Unit 7 part 1 - GREEK help at LSU

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Transcript Unit 7 part 1 - GREEK help at LSU

Ancient Greek for Everyone: A New Digital Resource for Beginning Greek

Unit 7: Introduction to ω verbs

2013 edition Wilfred E. Major [email protected]

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This class

• •

AGE Unit 7: Introduction to ω

This unit introduces ω verbs,

verbs

but first: Review Greek verbs from Unit 2.

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• From Unit 2: A Greek verb by itself usually communicates FIVE pieces of information: – Person – – – – Number Tense Mood Voice

PARSING

: To “parse” a Greek verb means to identify the above five qualities about a specific verb form.

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• • From Unit 2:

Building a Greek verb

To begin building a Greek verb, start with the “stem.” The stem tells you what action the verb describes: δεικ = “ show ”

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• • • • From Unit 2:

Building a Greek verb

All the verbs in this unit are in the present tense . So the stem needs a marker that says the verb is in the present tense . Adding a ν - to the stem typically marks a verb as in the present tense . It will be easier to pronounce this verb by adding – νυ –.

So now the stem looks (and sounds) like this: – δεικ νυ = “show” (in the present)

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• • • From Unit 2:

Building a Greek verb

So now the verb is in the present tense. The most common

mood

of Greek verbs is the

indicative

(which means the action is real). This is also effectively the default mood for verbs. All the verbs in this unit are in the

active voice

, so the following verb forms are – – – Present tense Indicative mood Active voice

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• From Unit 2:

Building a Greek verb

To indicate

person

and

number

, the verb needs distinct endings, which are as follows: • • • -

μι

= I (1 st person singular) -

μεν

= we (1 st person plural) -

ς

= you (2 nd person singular) -

τε

= y’all (2 nd person plural) -

σι

= (s)he, it (3 rd person sing) -

ασι

= they (3 rd person plural)

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• • • δείκνυ μι – I show, am showing, do show. δείκνυ ς – You show, are showing, do show. δείκνυ σι – (S)he/it shows, is showing, does show. • • • δείκνυ μεν – We show, are showing, do show. δείκνυ τε – Y’all show, are showing, do show. δεικνύ ασι – They show, are showing, do show.

Building a Greek Verb

The Present Indicative Active of δείκνυμι

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• • • • From Unit 2: The second most common

mood

of Greek verbs is the

infinitive

(which refers to the action without person, number or tense, so it needs only a single ending). The ending –

ναι

signals the verb is in the infinitive . δεικνύ – ναι “show” in the infinitive mood (mode) This form is the present, infinitive, active .

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• •

Conjugating a Greek verb

The Latin verb

conjugare

means “join together” and from this verb “ conjugate ” means to join a verb stem together with its endings. Thus conjugating the present indicative active of a Greek verb means saying or writing out all the forms in the present indicative active.

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• •

Conjugating a Greek verb

From the practice of conjugating verbs, we can speak of a “ conjugation .” A conjugation is simply a set of verbs that all use the same endings. You can think of a conjugation as a verb family or verb type. Greek has two conjugations . They are named and identified by the 1 st person singular present active indicative ending that they use.

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• •

Conjugating a Greek verb

All the verbs so far use the 1 st person singular present active indicative ending μι , so they are known as “ μι verbs.” This is one conjugation . This unit introduces the other “ ω conjugation verbs,” because they use the 1 st , known as person singular present active indicative ending ω .

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• • •

Conjugating a Greek verb

Greek has two conjugations : – μι verbs – ω verbs Both conjugations build and parse the same way. They just use somewhat different endings to designate person and number. These two conjugations are not totally separate. Once all the tenses (past, present and future) are reckoned, all Greek verbs in fact use a blend of the two conjugations.

