PPTREVIEWHEART

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Transcript PPTREVIEWHEART

1 • Which layer of the heart allows it to act as a pump?

• • • • a. Epicardium b. Myocardium c. Pericardium d. Endocardium

2 • Which slinglike structure supports the heart?

• • • • a.Pericardium

b.Chordae tendineae c.Myocardium

d.Endocardium

3 • What is the hardest working cardiac chamber and therefore has the thickest myocardium?

• • • • a.Right atrium b.Right ventricle c.Left atrium d.Left ventricle

4 • The right ventricle pumps blood to the • • • • a. right atrium.

b. pulmonary veins.

c. pulmonary artery.

d. aorta.

5 • Vessel(s) that carry(ies) blood from the pulmonary capillaries to the left atrium is (are) the • • • • a. Aorta b. Pulmonary artery c. Pulmonary veins d. Vena cava

6 • The aorta receives blood from the • • • • a. right ventricle.

b. pulmonary veins.

c. pulmonary artery.

d. left ventricle.

7 • Blood flows from the right atrium through which atrioventricular valve to the right ventricle?

• • • • a. Bicuspid b. Mitral c. Pulmonic d. Tricuspid

8 • Which of the following structures “sees” unoxygenated blood?

• • • • a. Aorta b. Left ventricle c. Pulmonary artery d. Pulmonary veins

9 • Which of the following “sees” oxygenated blood?

• • • • a. Vena cava b. Pulmonary veins c. Right atrium d. Pulmonic valve

10 • Chordae tendineae are not associated with which valve?

• • • • a. Aortic b. Mitral c. Tricuspid d. Bicuspid

11 • With which of the following is “lubb-dupp” associated?

• • • • a. Myocardial contraction b. Ventricular depolarization c. Closing of heart valves d. Diffusion of O 2 from the lungs to the blood in the pulmonary capillaries

12 • Which of the following supplies oxygenated blood to the heart muscle?

• • • • a. Coronary arteries b. Pulmonary artery c. Pulmonary veins d. Cardiac veins

13 • Where does the cardiac action potential (cardiac impulse) normally originate?

• • • • a. AV node b. Purkinje fibers c. Ectopic focus d. SA node

14 • The pacemaker of the heart is located in the upper wall of the • • • • a. right atrium.

b. right ventricle.

c. left atrium.

d. left ventricle.

15 • Referring to the ECG, the P wave represents • • • • a. atrial contraction.

b. ventricular relaxation.

c. atrial depolarization.

d. atrial repolarization.

16 • Referring to the ECG, the QRS complex represents ventricular • • • • a. contraction.

b. repolarization.

c. relaxation.

d. depolarization.

17 • Which structure connects the cusps of the AV valves to the ventricles?

• • • • a. Purkinje fibers b. AV node c. Bundle of His d. Chordae tendineae

18 • What are the conducting fibers that rapidly spread the electrical signal throughout the ventricles?

• • • • a. Bundle of His b. Purkinje fibers c. SA node d. AV node

19 • Which of the following is least related to the mitral valve?

• • • • a. Left heart b. Bicuspid c. Semilunar d. Chordae tendineae

20 • All of the following are electrical terms except • • • • a. sarcomere.

b. depolarization.

c. action potential.

d. repolarization.

21 • Which of the following must precede ventricular contraction?

• • • • a. Ventricular relaxation b. “Lubb-dupp” c. Ventricular depolarization d. Closing of the AV valves

22 • Which of the following semilunar valves “sees” oxygenated blood?

• • • • a. Mitral b. Bicuspid c. Aortic d. Pulmonic

23 • The correct sequence is: blood flows from the right atrium to the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery to the • • • • a. pulmonary veins.

b. coronary arteries.

c. pulmonary capillaries.

d. vena cava.

24 • What event causes the pulmonic valve to open?

• • • • a. The P wave b. An increase in the pressure within the right ventricle c. “Lubb-dupp” d. Contraction of the chordae tendineae

25 • Which layer of the heart has actin, myosin, and intercalated discs?

• • • • a. Myocardium b. Endocardium c. Epicardium d. Pericardium

26 • The pericardium is a part of the • • • • a. myocardium.

b. diaphragm.

c. epicardium.

d. endocardium.

27 • The mitral and the bicuspid valves • • • • a. are semilunar valves.

b. are both located on the right side of the heart.

c. “see” only unoxygenated blood.

d. are the same valves.

28 • The pulmonic and aortic valves • • • • a. are atrioventricular valves.

b. “see” only oxygenated blood.

c. are attached to the ventricular walls by chordae tendineae.

d. are semilunar valves.

