Human Body System - Life Science Academy

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Transcript Human Body System - Life Science Academy

8/16/2013

Unit one

1

 Essential Questions  As we discuss an essential question, write it down in your journal  Keep notes on the question throughout the unit  Each question gets a separate page!

 Key term crossword puzzle  As we discuss key terms, write down the definition in your journal  As you have time, go back and fill in the crossword  Not during other activities !

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 What is a system?

 What is an example of a non-living system?

 How does a malfunction in one part affect the whole system?

 Give a few examples of how human body systems work together.

 Name the eleven human body systems 8/16/2013 3

 Name the eleven human body systems  Integumentary system,  Skeletal system,  Muscular system,  Nervous system,  Endocrine system,  Cardiovascular system,  Lymphatic system and immunity,  Respiratory system,  Digestive system,  Urinary system,  Reproductive system 8/16/2013 4

 Split into groups of two or three  Students will randomly draw a system  Your Group assignment is to focus on and find “Amazing Facts” about that system, and at least two “Amazing Facts” about another systems your group choses to investigate.

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   By donating one pint of blood 4 lives can be saved The human heart beats roughly 35 million times a year It is not possible to tickle yourself because your brain warns the rest of the body and by doing so your brain will ignore this sensation 8/16/2013 6

 Essential Questions  As we discuss an essential question, write it down in your journal  Keep notes on the question throughout the unit  Each question gets a separate page!

 Key term crossword puzzle  As we discuss key terms, write down the definition in your journal  As you have time, go back and fill in the crossword  Not during other activities !

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 Activity 1.1.1. Amazing Facts  List the major organs in your system  Discuss top five Amazing Facts found  Think about how your Primary System can act like a Secondary System

      The pelvis bone is the largest bone in the human body.

Did you know that bones are actually living?

Our bones when healthy are strong as steel and 4 times as hard as concrete.

Did you know, we are taller in the morning than at night.

Did you know, there are six different types; wide, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid, sutural.

Did you know when we are born you can have up to 350 bones but when you’re an adult you have 206 about 2 million blood cells die every second and the same amount is born the heart beats about 3 billion times in a life time Andrew McIntosh Akeel Kalik 8/16/2013 9

       The endocrine system is responsible for producing thirty different hormones.

Produces the pineal gland which allows you to sleep.

Has no ducts, so hormones are secreted directly into the blood.

Regulates the menstrual cycle.

When you experience rushes of fear, that is a result of the epinephrine hormone.

Aids the immune system by helping the body resist disease.

Produces hormone in the hypothalamus that produces the hunger sensation so you don’t starve.

Digestive system  All organs are hollow    Inner walls of organs are lined with mucus Eric Schwender Tyler White 10

o o o o o o o There are muscles in the root of your hair that give you goose bumps It takes 17 muscles to smile and 42 muscles to frown The largest muscle in your body is the gluteus maximus The smallest muscle in your body is in the ear, the Stapedius The longest muscle is the Sartorius 200 muscles are used in each step you take Muscles account for about 40% of your body weight o o o Respiratory System The highest recorded “sneezing speed” is 165km per hour We lose half a liter of water every day through breathing o o Nathan Emery Makailah Cecil 8/16/2013 11

          Studies show that people who lack humor in their lives tend to have less protective immune responses Too much sunshine can damage the immune system Lymph nodes are not found in the feet Allergies are due to an overreaction in the immune system Autoimmune disease is more prominent in women Lymphatic comes from the Latin word lymphaticus, which means “connected to water” , because lymph is clear Tonsillectomies occur much less frequently than in the 50s, but are still one of the most popular operations today Lymph, unlike blood, can only travel in 1D In today’s world, humans encounter more toxins in 24hrs than the lymphatic system can process Dieting decreases natural killer cell functionality   Digestive System  >90% of digestion takes place in the small intestine  The liver is the largest organ and performs >500 functions Lucy Kurtz and Emily Linn 8/16/2013 12

