Transcript Document

Integrating Practices into Items
Next Generation Assessments for Emerging Standards
CSSS Large Scale Assessment Webinar
Tuesday, October 7, 2014
Christopher C. Lazzaro, The College Board
Tom Regan, The College Board
• What is the AP redesign and why should we
look at it?
• What is so different?
• Example Items Old and New
• Does this align with the goals of the NGSS?
Why Redesign AP Science?
A 2002 NRC Report identified ways to improve advanced study of math and
science in the U.S. The Report’s recommendations are applicable to all AP course
- Emphasize deep understanding rather than
comprehensive coverage -- avoid “mile wide & inch
deep” syndrome
- Reflect current understanding of how students learn
in a discipline
- Reflect current research directions within the
- Emphasize the development of inquiry and
reasoning skills
What’s the Big Idea…
Big Ideas are the key concepts and related content that
define the revised AP science courses and exams.
Under each
the Big Ideas, three to five Enduring
Understandings (EUs) are identified:
- These EUs are the core concepts that students
should retain from
the learning experience
Science Practices capture the aspects of science reasoning
that are necessary for building, justifying and evaluating
evidenced-based, testable explanations and predictions.
Big Idea 1: Evolution
The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.
Big Idea 2: Cellular Processes: Energy and Communication
Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to
reproduce, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.
Big Idea 3: Genetics and Information Transfer
Living systems store, retrieve, transmit, and respond to information essential to life
Big Idea 4: Interactions
Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex
Science Practices
Science Practices
Use representations and models to communicate scientific phenomena and
solve scientific problems.
Use mathematics appropriately.
Engage in scientific questioning to extend thinking or to guide investigations
within the context of the AP course.
Plan and implement data collection strategies in relation to a particular
scientific question.
Perform data analysis and evaluation of evidence.
Work with scientific explanations and theories.
Connect and relate knowledge across various scales, concepts, and
representations in and across domains.
Enduring Understandings
What do you want students to know in 50 years?
EUs should describe the target
understanding for your
curriculum. EUs explain specific
learning goals that relate to the
corresponding Big Ideas
Enduring Understandings
1. Evolution
A: Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is
B: Organisms are linked by lines of descent from common
C: Life continues to evolve within a changing environment.
D: The origin of living systems is explained by natural processes.
So How Do You Measure A Students Understanding?
Big Idea
Evidence-Centered Design
• Claim – State the knowledge you want students to
have. Specify what students should know,
understand, and be able to do.
• Evidence – The acceptable evidence that a student
has the desired knowledge outlined in the claim?
• Task – What the student does to provide this
So what’s really so different?
Lets look at
some Old vs.
New exams
OLD: Released 2008 Multiple Choice Exam Question
The picture above represents some stages in the early development
of an embryo. In which of the stages does gastrulation begin?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5
So How Do You Measure A Students Understanding?
Big Idea 2: Biological
systems utilize free energy
and molecular building
blocks to grow, to
reproduce and to maintain
dynamic homeostasis. EU 2.E: Organisms use
feedback mechanisms to
regulate growth and
reproduction, and to
maintain dynamic
The Evidence:
includes relevant factors and processes that solve the
SP.1.4 The student can use
problem. The
problemandis about the timing and coordination of organism development.
models to analyze
Explanation situations
a claim that relates the representation to the problem and evidence
or solve
qualitatively andfactors and processes that support the claim.
from the problems
The Claim: The student can analyze biological processes
involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis
that include temporal regulation and coordination.
NEW: Multiple Choice Exam Question
The diagram below shows a developing worm embryo at the four-cell stage. Experiments have shown
that when cell 3 divides, the anterior daughter cell gives rise to muscle and gonads and the posterior
daughter cell gives rise to the intestine. However, if the cells of the embryo are separated from one
another early during the four-cell stage, no intestine will form. Other experiments have shown that if cell
3 and cell 4 are recombined after the initial separation, the posterior daughter cell of cell 3 will once
again give rise to normal intestine.
Which of the following is the most plausible
explanation for these findings?
A cell surface protein on cell 4 signals cell 3 to
induce formation of the worm’s intestine.
The plasma membrane of cell 4 interacts with the
plasma membrane of the posterior portion of
cell 3, causing invaginations that become microvilli.
Cell 3 passes an electrical signal to cell 4, which
induces differentiation in cell 4.
Cell 4 transfers genetic material to cell 3, which
directs the development of intestinal cells.
OLD: Released 2010 Free Response Exam Question
Use the information in the table below to respond to the statements and
questions that follow. Your answers should be in terms of principles of
molecular structure and intermolecular forces.
Draw the complete Lewis
electron-dot diagram for ethyne
in the appropriate cell in the table
b) Which of the four molecules
contains the shortest carbon-tocarbon bond? Explain.
So How Do You Measure A Students Understanding?
Big Idea 2: Chemical and
physical properties of
materials can be explained
EU 2.A: Matter can be
by the structure and the
described by its physical
arrangement of atoms,
properties. The physical
ions, or molecules and the
properties of
forces between them.
a substance generally
depend on the spacing
between the particles
(atoms, molecules, ions)
The student
The Evidence:
or prediction
on a diagram
that makeis
make claims and
substance and theof
physical andpredictions
a molecule.
of attraction among them.
phenomena based on
scientific theories and
or model that analyzes the
The Claim: Students can predict properties of substances
based on their chemical formulas, and provide explanations of
their properties based on particle views.
