Transcript Slide 1

Al-Anfal Campaign
War Crimes Against the Kurdish People of Iraq
Peter Elsesser
David Dinh
My Hunynh
Isaac Roldan
Key Political Leaders
• Saddam Hussein
• Ali Hassan “Chemical
Ali” Al-Majid
News Headlines
• Editoral Desk, “Kurds of Iraq Fighting for
Survival." New York Times 05 Oct 1987, Late
City Final Edition: A22.
• Trainor, Bernard E. In Gulf War, Death Seems
Only Winner." New York Times 14 Jun 1987,
Late City Final Edition: Section 1 Page 4.
• Cowell, Alan. “Iraqis Are Facing a Growing War
From Within." New York Times 22 Sep 1987,
Late City Final Edition: A6.
• "Some were blind; some could not reach
our village. The spirit left them on the way;
they were all black."
-- Na'ima Hassan Qader of Galnaghaj, describing the
exodus of villagers from the chemical attack on the
neighboring village of Goktapa, May 3, 1988.
• "This was the first time people were taken
away to end them."
-- farmer of Golama village, Qader Karam.
• "It was like the Day of Judgment; you
stand before God."
-- survivor of the poison gas attack on Halabja, March
16, 1988.
• "Each era is different. Everything changes.
But Saddam Hussein is worse than
Tamburlaine of 600 years ago."
-- Abd-al-Qader Abdullah Askari of Goktapa, site of
chemical weapons attack, May 3, 1988.
Map of Region
Foods of the Kurds
• Lamb/Veal, Chicken
• Onions, bell peppers, green beans,
eggplant, dill
• Yogurt
• Sirani a rezan (nuts and dried fruit in
• Kurdish, an Iranian language related to the
Persian language
• Most Kurdish people also speak their
region’s language (usually Arabic, Turkish
or Persian) as a second language
Role of the UN
• Western countries supplied arms throughout the
campaign, UN involvement was limited.
• In August, 1988 as the Anfal campaign came to
a close the United Nations Sub-Committee on
Human Rights voted by 11 to 8 not to condemn
Iraq for human rights violations.
• In a meeting in May 1987, Proconsul “Chemical
Ali” Al Majid declared: “I will kill them all with
chemical weapons. Who is going to say
anything? The international community? Fuck
UN Members
• Col. Dominguez from Spain, who was
dispatched to Iraq merely reported some
of what was going on, noting that chemical
weapons were indeed being used, but it
was difficult to determine the nationalities
Response from International
• Western nations aided Baghdad with
supplies and weapons for the war with Iran
• A proposed U.S. sanction against Iraq was
vetoed by Pres. Bush, who gave Baghdad
a billion dollar loan
• France, the most zealous of arms
suppliers, issued a general statement
condemning the use of chemical weapons
anywhere in the world
The Kurds are the only ethnic group of people that do not have a nation state. They
live scatter between the nations or Iraq, Turkey, Iran, and Syria.
They have been fighting for their own nation sate for about 7 decades. However,
without an organization there has been little success if any.
During the Iran-Iraq war, Saddam Hussein created a campaign, Al Anfal, that consists
of many actions to destroy Kurds.
The use of chemical weapons to kill of the Kurds and an estimate about 10,000 to
50,000 were killed.
The genocide finally ended when the United Nations voted 11 to 8 not to condemn
Iraq for war crimes.
However, recently Saddam Hussein as well as 6 other convicted leaders have been
charged and are withstanding trial.
• The emblem represents the KRG
• The KRG stands for the Kurdistan Regional government.
• “The Emblem consists of an eagle holding a sun on his wings. The
sun is formed of three colors of red, yellow and green which
represents the Kurdish flag (Wikipedia).”
• The eagle represents the emblem the ancient Mesopotamia
• The sun represents the ancient Median Empire.
• The emblem is also divided into four such as the wings and the
sections of the suns. This is a representation of four divided nations
of the Kurds: Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran.
• Quotes
– "GENOCIDE IN IRAQ: The Anfal Campaign Against the Kurds."
Middle East Watch Report 1993
• Images
– "1988 Anfal campaign." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 27
Aug 2006, 18:21 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 7 Nov 2006
– "Coat of Arms." Wikipedia. 2006. Wikipedia. 9 Nov 2006
• Foods
– Reiley, Laura. “Not Up on Kurdish Cuisine?" San Francisco
Chronicle 13 Oct 2000, Online ed.: PN-7.
• Languages
– "Kurdish language." Wikipedia, The Free
Encyclopedia. 7 Nov 2006, 08:08 UTC. Wikimedia
Foundation, Inc. 7 Nov 2006
• Role of the UN/International Response
– Nezan, Kendal. “When our ‘friend’ Saddam was
gassing the Kurds." Le Monde diplomatique March