• • • • • • • • • • Urine can be diluted and used for watering plants The bladder can hold about one pint About 440 gallons of blood are filtered through the kidneys daily The kidneys have higher blood flow than the brain, liver, or heart A baby’s kidneys are about 3 times larger in proportion to their body weight Urine can be used to soften the skin and whiten the teeth Muscles in the ureter walls are constantly flexing to force liquid out of the kidneys In infants and children, the bladder is located in the abdomen and moves to the pelvis at about age 6 Urine is released into the bladder about every 10 seconds The kidneys are about the size of a fist Nervous System  The brain has more than 100 billion neurons  The nervous system can transmit signals at over 100 meters per second   Elaine Leslie Alek Blandford 8/16/2013 13

          The heart beats about 3 billion times in the average persons lifespan About 8 million blood cells die each second and the same number are reborn each second Within a drop of blood there are 5 million red blood cells It takes about 20 seconds for a red blood cells to circle the whole body Red blood cells make about 250,000 round trips of the body before returning to the bone marrow to die Red blood cells may live for 4 months circulating the body, feeding the other 60 trillion cells Plasma is 54.3% of blood volume Blood regulates core temperature and pH balance About .7% of the blood is white blood cells About 2,000 gallons of blood are pumped through the heart every day      Digestive system About 1.7 liters of saliva is produced every day An adults stomach can hold about 1 and a half liters Within 2-6 hours all the food is emptied into the small intestine Makayla Claiborne and Dakota Edgell 8/16/2013 14

        There are more nerves in the human brain than there are stars in the Milky Way There are 100 billion neurons in your brain alone A new born baby’s brain grows almost 3 times larger during the course of its first year There are about 13.5 million neurons in the spinal cord An average adult male brain weighs about 1375 grams Only 4 percent of the brain’s cells work while the remaining cells are kept in reserve Neurons are the largest cells in the body (they can be up to 3 feet long.) The Nervous System can transmit impulses as fast as 100 meter per second    Muscular System  1. 17 muscles to smile and 42 muscles to frown  2. The hardest working muscle is in the eye Cole Tapp Kanyon Tapp 8/16/2013 15

1. In what ways do the parts of the human body system work together to carry out a specific function?

2. In what ways do different human body systems work together to complete specific functions?

       1. In what ways do the parts of the human body system work together to carry out a specific function?

The different parts of the urinary system are the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. These are examples of the different parts of the system working together to carry out a function of the excretory system. They work together to carry out filtering wastes and purifying the blood and ridding the body of the precise volume of fluid. The integumentary system is your body's first line of defense to protect the body from sun damage, temperature regulation, pathogens entry, fluid loss, and protection of underlying tissues. It also protects the body by housing the millions of nerves that warn the body of pain or injury, heat or cold, pleasure or touch. The different parts of the skeletal system such as bone and cartridge work together to carry out the various specific function of supporting, padding, protecting and providing shape to the body. Various organs of the endocrine system produce and release hormones into the bloodstream to regulate, stimulate of suppress an active.

The different parts of the CV system, (the heart, vessels, blood) all work together to deliver blood to the different parts of your body. The nose or mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea bronchi, alveoli, and the lungs, are parts of the respiratory system that work together to carry out a specific function of respiration. 8/16/2013 17

      2 In what ways do different human body systems work together to complete specific functions?

The integumentary system and the nervous system work together to relay messages to the brain. They are interconnected to complete specific functions of protection, warning of danger, or pleasurable touch. The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system also work together to carry out multiple functions such as the fight or flight response. The central nervous system includes the spinal cord and the brain, which gets the information from the body and sends out instructions. The peripheral nervous system includes all of the nerves and sends messages from the brain to the rest of the body.

The excretory system, the cardiovascular system, the GI system and the endocrine system all play an important part and work together to complete the specific functions of waste removal and fluid balance. The skeletal system and the muscular system work together to provide body posture, movement of the body such as jumping , running, or walking, or just changing your position that the nervous system told the body that it is time to move to prevent damage to cells from prolong pressure. The cardiovascular system and respiratory system work together to supply the body with blood for oxygenation and nutrition to the cells . 8/16/2013 18

 How do you give someone directions?  How do you explain location or directions on the human body?

