#### Transcript AP Review - Research Methods

Research Methods Review AP Psychology Research Methods Empirical investigation = observation Scientific method Hypothesis If A, then B Random sample and random assignment Control group Replicate Research Methods Controlled Experiment Establishes cause and effect relationships Dependent variable Independent variable Operational definitions Example anxiety: Asking people how anxious they are feeling, Measuring their physiological response, and Observing their behavior, especially their escape and avoidance behavior. Research Methods Inferential statistics Representative sample Significant difference – scores are not due to chance t test p ≤ .o5 Research Methods 0.02 0.06 0.20 0.001 0.04 0.05 0.006 Research Methods Non-experimental studies (ex post facto) Correlation studies Does not imply cause and effect Correlation helps predict Correlation Correlation Correlation Correlation Research Methods Measures of Central Tendency Mode (occurs the most) Mean (arithmetic average) Median (middle score) Research Methods Measures of Variability Range (highest score – lowest score) Standard deviation Normal Curve If you score 130 on a IQ test what percentile are you in? In an experiment, the variable that is manipulated is called the ___________ variable. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. control Independent dependent extaneous confounding 0% 1 0% 2 0% 3 0% 0% 4 5 Dexter works for a magazine and is told by his editor to write an article on test scores in the local elementary school. He divides the students into groups based on grade level. He then examines the local test scores. In his study, the independent variable is the… 79% 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. School the students attend Grade level of the students Income level of the parents Gender of the students Test scores of the students 11% 5% 5% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 Dexter works for a magazine and is told by his editor to write an article on test scores in the local elementary school. He divides the students into groups based on grade level. He then examines the local test scores. In this study, the dependent variable is the…. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 47% School the students attend Grade level of the students Income level of the parents Gender of the students Test scores of the students 29% 12% 6% 1 6% 2 3 4 5 Professor Ripken is interested in studying children’s social behaviors. To do this, he visits a preschool and carefully monitors and records the children's behaviors. Professor Ripken is engaged in what type of research. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Survey research Naturalistic observation Case study Experimental research Longitudinal study 75% 10% 5% 1 5% 2 3 5% 4 5 What type of research design would be used to study whether happy people are healthier 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Correlational Experimental Behavioral Sociocultrual Longitudinal 67% 24% 5% 5% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 The type of bias that lead observers to expect certain outcomes is called _________ bias. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 79% Confirmation Expectancy Personal Hindsight Selection 5% 1 5% 2 3 5% 5% 4 5 The _________ approves research done buy psychologists at most universities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Watchdog committee Ethics Review Board Research committee Institutional review board (IRB) Research review board 53% 26% 11% 5% 1 2 3 5% 4 5 Rupert wants to learn whether men or women are better drivers. To determine this, he decides that he will measure driving ability by examining the number of tickets that people have been received. Thus, he is using the number of tickets as the basis of the ____________. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Control group Theory of good driving Independent variable Operational definition Experimental Group 55% 25% 10% 10% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 Jason is studying visualization in high school athletes. He recruits participants from football, baseball, and gymnastics at a local high school. He also recruits participants from teenagers at the mall who report sport participation. His population of interest is _____________. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Teen at the mall All teens in the town Teen Athletes Baseball Players Football players 0% 1 0% 2 0% 3 0% 0% 4 5 Deception is allowed by the APA Code of Ethics if ______________. 1. The problem being studied is really important 2. The participants are thoroughly debriefed 3. The researcher is confident about his or her study 4. No substantial risk is likely to happen to participants 5. This study is replicating a previously completed study 0% 1 0% 2 0% 3 0% 0% 4 5 Which of the following is a question that science cannot answer? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Why do bad things happen to good people? Why do fruits go rotten in the refrigerator? Which teaching method is most effective? Which music is more popular: rap or country? Which diet is most effective in weight loss? 0% 1 0% 2 0% 3 0% 4 0% 5 Cory scored high on a test of mathematics. He also scored high on a test of engineering. If we run a correlation on his scores, the correlation would be ______________. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Perfect Positive Negative Skewed Nonexistent 0% 1 0% 2 0% 3 0% 4 0% 5 Yan found a statistically significant difference in his research results. Yan used _____________ statistics to find this difference. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Correlation Descriptive Inferential Distributed Deviation 0% 1 0% 2 0% 3 0% 0% 4 5 Luis conducted a study of the attitudes and saving behavior. He followed 100 participants for 10 years. Luis conducted a _____ study. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Longitudinal Ex-post facto Experimental Cross-sectional Cross-sequential 0% 1 0% 2 0% 3 0% 0% 4 5 Which of the following correlation coefficients most likely represents the relationship between length of sleep deprivation and level of alertness? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1.35 0.85 0.01 -1.25 -0.4 0% 0% 0% 1. 2. 3. 0% 0% 4. 5.