• 1. The process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient
organisms is called evolution.
• 2. A well-supported explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the
natural world is a theory.
• 3. Charles Darwin
• A. he was born in 1809
• B. He was an English naturalist
• D. The voyage lasted 5 years and took him around the world
• 4. Label the Galapagos Islands on your map
• 5. Darwin was looking for a scientific explanation for the diversity of life on
• 6. Observations Darwin made
• A. An enormous number of species inhabit Earth
• D. Some species that lived in the past no longer live on Earth
• 7. The preserved remains of ancient organisms are called fossils.
• 8. He wondered why so many species had disappeared and how were they
related to living species.
• 9. Darwin thought that hood island had curved shells to allow them to reach
sparse vegetation on their island whereas Isabela Island tortoises has dome
shaped shells because vegetation there was more abundant and closer to
• 10. Darwin observed the small brown birds on the Galapagos Islands differed
in the shape of their beaks.
• 11. Darwin thought about how the characteristics of many animals and
plants varied among the different islands.
• 12. Separate species evolved from a common ancestor after becoming
isolated from one another on different islands of the Galapagos.
• 1. Two scientists who helped Darwin and others recognize how old Earth is were
Hutton and Lyell.
• 2. James Hutton
• B. Layers of rock are moved by forces beneath Earth’s surface
• C. Most geological processes operate extremely slowly
• 3. Lyell’s work
• B. His work explained how awesome geological features could be built up or torn down over
long periods of time
• C. His publications helped Darwin appreciate the significance of the geological phenomena
that he had observed
• D. He stressed that scientists must explain past events in terms of processes that they can
• 4. Knowing that Earth could change over time helped Darwin believe that life
might change as well. Knowing that Earth is very old assured Darwin that there
was enough time for life to change.
• 5. Lamarck was among the first scientists to recognize that living things have
changed over time. True
• 6. Lamarck proposed that all organisms have an innate tendency toward
complexity and perfection. True
• 7. Lamarck proposed that when animals use or don’t use certain organs
acquired or lost certain traits during their lifetime there traits are passed on
to their offspring.
• 8. Lamarck was one of the first scientists to propose the hypotheses of
evolution and adaptation
• 9. Step 3
• 10. Thomas Malthus
• A. He was an important influence on Darwin
• C. He believed that war, famine, and disease limit the growth of populations.
• 11. The overwhelming majority of a species’ offspring survive. False
• 1. When Darwin returned to England, he rushed to publish his thoughts
about evolution. False
• 2. The naturalist whose essay gave Darwin an incentive to publish his own
• 3. Darwin’s book On the Origin of Species
• C. It contained evidence for evolution
• D. It described natural selection
• 4. Differences among individuals of a species are referred to as variation.
• 5. Genetic variation is found only in wild organisms in nature. False
• 6. Artificial Selection
• C. It produces organisms that look very different from their ancestors
• D. It is no longer used today
• 7. Developing a scientific hypothesis for evolution
• 8. Fitness – C. The ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its
• 9. Adaptation – A. Any inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s
chance of survival
• 10. Natural selection – B. Survival of the fittest
• 11. Members of each species compete regularly to obtain food, living space,
and other necessities
• 12. Adaptations can be physical characteristics but not more complex
features such as behavior. False
• 13. Individuals better suited to their environment survive and reproduce
• 14. Natural Selection
• A. It selects traits that increase fitness
• B. It takes place without human control
• 15. The principle that living species descend, with changes, from other
species over time is referred to as descent with modification.
• 16. The principle that all species were derived from common ancestors is
known as common descent.
• 17. Darwin argued that living things have been evolving on Earth for
thousands of years. False
• 18. Evidence of evolution can be found in
The fossil record
• 19. They document the fact that life on Earth has changed over time.
• 20. Distribution of finches on the Galapagos
• A. They had descended with modification from a common mainland ancestor
• 21. Species evolve features in common because they were exposed to
similar pressure of natural selection
• 22. Structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same
embryonic tissues are called homologous structures.
• 23. Homologous structures provide strong evidence that all four-limbed
vertebrates have descended, with modifications, from common ancestors.
• 24. Organs that are so reduced in size that are just vestiges, or traces, of
homologous organs in other species are called vestigial structures.
• 25. Darwin’s theory of evolution
• A. There is a variation in nature
• C. There is a struggle for existence
• D. Species change over time
• 26. Individuals die or leave fewer offspring
• 27. Darwin believed that all organisms on Earth are united into a single tree
of life by descent with modification.
• 28. They have been confirmed and expanded by scientific advances in
biology, geology, and physics.
• Vocabulary Review