 Equipment  Manikins  Post-it Flags  Colored Pencils  Documents  Activity 1.1.2

 Adoption Certificates  Body Organizer  Crossword Puzzle

    

Assemble Manikin Name your Manikin-place your manikin’s name on the base Complete Adoption Certificates Always store manikins in there proper place All Manikins look the same now but will soon take on their own personalities

.

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   Pair Up Brainstorm Complete Activity 1.1.2

3.

How can directional terms and regional terms help describe location in the body?

4.

What features of structure and function are common to all humans?

 1. What are the benefits of using universal terms and anatomical position to refer to location on the human body? How do they help identify all humans?  2. What does it mean if a doctor says he/she is about to dissect the distal end of the popliteal artery?

 3. Your friend assures you that anterior and posterior can always be used interchangeably with ventral and dorsal. Politely explain to him/her that this statement is not always true. (HINT: think about what these terms mean for four-legged animals)

Simon Says

The basic processes of the human body unite us as humans, but tiny differences in our

appearance,

our tissues

and our cells

make us truly unique

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        

Manikins Clay &Clay tools Colored Pencils Lab Journals Microscope Tissue Slides Body System Organizer -Skeletal View Copies of Activity 1.2.1 Microscope Resource Sheet Inspriation

For windows, go to this link,  http://download.inspiration.com/download/wi ndows/inspiration9_win_cd.exe For Macintosh go to this link,  http://download.inspiration.com/download/m ac/inspiration9_mac_cd.dmg  14-digit subscription license: 2633D1237J9601

 When you think of human identity, what comes to mind  At the beginning of the week we systems and on organ structures that are common to all humans.  Over the year we will be looking at process that occurs in all of our bodies.  But what makes us special?

Systems

Organs

Tissues

  Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure that work together to perform a specific function. There are four main tissue types:  Epithelium  Connective tissue  Muscle  Nervous tissue

  Epithelium, or epithelial tissue, forms the linings, coverings, and glandular tissue of the body.  One type of epithelium forms the outer layer of the skin   Another type of epithelium lines the air sacs of the lungs Cells in epithelium are packed tightly together to form continuous sheets

   Connective tissue protects, supports, and binds together other body tissues. Connective tissue is made up of different types of cells in varying amounts of a nonliving substance around the cells, called the matrix. Examples of connective tissue include:  Bone  Cartilage  Adipose tissue (fat)  Blood

  Muscle tissue is specialized to contract and cause movement.

There are three main types of muscle tissue:  Skeletal muscle  Cardiac muscle   Smooth muscle Can you guess the location and function of each muscle type?

  Nervous tissue is composed of specialized cells called neurons that receive and send electrical signals in the body.

Nervous tissue responds to stimuli and transmits impulses and together with supporting cells, makes up the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

1.

What are the main types of tissue in the human body?

2.

How does the structure of a type of human tissue relate to its function in the body?

      Pair up Complete Part 1 only Concept Map View prepared slides Link for more slide views

http://histology.osumc.edu/histology/Hum anHisto/index.htm#

 Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is an inherited connective tissue disease causing blisters in the skin and mucosal membranes, with an incidence of 1/50,000. It is a result of a defect in anchoring between the epidermis and dermis, resulting in friction and skin fragility. Its severity ranges from mild to lethal.

 "Butterfly Children" is a term often used to describe younger patients (because the skin is said to be as fragile as a butterfly’s wings [2] , "Cotton Wool Babies,",[3][4] or (in South America) as "Crystal Skin Children".[5]  http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=epidermolysis+bul losa&qpvt=epidermolysis+bullosa&FORM=IGRE 8/16/2013 40

 Facial features  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h_HaJT7 OVIQ&feature=player_detailpage

 1.1.1 Activity with conclusion questions . body system organizer with Top 5 amazing facts ,   1.1.2 Activity , with conclusion questions 2 Body system organizer with regional and directional terms, CWpuzzle p  1.2.1 Activity Identity, with conclusion questions Concept map,      Thing that should be in your lab journal Essential Question 1-4 Sentences that show directional terms, Microscope tissue drawings) essential questions, 1 8/16/2013 42