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• •

Building a Greek verb

Remember that, to begin building a Greek verb, start with the “stem.” The stem tells you what action the verb describes: δεικ = “ show ” λυ = “ loosen , destroy ” λαβ = “ take ”

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• • •

Building a Greek verb

All verb’s ending. This buffer is a vowel sound called the “ ω verbs have a sort of buffer sound just before the thematic vowel .” μι verbs do not have this vowel. This “ thematic vowel ” blends with the verb ending in a stable, consistent way, so you actually learn the thematic vowel and the verb ending combination together. The thematic vowel keeps the verb ending stable. Recall how some μι changes. ω verbs change vowel lengths or make other verbs are not susceptible to these types of changes because of the thematic vowel .

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• From Unit 2:

Building a Greek verb

Recall that almost all the verb forms so far are – – – Present tense Indicative mood Active voice

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Building a Greek verb

To indicate

person

and

number

, ω verbs need distinct endings, which are as follows: • • • -

ω

= I (1 st person singular) -

ομεν

= we (1 st person plural) -

εις

= you (2 nd person singular) -

ετε

= y’all (2 nd person plural) -

ει

= (s)he, it (3 rd person sing) -

ουσι

= they (3 rd person plural)

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Building a Greek verb

To indicate

person

and

number

, ω verbs need distinct endings, which are as follows: • • • -

ω

= I (1 st person singular) -

ομεν

= we (1 st person plural) -

εις

= you (2 nd person singular) -

ετε

= y’all (2 nd person plural) -

ει

= (s)he, it (3 rd person sing) -

ουσι

= they (3 rd person plural) • Notice that the thematic vowel is an “ o ” sound in the 1 st (singular and plural) and the 3 rd person person plural, but an “ e ” sound in the 2 nd person (singular and plural) and the 3 rd person singular.

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• • • λύ ω – I loosen, destroy. λύ εις – You loosen, destroy. λύ ει – (S)he/it loosens, destroy. • • • λύ ομεν – We loosen, destroy. λύ ετε – Y’all loosen, destroy. λύ ουσι – They loosen, destroy.

Building a Greek Verb

The Present Indicative Active of λύω

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• • • The ending –

ειν

signals that an ω verb is in the infinitive . λύ

ειν

– “ loosen , destroy ” in the infinitive mood (mode) This form is the present, infinitive, active .

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• Spell it Like It Sounds!

Remember: A word ending in

σι

can add a final

ν

(“nu-movable”) to make pronunciation easier: – – For example, εἴκοσι εἶσι  εἴκοσιν εἶσιν . This added

ν

pronunciation. has no meaning; it simply helps – For the verb λύω , this means λύ ουσι can appear as λύ ουσιν . It does not affect the parsing, meaning or translation.

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• From Unit 2:

Placing the accent:

– On most Greek words, the “ recessive ” rule determines the placement of the accent. This means: – If the last syllable of the word contains a single short vowel , the accent “ recedes ” two syllables: – δίδοτε – It can recede only to the last short vowel sound of this syllable (never to the first part), so the accent appears as an acute (“/”): – ἄνθρωπος , δώσετε (= δοόσετε )

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• From Unit 2:

Placing the accent:

– On most Greek words, the “ recessive ” rule determines the placement of the accent. This means: – If the word has only two syllables and the last syllable of the word contains a single short vowel , the accent “ recedes ” to the first syllable: – δότε – – or the first part of a long vowel sound: δῶρον (= δόορον )

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• From Unit 2:

Placing the accent:

– On most Greek words, the “ recessive ” rule determines the placement of the accent. This means: – If the last syllable of the word contains a long vowel sound , the accent “ recedes ” only one syllable: – διδότω . – It can recede only to the second part of this syllable, so the accent always appears as an acute (“/”): – παραδώσω (= παραδοόσω = παραδοόσοο )

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• • – – – –

VOCABULARY

: Although a Greek verb can morph into many different forms, it is listed in a dictionary (Greek “lexicon”) under just one form: – First person Singular Present Indicative Active For example: λύω set free, destroy λαμβάνω take

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• • • • • • • • • •

Unit 7 part 1 Vocabulary: Classical

ἀκούω hear βουλεύω deliberate, resolve θύω sacrifice κελεύω order κωλύω prevent λύω loosen, destroy παύω stop πιστεύω trust, rely on, believe in πορεύω carry; (mid.) go, march φύω produce

