Harmonic_Tremor

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Transcript Harmonic_Tremor

What’s the big fuss about Harmonic Tremor on Volcanoes?

Jonathan M. Lees New Mexico Tech, 2009

Where is it observed?

Karymsky, Kamchatka Arenal, Costa Rica Sangay, Ecuador Reventador, Ecuador Tungurahua, Ecuador *Santiaguito, Guatemala (Semeru, Merapi…others?)

Typical VT event at Mt. Merapi, Indonesia a) typical example of a VT-B type event recorded during a high activity phase at Mt. Merapi. Note that the overall frequency content is mainly between 1 — 10 Hz with a dominant frequency at roughly 3 Hz. b) zoomed out version of the same event in its three components. Whereas the P-wave arrival is clearly visible, no clear S-wave arrival can be seen. The circle marks the wavelet that has the approximate S-wave travel time for the estimated source location http://www.seismo.com/msop/nmsop/13 volcano/volcano2/volcano2.html

Low Frequency Events a) example of a LF-wave group recorded at Mt. Merapi. Clearly the dominant frequency is around 1 Hz. b) shows an example of a LF event recorded at two different sites located at Redoubt volcano, Alaska (courtesy of S. McNutt, Alaska Volcano Observatory; AVO). The spindle shaped signal is also known as Tornillo.

Harmonic tremor signal recorded at Mt. Semeru, Indonesia. Up to six overtones can be recognized starting with a fundamental mode located at roughly 0.8 Hz.

Typical Karymsky Chugging Event, 1997 Initial explosion Chugging Acoustic Vertical North-South East-West

Simple Harmonic Motion Sinusoid : 5 Hz (sample rate = 0.001)

Sinusoids with 4 frequencies, 5,10, 15, 20

Ten harmonics, 5 through 50 Hz

10 Random Frequencies

10 frequencies around the harmonics randomly perturbed

10 frequencies around harmonics with slight perturbation

Harmonic Tremor

• •

Common on Volcanoes Provides Constraints for Conduits:

• Geometry • Composition • • Density Visco-elastic parameters

Many researchers have contributed to the study of Harmonic Tremor

• • • • • • • • K. Aki & M. Fehler B. Crosson B. Chouet B. Julian S. McNutt M. Ripepe V. Schlindwein M. Hellweg • • • • • • • • E. Gordeev T. Ohminato M. Garces M. Yamamoto H. Kumagai T. Nishimura R. Leet K. Konstantinou (review) In this presentation we are concerned with tremor that is accompanied by infrasonic emission

Note Tremor on Seismic ?

Reventador tremor

Reventador tremor

Reventador tremor

Reventador tremor

Seismo-Acoustic Tremor: Chugging

• • Observed when seismic and acoustic waves are discerned and correlated Examples: – – Arenal (Benoit & McNutt, 1997; Garces, 1998; Hagerty et al. 2000) Karmysky (Johnson & Lees, 1999; Lees et al. 2004) – – Sangay (Johnson & Lees, 1999; Lees & Ruiz, 2008) Reventador (Lees et al., 2008) – – Tungurahua (Ruiz et al., 2005) Fuego (Lyons et al.) – Santiaguito (Lees et al.)

Video Slow Fast

Infrasound Chugging at Karymsky, 1997 While there are similarities between these chugging sequences, there is also considerable variability.

Examples of Chugging at Sangay Volcano

Chugging Spectrum

Chugging Sound:

Gliding

Karymsky Infrasound, 1997 Fundamental Mode….and Harmonics?

Karymsky Infrasound, 1997

Numerous episodes of seismo-acoustic tremor exhibit fundamental frequencies ranging between 0.7 to 1.4 Hz.

21 chugging events at Karymsky

Karymsky, tremor (chugging)

Santiaguito Explosion from 2009 V = vertical I = Infrasound

Zoom of Santiaguito explosion, 2009

What is the best model to explain these physical phenomena?

Active vent

V. Schlindwein M. Garces S. Mcnutt Others… M. Hellweg M. Hellweg J. Johnson J. Lees

Possible Physical Models

• • • • Harmonic Oscillations – Organ Pipe Modes?

Periodic Bubble/Slug Formation?

Flow Past Small Obstruction?

Cork/Viscous Plugging – Pressure Cooker Modes

Milton Garces’ Model: Organ Pipe Modes Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica  2

g

1  1

c

1 2  2 

t g

1 2  0  2

g

2  1

c

2 2  2 

t g

2 2 

Q

 (

t

)  ( 

R

 

R

' )

Garces Approach: Model Fourier Spectrum

Organ Pipe Mode Explanation of Volcano Chugging Rijke Tube Excitation of fundamental modes And harmonics in a column of fluid

Integer Harmonics Open-Open Resonating Cylindrical Conduits Odd Integer Harmonics Open-Closed Integer Harmonics Closed-Closed 

L

  2

f

1 

v

2

L



n f n

 

nf

1 2,3,4, K 

L

  4

f

1 

v

 4

L n f n

 

nf

1 3,5,7, K 

L

  2

f

1 

v

2

L

Correlation of interval time and amplitude: indication of non-linear, feed back mechanism Sangay Linear Trends Karymsky

Slope Analysis: Amplitude vs Time Delay Positive slopes Sangay, Ecuador Multiple Chugging Events

Chugging at Santiaguito: Linear amplitude-repose time until change in vent modifies relationship in time.

Pressure Cooker Model

Steam Vent

Set of coupled, non-linear Differential Equations Lees and Bolton (1999) Damping Acceleration of plug 

x

  ((

P

1 

P

2 )

A m

g

)( 1 

ce

(

x

x c

) /

x c

)  2 

x

 

m A

      3

Q

4

a m n

     2 Non-negative

n

  0  

A R T V B

Qs

  

n

 

Q B in T B m

  

P

1 

P

0

a

3

n a

3

n

 

P x

2 3

x

3 Pressure in Pot Number of Molecules in Pot Pressure in Vent Ram effect

Back of the envelope calculation plug Cone plug, radius R=20m, height h=20m Force = .2×10 9 N Pressure = .1 MPa 

x

  ((

P

1 

P

2 )

A m

g

)( 1 

ce

(

x

x c

) /

x c

)  2 

x

 

m A

    3

Q

4

a m n

   2

n

  0  

A R T V B

Qs n

 

Q B in T B m P

1 

P

0

a

3

n a

3

n

 

P x

2 3

x

3 Pressure Cooker, Lees and Bolton, 1999

1998 No Chugging 1999 Moderate Chugging Karymsky Volcano, 1997 Active vent Lots of Chugging

Karymsky Volcano, Infrasound, 1997  

f

t

 Derivative of Frequency w.r.t Time BLUE=Derivative RED=spectral line Take time derivative of each line to estimate variations in rate of change of frequency with respect to time

Karymsky Volcano, Infrasound, 1997 Checking for Harmonics BLUE=Predicted = N*f 0 RED=Observed For times when there are many harmonics, predict the harmonics as integer multiples of the fundamental frequency.

Time Domain Analysis: Precise timing of individual events