne hesitated to call himself emperor because it would challenge the authority of the Byzantine Emperors Finally accepted the title in the year 800 Attended religious services on Christmas Day in Italy, and there was crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III

Main Reasons for Decline and Fall of Carolingian Empire

• • Internal disunity Constant invasions

Louis the Pious

• • • Charlemagne's son Louis the Pious reigned from 814-840 He kept the empire together, but lacked the strong will and military skills of his father, and lost control of his counts After his death, his three sons often argued the inheritance of the empire, and in 843 they split the empire into three portions

Invasions

• • • • Three groups of Invaders, Muslims, Magyars, and Vikings Muslims- came from south, raided towns, villages, churches, etc, in Mediterranean Europe Magyars- came from east, expert horseman, raided settlements in Germany, Italy, and southern France Vikings – came from north, began mounting raids in northern France

Norse Expansion

• • • • Began around 800 due to population pressure in Scandinavian lands, and as resistance to Christian missions to abolish pagan gods Developed set of shipbuilding and seafaring skills that allowed them to travel safely and reliably through the ocean Established settlements in Shetland Islands, Faeroes, Iceland and Greenland.

Most used seafaring skills for commercial opportunity or to seek land to cultivate

The Vikings

• • • Used maritime skills for raiding and plundering Used shallow boats that could cross heavy seas but also navigate rivers Coordinated movements and timed attacks based on tides

• • • • • •

Regional Authorities in Western Europe

Carolingian Empire did not have a navy, thus no protection to vulnerable sites in the Empire and became chief casualty of the invasions Thus, in the 9 th century western Europe made an initiative to increase regional and local authorities Different areas responded to the situation in different ways England – King Alfred (reigned 871-899) made an effort to unite the challenge the Vikings.

Germany – local lords took matters into their own hands, In 955 Otto I of Saxony defeated a large Magyar army near Augsburg, ending the Magyar threat. Lead his armies into Italy to help protect the papacy, and in 962 the pope proclaimed him emperor.

France – development of decentralized order, each Count withdrew allegiance from the central government, and ruled their own territories. Counts collected taxes, organized armed forces, built castles, and provided justice.

Part Two Early Medieval Society

Obligations of Lords and Vassals

• •

Lords

Grant of land (fief) Resources • • • • • •

Vassals

Oath of Fealty Loyalty Obedience Respect Counsel Military service

Serfs

• • • • • • Beginning in mid 7 known as Serfs th century, rulers recognized categories Usually had to work certain lands, and had to pass those obligations to their land lords.

Obligations include labor services and a rent of some kind Males usually worked three days in the fields and provided planting and harvesting services Women usually churned butter, made cheese, brewed beer, spun thread, wove cloth, or sowed clothes Serfs had rare opportunity to move to other lands

Manors

• • • Manors were large estates consisting of fields, meadows, forests, agricultural tools, domestic animals, and sometimes lakes or rivers.

The lord of the manor was a political or military figure.

His deputies and himself would provided government, administration, police services, and justice for the manor.

Economy of Medieval Europe

• • • Invasions disrupted the European economy, and the economic activity was slower than in other areas of the world.

Economic centers shifted from the Mediterranean to the north, especially France Tools did not travel well, as small wooden plows would break on the harder northern surface .

Heavy Plow

The heavy plow was introduced in the 8 th century.

Often hitched to horses and oxen (as seen here), the plow increased agricultural production.

Horse Collar

The horse collar, with the heavier plow was introduced to allow faster horses to pull the heavy plow.

Rural Society

• • • A surplus of agricultural in Medieval Europe was large enough to support manors and those in them, but was not sufficient enough to support large cities.

Few towns Towns were mainly economic hubs for the areas around them, instead of the vibrant centers they used to be.

Mediterranean Trade

• • • • • • Trade did not disappear in medieval Europe Maritime trade flourished in the Mediterranean Christian merchants from Italy and Spain traded across boundaries with the Muslims of Sicily, Spain, and north By 1000 C.E food crops from the Islamic world were also in Europe. (wheat, rice, spinach, artichokes, eggplant, Baltic Seas Norse merchants arrived at ports from Russia to Ireland carrying various products from various areas of the world

European Population

• • • • • • • 200 C.E – 36 Million 400 C.E - 31 Million 600 C.E – 26 Million Gradually recovered after 600 800 C.E – 29 Million 900 C.E – 32 Million 1000 C.E – 36 Million

Part Three Formation of Christian Europe

Franks and the Church

• • • • • support of the church The Church provided them with educated and literate individuals who could provide political services The Franks viewed themselves as protectors of the papacy, and Charlemagne mounted a campaign to destroy the Lombards who had threatened the church Charlemagne created a school at his capital Aachen, where he had the most prominent scholars make copies of the Bible and Latin literature, and taught Christian doctrine.

Charlemagne ordered monastaries to provide eduation and build schools

Spread of Christianity

• • • • Charlemagne would sometimes spread Christianity by military force Between 772-804 he waged a war against the Saxons(pagan people inhabiting northern Germany) Along with his political goals he insisted they convert to the Roman Christian faith, in which the Saxons violently resisted In the end Charlemagne won, and the Saxons acknowledged and replaced their pagan traditions with Christian traditions

Pope Gregory I (590-604)

• • • • • • In late 6 th century, the Lombards had a hold on the Italian Pope Gregory mobilized local resources and organized Rome’s defense, allowing it to survive.

He also reasserted papal primacy which says the Pope is the ultimate authority in the church.

of sins) Gregory made Roman Christianity look appealing and had people converted in western Europe.

He aimed an effort at the ruler of England, and by the 7 th century he established a foothold in England.

St. Benedict

• • • • • • Monasticism movement provided discipline and a sense of purpose for the movement In 529, created a set of regulations known as Benedict’s Rule for the community he founded at Monte Casino near Rome.

Required monks to live communal, celibate, lives under the direction of the abbot.

Poverty, chastity, and obedience are important virtues The sister of St. Benedict, St. Scholastica (482-543) adapted her brothers guide into one for women in convents

Monasticism and Society

• • • • • • • Provided order on the countryside In France and Germany, Abbots would dispatch teams to clear forests, and prepare land for cultivation Monasteries served as inns for travelers Served as orphanages Provided medical treatment Set up schools Served as a source of literate, educated and talented people

THE END