 Complete through question 15  Discuss proper use of clay and tools and Manikin Rules  Let’s create a face  Using Teacher Building Instructions  Compare Manikins

Adipose tissue- Connective tissue in which fat is stored and which has the cells distended by droplets of fat  Connective Tissue- Animal tissue that functions mainly to bind and support other tissues, having a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix  Epithelial Tissue- Sheets of tightly packed cells that line organs and body cavities  Tissue- An integrated group of cells with a common structure and function

 #3 How does the distribution and structure of different types of tissue in the body contribute to personal identity.

 #4 “What are the functions of the human skeletal system?”

 Remember bones are type connective tissue  What do you know about the skeletal system  Name this bone

    Computer with internet Anatomy in Clay Maniken Body System graphic Organizer (Skeletal View) Colored pencils 8/16/2013 47

 Research the listed bones  Label you Manikins  Quiz yourself/partner

 #5 “What are the main bones of the human skeletal system”

      Buccal Region of the cheek (inside the cheek between cheek and the gums) The olecranal is lateral to the axillary region The wrist is distal to the forearm Epithelial tissue lines the colon.

Smooth muscle lines the uterus, urinary bladder and blood vessels.( #10 if you chose .

bladder I will give credit) 8/16/2013 50

   Connective tissue protects, supports, and binds together other body tissues. Connective tissue is made up of different types of cells in varying amounts of a nonliving substance around the cells, called the matrix. Examples of connective tissue include:  Bone  Cartilage  Adipose tissue (fat)  Blood

 

REMEMBER

Ligament tissue is comprised of different grades of collagen, or connective tissue, to connect bone to bone within the human body  A tendon is a fibrous connective tissue which attaches muscle to bone. Tendons may also attach muscles to structures such as the eyeball 8/16/2013 52

  2 Groups of 7 on each side of the room ( One group to each skeleton) You will be trying to determine the  Age  Race  Sex  Height  2 to 3 students at each station to gather measurements of:  Skull  Femur  Pelvis  Humerus  Tibia When satisfied with measure move to the next bone and gather data.

 Then group will come back together to compare data and make a conclusion.

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 Review Learning from Bones

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/education/anthro pological/index.html

.  Read the Introduction  Career Journal- Forensic Anthropologist   Forensic Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7cogeHybySI&feature =player_detailpage  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c8IHPq9VgWI&feature =player_detailpage

 #6 What is forensic anthropology and how does the field relate to human body systems?

 #7 How can features of bone be used to determine information about a person’s gender, ethnicity, age, or stature?

 Each group will use the laminated instruction sheets to take measurements of the bone at each station  You will need Project 1.2.3 Student Data Sheet  Split into two teams  Now split into four groups

     Sept. 3 Activity 1.2.3. Bone Detectives Sept 4 th Activity 1.2.4 Height Estimation Sept 5 _ 11 Activity 1.3.1 DNA Detectives Sept 12 Review and study for test Sept 13 th Or Sept 16 th Test over Unit 1  Sept 16 th start Unit 2  8/16/2013 57

 We will determine proximal age, height, and race of our victims.

 Race and Ethnicity  Mongoloid (Asian) is an anthropological term for a group that includes Chinese, Koreans, Japanese, Tibetan, Eskimo and some Native Americans.  Negroid (Black) is a classification including Sub-Saharan African and Afro-Caribbean peoples and their descendants.  Caucasoid (White) refers to people of Anglo or Caucasian descent from Europe, parts of North Africa, Western Asia and India and their descendants.