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Unit 7 part 1 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament)

ἀκούω hear ἀπολύω release, divorce, forgive θεραπεύω heal, serve κλαίω cry out λύω loosen, destroy περισσεύω be left over, increase, exceed πιστεύω trust, rely on, believe in

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• • • •

Building a Greek verb

All the verbs so far are in the present tense . Like some μι verbs, some ω verbs have a specific marker to indicate that the verb is in the present tense . As for μι verbs, adding a ν - to the stem typically marks a verb as in the present tense . To make a verb easier to pronounce, the stem often adds – αν – rather than – ν – by itself. For example, this stem looks (and sounds) like this: – λαβ = “ take ”  λαμβαν = “ take ” (in the present)

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• • • λαμβάν ω – I take. λαμβάν εις – You take. λαμβάν ει – (S)he/it takes. • • • λαμβάν ομεν – We take. λαμβάν ετε – Y’all take. λαμβάν ουσι – They take.

Building a Greek Verb

The Present Indicative Active of λαμβάνω

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• • • The ending –

ειν

signals that an ω verb is in the infinitive . λαμβάν

ειν

– “ take ” in the infinitive mood (mode) This form is the present, infinitive, active .

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• • • •

Unit 7 part 1 Vocabulary: Classical

ἁμαρτ  ἁμαρτάνω miss, fail, make a mistake βη –  βαίνω walk, come, go συμβαίνω happen, agree, result ἐλα  λαβ  ἐλαύνω drive λαμβάνω take, grab; receive, get – καταλαμβάνω seize, catch up to, arrest – ὑπολαμβάνω take up, reply, suppose

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• • • • •

Unit 7 part 1 Vocabulary: Classical

λαθ  μαθ  λανθάνω escape notice of; (mid.) forget μανθάνω learn πι  τεμ  πίνω drink τέμνω cut τυχ  τυγχάνω happen to (+part.), meet (+gen)

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• • • • • •

Unit 7 part 1 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament)

ἁμαρτ  ἁμαρτάνω miss, fail, make a mistake ἀνα + βη κατα + βη   ἀναβαίνω walk up, go aboard, enter καταβαίνω walk down, descend λαβ παρα  λαμβάνω take, grab; receive, get + λαβ  παραλαμβάνω take, receive, accept πι  πίνω drink

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• • • • •

Building a Greek verb

All the verbs so far are in the present tense . Like some μι verbs, some ω verbs have a specific marker to indicate that the verb is in the present tense . Another such marker is σκ -.

Some of these verbs, as do some μι verbs, duplicate the initial sound of the stem in the present tense. For example, this stem looks (and sounds) like this: γνω = “ know ”  γιγνωσκ = “ know ” (in the present)

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• • • • • •

Unit 7 part 1 Vocabulary: Classical

θαν  θνήσκω or ἀποθνῄσχω die γνω διδαχ  γιγνώσκω know  διδάσκω teach εὑρ  μνη  εὑρίσκω find μιμνήσκω remind παθ  πάσχω suffer, experience

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• • • • •

Unit 7 part 1 Vocabulary: NT (New Testament)

θαν  ἀποθνῄσχω die γνω –  γινώσκω ἀναγινώσκω read know, recognize, understand – ἐπιγινώσκω know, recognize, understand διδαχ εὑρ   διδάσκω teach εὑρίσκω find παθ  πάσχω suffer, experience Note: Classical γιγνώσκω becomes γινώσκω in Koine Greek.

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Unit 7 part 1 Vocabulary: Core

ἀκούω hear ἁμαρτάνω miss, fail, make a mistake ἀποθνῄσχω die βαίνω walk, come, go γι ( γ ) νώσκω know, recognize, understand διδάσκω teach εὑρίσκω find

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Unit 7 part 1 Vocabulary: Core

λαμβάνω take, grab; receive, get λύω loosen, destroy πάσχω suffer, experience πίνω drink πιστεύω trust, rely on, believe in