Comparing and Contrasting 1st and 2nd

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Transcript Comparing and Contrasting 1st and 2nd

Comparing and
Contrasting 1st
and 2nd
Language
Acquisition
By Amanda Byrd
Presentation Structure:
 Introduction
 Similarities
of 1st and 2nd LA Acquisition
 Differences
 What
of 1st and 2nd LA Acquisition
all this means to you as a Language
Teacher
Interchange
Language
Larry Selinker defined Interchange
Language in his book
Interlanguage Theory published in
1969 as “the interim grammars
constructed by second language
learners on their way to the target
language.”
Interchange
Language is…
“systematic, dynamic and
constantly evolving.”
First, Some Similarities
Pattern of Development
 Silent
Period
 Formulaic
Speech
 Structural
and Semantic Simplification
Silent Period
 This
is the time in which there is no
production of Language.
 There is some disagreement of the role of
the silent period in second language
acquisition.
 Krashen-builds competence via
listening.(1982)
 Gibbons-stage of incomprehension(1985)
Formulaic Speech
 This
is when
language learners
memorize whole
chunks of speech
and can use them
in different
situations.
Joshua
Examples:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Mommy, quiero hold
you.
Este es _____________.
Where are you?
_________ se fue.
Quiero have some
please.
Nicolas
 May
I go to the bathroom?
 Can
I borrow your ruler?
 Can
I go?
Structural and Semantic
Simplifications
 Structural=
learner omits grammatical
factors i.e. articles and auxiliary verbs
 Semantic=
learner omits content words
i.e. nouns and verbs
 Question:
Does the overuse of articles also
count as a structural simplification?
Structural Simplification
Joshua
 1. Mommy, what doing ? Or What are
doing mommy?
 2.
No, Joshua help you.
Nicolas

Its homework folder.
Semantic Simplification
 Daddy
school, mommy school, Joshua
school too!
 Joshua´s
 Bebe
class no, mommy´s class si.
no sleeping.
Order of Acquisition
Krashen (1982)
 Natural
Order
Hypothesis = there
is an expectable
order in which we
acquire the rules
within a language.
McLaughlin (1987)

The data from his
research shows that
the 1st language of
the learner does
have a notable
influence on the
order in which the
learner acquires the
2nd language.
Linguistic Universals and
Markedness
Unmarked
 Those
aspects of
grammar that are
universal,
transferable and
easier to learn
Marked

Those aspects of
grammar that are
distinct for a
particular language
that have come
about through history
of the language or
by accident.
Input
 According
to Richards et. al. 1989 input is
described as “language which a learner
hears or receives and from which he or
she can learn.”
 Krashen (1982) INPUT HYPOTHESIS- a
learner must have input that is
understandable in order to learn
language. This input should be slightly
above the level of the language learner.
Interaction




Interactionist Approach
Interaction is more important than simple
input
Chomsky argues that children are not able to
distinguish what is grammatical and not from
input therefore they must have the
interactions with the language to build their
knowledge base.
When learning a second language the
learner depends on their knowledge of the L1
to build up their knowledge of the L2.
Behaviorist View




Learning by conditioning and formation
Correct behavior is highly praised and likely to
be repeated
Williams and Burden 1997 – “In other words,
children imitate a piece of language they
hear and if they receive positive
reinforcement they continue to imitate and
practice that piece of language which then
turns in to a ´habit´.”
PROBLEM-This view does not explain the
creative use of language of both L1 and L2.
Zone of Proximal Development



L. S. Vygotsky- “The difference between the level
of solved asks that can be performed with adult
guidance and help and the level of
independently solved tasks is the zone f proximal
development.”
To stimulate this development students needs to
work collaboratively with others and teachers must
provide these types of opportunities for
interaction.
What students are able to do today with some
help can be used as a guideline as to what they
will be able to do independently tomorrow.
Now, let´s take a look at some
differences !
The Acquisition-Learning
Hypothesis
 Adult
Acquisition
can also happen
naturally, similar to
the acquisition of
the first language.
 Conscious
Learning- explicit
and formal
instruction.
 Note- Not all
learning turns into
acquisition.
Critical Period Hypothesis
 Based
on ideas by psychologist Eric
Lenneberg
 Specific period of time for optimal
language learning (2-12 years)
 Determined by other biological factors in
the brain
 Lateralization- Thomas Scoval
Other Considerations
 Psychomotor-
Speech Muscle Maturation
 Affective



A. Inhibition- Alexander Guiora: LanguageEgo
B. Attitudes-Towards races, cultures, ethnic
groups, and languages
C. Affective Filter Hypothesis
Fossilization
 Why?





Age
Lack of desire to articulate
Communicative pressure
Lack of learning opportunity
Nature of feedback
Social Factors
Natural Context
 Ethnic
minority in
native country
 L2 is official
language
 International
Educational Context
 Segregation
 Mother
Tongue
Maintenance
 Submersion
 Language
Classroom
Acculturation Theory
 Schuman
(1986)- process of adapting to a
new culture.
 + contact with L2 speakers and culture =
more acquisition
 Beebe (1985) – Language Variety
So what does all this mean to
you?
 Learning
a language is a very complex
process. The studies that have been
conducted are valuable tools to the
language teacher because they provide
some insight into this process.
 However, a language teacher cannot
simply choose one theory and teach by it
because the theories alone are not
sufficient in their explanation of language
acquisition. In turn the teacher must use
them as a guide, and see how they
interact in order to create meaningful
activities for the classroom.
 Understanding
the stages of language
development can also aid the teacher in
the design and sequence of the syllabus.
 Theoretical knowledge should be
considered along with the context in
which the teacher is teaching the L2 in
order to create life-long learning
experiences.