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 forensic anthropologist, Diane France http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KcnGybzF hjM watch 10min50sec then again at 34min  Datahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kcn GybzFhjM&feature=player_detailpagehttp://  www.youtube.com/watch?v=KcnGybzFhjM&f eature=player_detailpage#t=0

 Discuss findings  Compare and discuss differences in male and female bones.  Why may the three-race model no longer be accurate  Discuss differences between Qualitative and Quantitative Data 8/16/2013 60

 Sex Determination  Race Determination  Height Determination  Age Determination 8/16/2013 61

Axial Skeleton- The skeleton of the trunk and head. Appendicular Skeleton- Bones of the limbs and limb girdles that are attached to the axial skeleton  Femur- The proximal bone of the hind or lower limb that is the longest and largest bone in the human body, extends from the hip to the knee  Forensic Anthropology- The branch of physical anthropology in which anthropological data, criteria, and techniques are used to determine the sex, age, genetic population, or ancestry of skeletal or biological materials in questions of civil or criminal law  Humerus-The longest bone of the upper arm or forelimb extending from the shoulder to the elbow 8/16/2013 62

Pelvis-A basin-shaped structure in the skeleton of many vertebrates that is formed by the pelvic girdle together with the sacrum and often various coccygeal and caudal vertebrae and that in humans is composed of the two hip bones bounding it on each side and in front while the sacrum and coccyx complete it behind  Skull- The skeleton of the head forming a bony case that encloses and protects the brain and chief sense organs and supports the jaws  Tibia- The inner and usually larger of the two bones of the leg between the knee and ankle that articulates above with the femur and below with the talus -- called also shinbone 8/16/2013 63

 Equations  In the 1950’s Dr. Trotter developed mathematical formulas that correlated body height to the length of their arm and leg bones.

 To Complete Parts I - Pair into groups of 2  You will measure your height in cm and then the femur, humerus, and radius bones in cm to use to calculate your height. ( 1 foot = 30.48 cm)  Like in criminal investigations an estimated range of height is given. Like 5’9” to 6’2”  Use the + and – formulas to get your error value for minimal and maximal height range.

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 Part II You will use a formula specific to Gender and Ethnicity. We will need data from 7 male and 7 female.  Then using an Excel file you will develop Your Own Formula.

 “How well do these equations work?” What equation was most accurate?

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 Revisited  #3 How does the distribution and structure of different types of tissue in the body contribute to personal identity.

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   Approximately 1cc of the DNA sample was taken from Skeletal remains and labeled The pieces were stored in EtOH and frozen -20°C Samples were transported to OCTC in refrigerated containers for genetic analysis 8/16/2013 67

Agarose

A polysaccharide obtained from seaweed that is used as the supporting medium in gel electrophoresis.

Biometrics

The measurement and analysis of unique physical or behavioral characteristics (as fingerprint or voice patterns) especially as a means of verifying personal identity.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell’s proteins. 8/16/2013 68

Gel electrophoresis

The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel.

Restriction enzyme

A degradative enzyme that recognizes specific nucleotide sequences and cuts up DNA.

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)

Differences in DNA sequence on homologous chromosomes that can result in different patterns of restriction fragment lengths (DNA segments resulting from treatment with restriction enzymes).

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  What level of organization comes below tissues.

CELLS Now- Figuratively zoom in on the cell and describe the genetic material found inside the cell.

 Chromosome  Gene  Protein  DNA 8/16/2013 70

List sources of DNA evidence

Skin cells

Hair

Blood

Semen

Old tissue such as bone but amplified

using Polymerase Change Reaction

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(PCR)

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 How does this genetic material inside the cell relate to overall function of the human body  Chromosome  Gene  Protein  DNA 8/16/2013 72

  Chromosomes: are 23 pairs considered the building

blocks of the human body.

They are long pieces of DNA found in the center (nucleus) of cells. Chromosomes functions are

based on the precise structure of the organelle

that carries out that function.

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  A hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA that occupies a specific location on a chromosome and

determines a particular characteristic in an organism.

Genes are the functional unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring through mitosis. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for

making a specific protein and thus cells

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    Proteins are constructed from a set of 20 amino acids like long necklaces with different shaped beads.

To become active, proteins must twist and fold into their final conformation Proteins that are donut shaped, enable them to form a complete ring around the DNA and regulate the activity of genetic material. This DNA polymerase III cinches around DNA and moves along the strands as it copies the genetic

material.