NEW: Free Response Exam Question
AP Biology Exam Updates
Organization of the New AP Biology Exam
Section 1:
 63 Multiple Choice + 6 Grid-In questions
 90 minutes
 50% of exam weight
Section 2:
 8 Free Response questions
 6 short free response questions
 2 long free response question (one is lab based)
 10 minutes required reading time + 80 minutes response time
 50% of exam weight
AP Biology Scores – 2013
% of students
AP Biology Scores – 2013
Multiple choice – 63% correct in 2012
Multiple choice – 61% correct in 2013
Okay, so who’s going to take the new AP?
Ok, but what about the NGSS?
Earth Science Standard
Performance Indicator - 1.1
Explain daily, monthly, and seasonal changes on Earth.
Major Understanding - 1.1e
Most objects in the solar system have a regular and predictable
motion. These motions explain such phenomena as a day, a
year, phases of the Moon, eclipses, tides, meteor showers, and
Question 1A - Earth Science
Example Item
During which Northern Hemisphere season is
Earth closest to the Sun?
a. spring
b. autumn
c. summer
d. winter
Next Generation Science Standards
How Do You Measure A Students Understanding?
Crosscutting concept:
Patterns can be used to
identify cause-and-effect
Disciplinary Core Idea:
The Universe and Its Stars
Patterns of the apparent
motion of the sun, the moon,
Science Practice:
and stars in the sky can be
Developing and Using
observed, described,
The Evidence:
predicted, and explained
Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–
with models.
Analyze a data 8set
and identify
of the amount of sunlight at a given location on
and progresses
to using, synthesizing,
and identified in the data are used to explain the relationship
earth (not the equator).
developing models to predict
between the tilt of
of earth and the celestial plane of earth’s orbit.
among variables between
systems and their
Performance Expectation: Develop and use a model of the Earthcomponents in the sun-moon
system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases,
and designed world(s).
eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons.
Question 1B - NGSS Example Item
1. Review the data in the table.
1. Record the pattern you observe for
each of the following in your answer
book. Include as much detail in your
description as possible.
• Time of sunrise
• Time of sunset
• Length of daylight
• The highest angle of the sun in the
3. Record any relationship you see
among the patterns you described for
Step 2.
4. Plot the daylight length vs month and the sun’s highest angle vs month and
connect the dots on your plot with a smooth curve.
Question 5 - NGSS Example Item con’t
5. Determine if the location that the data was collected is in the northern or southern
hemisphere. Use the relationship that you identified in the question #3 and the
plot that you created in question #4 to justify your answer.
Aligned ES Standards
Performance Indicator - 2.1
Use the concepts of density and heat energy to explain observations of weather
patterns, seasonal changes, and the movements of Earth’s plates.
Major Understanding – 2.1t and 2.1u
2.1t Natural agents of erosion, generally driven by gravity, remove, transport, and
deposit weathered rock particles. Each agent of erosion produces distinctive changes
in the material that it transports and creates characteristic surface features and
landscapes. In certain erosional situations, loss of property, personal injury, and loss of
life can be reduced by effective emergency preparedness.
2.1u The natural agents of erosion include:
• Streams (running water): Gradient, discharge, and channel shape influence a
stream’s velocity and the erosion and deposition of sediments. Sediments
transported by streams tend to become rounded as a result of abrasion. Stream
features include V-shaped valleys, deltas, flood plains, and meanders. A
watershed is the area drained by a stream and its tributaries.
Aligned ES Standards con’t
Standard 6 Interconnectedness: common themes
Key Idea 2: Models
Models are simplified representations of objects, structures, or
systems used in analysis, explanation, interpretation, or design.
For example:
• draw a simple contour map of a model landform
• design a 3-D landscape model from a contour map
• construct and interpret a profile based on an isoline map
• use flowcharts to identify rocks and minerals
Question 2A – Earth Science Example Item
(June 2010)
36. The landscape feature at
location A is best described as
(1) a sandbar
(2) an escarpment
(3) a delta
(4) a floodplain
37. Which particle of quartz
shows evidence of being
transported the farthest
distance by the stream?
What is this Item measuring?
Claim/Performance Expectation: What is this item testing?
The Evidence: What is the evidence that a student would show that they
know/understand this claim?
Crosscutting concept:
Stability and Change
Change and rates of
change can be quantified
and modeled over very
Disciplinary Core Idea:
short or very long periods
Earth Materials and
of time. Some system
changes are irreversible.
Earth’s systems, being
dynamic and interacting,
Science Practice:
cause feedback effects that
and Using
The Evidence:
identify surface processes that shape continental
Modeling in 9–12 builds the
original changes.
features. Surface
include weathering, volcanism, tectonic uplift, or mass
and progresses
using, synthesizing, and
wasting. developing
models to predict
and show relationships among
variables between systems and
their components in the
Performance Expectation: Develop a model to illustrate how
natural and designed world(s).
Earth’s internal and surface processes operate at different spatial
and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features.
Question 2B - NGSS Example Item
Use the locations represented by the letters S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, & Z on the diagram
to answer questions 1-3 (letters can be used more than once and it is possible that
a question can include more than one letter):
1. At which location(s) would you
find more deposition?
2. At which location(s) would you
find more erosion?
3. At which location would you find
the fastest moving water?
Question 7 - NGSS Example Item con’t
4. If a stream is moving at a rate of 2.5 m/sec, how far will a suspended particle
move in 230 seconds?
5. Compared to the stream in the previous question, how much farther would a
suspended particle be after 230 seconds if the stream moved at a rate of 15
Diagram 2: Increased rate of stream
6. If this increase in the rate of the
stream were to happen, how might
the diagram change? Use the
space provided to redraw the
For more information please contact:
Christopher C. Lazzaro
Director of Science Education
Research & Development
The College Board
45 Columbus Avenue
New York, NY 10023-6992
f: 212.649.8427
[email protected]
Thank you!!