Ch. 22 Notes

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Transcript Ch. 22 Notes

Chapter 22
Factors that lead to WWI
 1. A system of tangled alliances
▪ 1. Central Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman
▪ 2. Allied Powers- France, Great Britain, Russia
 2. Nationalism
▪ a strong feeling of pride in and loyalty to a nation or ethnic
 3. Militarism
▪ a policy of glorifying military power and values
▪ Fueled by Imperialism
▪ Leads to a build up of arms (weapons)
On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his
wife, Sophie, made an official visit to Sarajevo, the
capital of Austria-Hungary's province of Bosnia.
Franz Ferdinand heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne
Assassins wait in the crowd-Serbian Nationalists
Bomb bounces off their car and they continue
Finally Gavrillo Princip fires shots at and kills the royal
Chain reaction- Austria-Hungary declares war on
Serbia-Russia backs Serbia, Germany declares war on
Russia, Britain and France declare war on Germany
U.S would not take sides, but offer loans and
sell weapons to both sides
Most Americans happy- it’s across the pond,
doesn’t mean anything to us
Helps a slowing down US economy
1/3 the population foreign born
 Emotional ties to their homeland
By end of 1914 Western Front a stalemate
War at Sea
 Britain wants to starve out Germany-blockade
▪ British ships turned back any vessels carrying weapons, food, and other vital supplies to
the Central powers—even ships from neutral nations such as the United States.
▪ Wilson doesn’t like it, but US has too much invested in Britain economically
 German U-boats (Unterseeboot )
▪ To counter Britain’s blockade Germany develops this new weapon
▪ Early in 1915, Germany declared the waters around Britain a war zone. Within this zone,
German U-boats could sink enemy ships without warning (Neutral ships at risk)
▪ Were supposed to search before destroy, but it was impractical with a submarine
▪ On May 7, 1915, a U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania [Lusitania: an unarmed British
ocean liner whose sinking by a German U-boat on May 7, 1915, influenced the U.S. decision
to enter World War I] without warning. Among the 1,198 dead were 128 Americans
▪ Wilson demands end to unrestricted submarine warfare.
▪ Sussex pledge [Sussex pledge: during World War I, a German promise in 1916 to begin
giving advance warning of submarine attacks on ocean liners and to spare the lives of
passengers and crew], if The United States must force Britain to end its illegal
blockade. Wilson accepted the pledge but would not accept the condition.
preparedness movement [preparedness movement:
beginning in 1915, before U.S. entry into World War I, a
movement led by former president Theodore Roosevelt
that called on the government to increase U.S. military
strength and convince Americans of the need for U.S.
involvement in the war]
 Wilson wins reelection barely on the slogan “He kept us
out of the War”
 Both sides launch propaganda [propaganda: information
or rumors spread by a group or government to promote its
cause or ideas or to damage an opposing cause or idea]
 Allies do a better job As a result, neutrality "in thought" gave
way to anti-German feeling in the minds of many Americans.
Wilson wants peace without victoryGermany goes all out
The Zimmerman Telegram (Note)
 Britain had gotten hold of a note sent in code by
the German foreign minister, Arthur
Zimmermann, to the German minister in Mexico.
Zimmermann suggested that if the United States
entered the war, Mexico and Germany should
become allies. Germany would then help Mexico
regain "lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and
"We intend to begin on the first of February unrestricted
submarine warfare. We shall endeavor in spite of this to keep the
United States of America neutral. In the event of this not
succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal or alliance on the
following basis: make war together, make peace together,
generous financial support and an understanding on our part that
Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and
Arizona. The settlement in detail is left to you. You will inform the
President of the above most secretly as soon as the outbreak of
war with the United States of America is certain and add the
suggestion that he should, on his own initiative, invite Japan to
immediate adherence and at the same time mediate between
Japan and ourselves. Please call the President's attention to the
fact that the ruthless employment of our submarines now offers
the prospect of compelling England in a few months to make
peace." Signed, ZIMMERMANN.
Russian Revolution= Russia out of the fight
April 4, 1917, the Senate voted 82 to 6 to declare war on
Germany. The House followed on April 6 by a vote of 373
to 50. The United States was going to war.
 “Neutrality is no longer feasible [practical] . . . where the
peace of the world is involved . . . The world must be made
safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the
tested foundations of political liberty . . . The right is more
precious than peace, and we shall fight for the things
which we have always carried nearest our hearts—for
democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority
to have a voice in their own governments.”-WW
 By going to war we were sure of debt repayment
 Should the United States have entered WWI?