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DNA is like an architect's blueprint. Think of it as an Owner's Manual for your body.

May want to remember: DNA is made of 2 components, Phosphate molecules and deoxyribose sugars.

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   DNA is a unique code of over 3 billion base pairs that provide a genetic blueprint of an

individual.

It’s function in the human body includes coding for proteins. It holds the instructions of an organism's development and reproduction therefore its survival. It also transfers genetic messages to all other cells in the human body.

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 1.

What is the structure and function of DNA

2. How does DNA differ from person to person

3. What role does DNA play in our Identity

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taking up too much sample with the micropipettor,

taking up air in addition to the sample,

not completely expelling the sample,

sucking the sample out of the well,

poking the pipette tip through the bottom of the gel well.

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      Place a new tip on the micropipettor, being careful to not touch the tip to any surface.

Depress the plunger to the first stop and hold it in this position.

Dip the tip of the micropipettor into the top of the solution to be transferred.

Gradually release the plunger and draw the fluid into the tip, making sure to keep the tip in the solution.

Slide the pipet tip out along the inside wall of the reagent tube to dislodge any excess droplets adhering to the outside of the tip.

Check to make sure there are no air bubbles in the sample in the tip. If there are air bubbles, expel the sample using the directions below and restart procedure.

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      Insert the tip of the micropipettor into the area where you want to expel the liquid.

Slowly depress the plunger to the first stop to expel the sample and continue to depress the plunger to the second stop to ensure all of the liquid is expelled.

Hold the plunger in the depressed position.

Slide the micropipettor out with the plunger

depressed. Do not release the plunger from the depressed position to avoid sucking any liquid back into the tip.

Once the tip is out of the liquid, release the plunger.

Eject the tip into the proper disposal area by pressing down on the tip-ejector button 8/16/2013 81

    Set fake gel into casting trey Secure casting trey into chamber well- line up the notch Pour water into chamber until it fills BOTH ends and covers gel completely Micropipette  Secure tip until “click”  Set measurement and pick-up 20-35 uL of practice loading dye Don’t push all the way down 82

 Practice filling each well  Don’t poke holes in gel  Don’t create air bubbles  Keep the plunger depressed until after you have raised the micropipettor away from the gel 8/16/2013 83

   A Biochemical technique used to sequence amplify the number of copies of a specific region of DNA generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA in order to be adequately tested . Named after the enzyme, polymerase, which copies DNA in cells. It’s a chain reaction because multiple events occur in succession, over and over again in the same

sequential order.

 Each time the series of events is completed, one cycle has been completed

. Each series of events = 1 cycle

  Completed in a thermal cycler in a lab.

What are some of the uses:  Cloning  Diagnosis of hereditary diseases  Paternity testing  Diagnosis of infectious diseases  Identification of finger prints 

Forensic sciences

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1.

2.

3.

4.

DNA is obtained from the skeletal remain gene is amplified by PCR DNA is cut in specific places by the use of

restriction enzymes. The restriction enzyme recognizes specific nucleotide sequences

Restriction enzymes are derived from

and cuts DNA

Bacteria

 This detection is possible because of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism or RFLP.

 Polymorphism- “many- types” = different

lengths revealing similarity to a missing persons skeletal remains.

 Similarities in the DNA sequences of the samples are exposed when they are cut in the same place each time.

A B Restriction Enzymes Polymorphism is like a set of DNA puzzle pieces unique to only you, to create a pattern called a DNA fingerprint.

Restriction Enzymes are derived from

bacteria

with the ability to cut DNA from invading organisms such as a viruses, before the virus takes control of the cell

   The process where DNA can is separated according to size and electrical charge by applying an electric current to them. The current forces the molecules through pores in a thin layer of gel.

DNA is negatively charged so it runs toward the positive pole

  To visualize the DNA fragments and sort them according to size DNA samples are loaded into a gel and exposed to electrical currents  Fragments run through the gel at different rates  smaller = faster 8/16/2013 90

         

Gloves throughout Lab

Power source Chamber & casting trey Agarose gel with wells TAE Buffer Distilled H20 Micropipette and tips Dye Light box DNA /RFLP Samples 8/16/2013 91

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Activity 1.3.1.

