AP Review - Research Methods

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Transcript AP Review - Research Methods

Research Methods
Review
AP Psychology
Research Methods
 Empirical investigation = observation
 Scientific method
 Hypothesis
 If A, then B
 Random sample and random assignment
 Control group
 Replicate
Research Methods
 Controlled Experiment
 Establishes cause and effect relationships
 Dependent variable
 Independent variable
 Operational definitions
 Example anxiety:
 Asking people how anxious they are feeling,
 Measuring their physiological response, and
 Observing their behavior, especially their escape
and avoidance behavior.
Research Methods
 Inferential statistics
 Representative sample
 Significant difference – scores are not due
to chance
 t test
 p ≤ .o5
Research Methods
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0.02
0.06
0.20
0.001
0.04
0.05
0.006
Research Methods
 Non-experimental studies (ex post facto)
 Correlation studies
 Does not imply cause and effect
 Correlation helps predict
Correlation
Correlation
Correlation
Correlation
Research Methods
 Measures of Central Tendency
 Mode (occurs the most)
 Mean (arithmetic average)
 Median (middle score)
Research Methods
 Measures of Variability
 Range (highest score – lowest score)
 Standard deviation
Normal Curve
If you score 130 on a IQ
test what percentile are
you in?
In an experiment, the variable that is manipulated is called the
___________ variable.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
control
Independent
dependent
extaneous
confounding
0%
1
0%
2
0%
3
0%
0%
4
5
Dexter works for a magazine and is told by his editor to write an article
on test scores in the local elementary school. He divides the students
into groups based on grade level. He then examines the local test
scores. In his study, the independent variable is the…
79%
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
School the students attend
Grade level of the students
Income level of the parents
Gender of the students
Test scores of the students
11%
5%
5%
0%
1
2
3
4
5
Dexter works for a magazine and is told by his editor to write an article
on test scores in the local elementary school. He divides the students
into groups based on grade level. He then examines the local test
scores. In this study, the dependent variable is the….
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
47%
School the students attend
Grade level of the students
Income level of the parents
Gender of the students
Test scores of the students
29%
12%
6%
1
6%
2
3
4
5
Professor Ripken is interested in studying children’s social behaviors. To
do this, he visits a preschool and carefully monitors and records the
children's behaviors. Professor Ripken is engaged in what type of
research.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Survey research
Naturalistic observation
Case study
Experimental research
Longitudinal study
75%
10%
5%
1
5%
2
3
5%
4
5
What type of research design would be used to study whether
happy people are healthier
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Correlational
Experimental
Behavioral
Sociocultrual
Longitudinal
67%
24%
5%
5%
0%
1
2
3
4
5
The type of bias that lead observers to expect certain outcomes
is called _________ bias.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
79%
Confirmation
Expectancy
Personal
Hindsight
Selection
5%
1
5%
2
3
5%
5%
4
5
The _________ approves research done buy psychologists at
most universities
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Watchdog committee
Ethics Review Board
Research committee
Institutional review board (IRB)
Research review board
53%
26%
11%
5%
1
2
3
5%
4
5
Rupert wants to learn whether men or women are better drivers. To
determine this, he decides that he will measure driving ability by
examining the number of tickets that people have been received. Thus,
he is using the number of tickets as the basis of the ____________.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Control group
Theory of good driving
Independent variable
Operational definition
Experimental Group
55%
25%
10%
10%
0%
1
2
3
4
5
Jason is studying visualization in high school athletes. He recruits
participants from football, baseball, and gymnastics at a local high
school. He also recruits participants from teenagers at the mall who
report sport participation. His population of interest is
_____________.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Teen at the mall
All teens in the town
Teen Athletes
Baseball Players
Football players
0%
1
0%
2
0%
3
0%
0%
4
5
Deception is allowed by the APA Code of Ethics if ______________.
1. The problem being studied is
really important
2. The participants are thoroughly
debriefed
3. The researcher is confident
about his or her study
4. No substantial risk is likely to
happen to participants
5. This study is replicating a
previously completed study
0%
1
0%
2
0%
3
0%
0%
4
5
Which of the following is a question that science cannot answer?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Why do bad things happen to good
people?
Why do fruits go rotten in the
refrigerator?
Which teaching method is most
effective?
Which music is more popular: rap
or country?
Which diet is most effective in
weight loss?
0%
1
0%
2
0%
3
0%
4
0%
5
Cory scored high on a test of mathematics. He also scored high on a
test of engineering. If we run a correlation on his scores, the
correlation would be ______________.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Perfect
Positive
Negative
Skewed
Nonexistent
0%
1
0%
2
0%
3
0%
4
0%
5
Yan found a statistically significant difference in his research
results. Yan used _____________ statistics to find this
difference.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Correlation
Descriptive
Inferential
Distributed
Deviation
0%
1
0%
2
0%
3
0%
0%
4
5
Luis conducted a study of the attitudes and saving behavior. He
followed 100 participants for 10 years. Luis conducted a _____ study.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Longitudinal
Ex-post facto
Experimental
Cross-sectional
Cross-sequential
0%
1
0%
2
0%
3
0%
0%
4
5
Which of the following correlation coefficients most likely represents
the relationship between length of sleep deprivation and level of
alertness?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1.35
0.85
0.01
-1.25
-0.4
0%
0%
0%
1.
2.
3.
0%
0%
4.
5.