Student Response Sheet

Student read Introduction

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      1. Obtain 4 micro-centrifuge tubes 2. Label tubes 1-4 Very Important to : Note the content of each tube in your lab journal. You will need to know what is in each tube. Don’t get them mixed up!!!

3. Dispense Enzyme Reaction Buffer into 4 tubes.

4 Dispense DNA and Enzymes into 4 tubes.

5. Incubate in water bath X 45 min.

6. Begin Student Resource Sheet.

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    1. Obtain your 4 tubes 2. Heat samples plus the DNA marker and DNA extracted from bone for 2 min at 65 degrees C 3. While cooling practice loading gels 4. draw diagram in lab journal Clearly indicating

which sample is in each well.

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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Place gel in trey, and tray in chamber. Be sure the wells are at the negative end of the gel and the trey is secure in the notch Fill with TAE Buffer this time, cover gel completely Fill the wells with the corresponding sample Copy table in notes!!!!

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   Don’t poke through the agarose Keep plunger depressed until after you have raised the micropipetter . To prevent the re uptake of sample out of the well, remember to keep the plunger depressed until you completely lift the micropipettor out of the gel Be sure the voltage is set at 150 and the timer is set for 15 minutes 8/16/2013 99

     Check polarity! Be sure the DNA sample is at top of the negative pole (black) and will run down toward the positive Alarm will sound after 15 minutes…check back every 2-5m if incomplete Create staining solution while you wait: 10mL of 10X Flashblue concentrate + 90mL distilled water Turn off the power supply when the dye is near the bottom edge of the gel Be careful to not allow the dye to run off the edge of the gel 8/16/2013 100

 If the polarity is backwards, the DNA will migrate out of the well and off the short end of the gel. If the mistake is caught in time, the polarity can be reversed and the DNA will migrate back into the well and then through the longer portion of the gel.

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 Often the DNA fragment bands can be observed directly after electrophoresis without further treatment. If the bands are faint or appear to be missing, the gel can be soaked in the diluted Carolina Blue dye for 30 minutes and then washed with distilled water 8/16/2013 102

The DNA fragments stained with a dye and can be observed as lines or bands in the gel when viewed on a light box.

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4.How can tools of molecular biology be used to compare the DNA of 2 individuals?

5.What are restriction enzymes?

6.What are restriction fragment length polymorphisms

?

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  Gel Electrophoresis Virtual Lab http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/lab/gel   DNA Interactive: Gel Electrophoresis http:www.dnai.org/text/mediashowcase/index2.ht

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 7

. What is gel electrophoresis and how can the results of this technique be interpreted?

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   Analyze the DNA Discuss results and conclusions Conclusion Questions 8/16/2013 108

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 Introduces Activity 1.3.2 Careers in Identity. Career Journal for Forensic Anthropologist  Distribute the Biomedical Sciences Documentation Protocol and review documentation of their sources.

 Distribute Rubric and go over grading  Students complete Activity 1.3.2 individually. 8/16/2013 110

   Gives your work credibility Allows reader to look up sources to obtain more information Citation gives credit to original author.

  Source is documented in 2 places in APA style.

1st, In the text and 2 nd at the end of document in the reference list.

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 Project 1.3.3 -Who Are You: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=pla yer_detailpage&v=Qh8SsaCWY-s   http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/20 10/oct/27/us-military-biometric-data-a Fghanistan-video (start at 2:40 time) 8/16/2013 113

 In this project you will be a team of 3 to design a security plan using biometrics for your new Client. Using:  Power Point Presentation  Oral Presentation  Answering any questions  Convince you client to buy  Brain storm: what Body systems are involved in Biometric Techniques.

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 8. How can the field of biometrics be used to verify and protect identity?  Discuss Ethical Issues in biometrics abd tge yse if biology in identity.  Discuss how DNA can be used in biometrics.  Debate how close we are to Identifying people in an instant using DNA sample.

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 Key Concepts from all 3 units.

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