29 • The correct sequence is: blood flows from the pulmonary capillaries to the pulmonary veins to the left atrium to the left ventricle to the • • • • a. vena cava.

b. pulmonary artery.

c. aorta.

d. circle of Willis.

30 • The atrioventricular node (AV node) • • • • a. is the pacemaker of the heart.

b. is located in the upper part of the right atrium.

c. has a rate that is normally faster than the SA node.

d. delays the electrical signal coming from the atria into the ventricles.

31 • The purpose of which structure is to delay the spread of the signal from the atrium to the ventricles?

• • • • a. SA node b. Purkinje fibers c. Bundle of His d. AV node

32 • Which of the following is an electrical event?

• • • • a. “Lubb-dupp” b. Actin and myosin interaction c. Murmur d. Depolarization

33 • Which of the following is a result of ventricular contraction?

• • • • a. The AV valves open.

b. The semilunar valves close.

c. Blood is pumped into the pulmonary artery and the aorta.

d. Blood flows back into the atria.

34 • Under what condition is blood most likely to flow “backward” (e.g., from the left ventricle back into the left atrium)?

• • • • a. Pulmonary artery hypertension b. Left ventricular hypertrophy c. An insufficient mitral valve d. Pulmonary edema

35 • What are ventricles “doing” during atrial contraction?

• • • • a. Pumping blood into the great vessels b. Closing their AV valves c. Relaxing d. Opening their semilunar valves

36 • The Purkinje fibers • • • • a. open valves.

b. pull on the cusps of the valves.

c. conduct electrical signals throughout the ventricles.

d. close valves.

37 • Which cavity first receives unoxygenated blood from the vena cava?

• • • • a. Right ventricle b. Left atrium c. Left ventricle d. Right atrium

38 • What is the name of the valve that prevents backflow of blood • • • • a. Mitral b. Pulmonic c. Semilunar d. Tricuspid

39 • What is the cause of the heart sounds “lubb dupp”?

• • • • a. Closing of the heart valves b. Flow of blood through the coronary arteries c. The electrical signal as it moves through the AV node d. The firing of the autonomic nerves to the SA node

40 • Which of the following is not true of the heart?

• • • • a. The heart is located within the mediastinum.

b. The apex is located left of the sternal midline at the level of the fifth intercostal space.

c. The base of the heart is located at the level of the second rib.

d. The pericardium is composed of actin and myosin.

41 • Which of the following is least descriptive of the myocardium?

• • • • a. Cardiac muscle composed of actin and myosin arranged in sarcomeres b. Thicker in the ventricles than the atria c. Thicker in the left ventricle than the right ventricle d. Thicker in the left atrium than the right ventricle

42 • Which of the following is a function of a valve?

• • • • a. Regulates the direction of the flow of blood through the heart b. Regulates the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin c. Regulates heart rate d. Directs the movement of the cardiac impulse

43 • Which of the following is true of the structures of the electrical conduction system?

• • • • a. The AV valve is the pacemaker.

b. In normal sinus rhythm, the electrical signal arises within the SA node.

c. The His-Purkinje system spreads the electrical system from the right atrium to the left atrium.

d. The purpose of the AV node is to increase the speed at which the cardiac impulse moves from the atria to the ventricles.

44 • Which of the following is least true of the aortic valve?

• • • • a. It is also called the left semilunar valve.

b. It “sees” oxygenated blood.

c. Blood flows from the ventricle through this valve into the pulmonary artery.

d. An incompetent aortic valve allows blood to leak from the aorta back into the left ventricle.

45 • An accumulation of excess fluid in the pericardial space • • • • a. causes external compression of the heart.

b. depresses the SA node, thereby eliminating pacemaker activity.

c. causes valvular stenosis.

d. causes a left-to-right shunt.

46 • A hole in the interventricular septum causes • • • • a. a right-to-left shunt.

b. extreme cyanosis.

c. blood to shunt from the left ventricle to the right ventricle.

d. blood to shunt from the left ventricle to the pulmonary artery.

47 • Which structure “sees” oxygenated blood?

• • • • a. Tricuspid valve b. Pulmonary artery c. Pulmonary veins d. Right semilunar valve

48 • Which group is incorrect?

• • • • a. Semilunar valves: pulmonic, aortic b. Atrioventricular valves: tricuspid, bicuspid, mitral c. Structures that carry oxygenated blood: pulmonary veins, left ventricle, aorta d. Structures that carry unoxygenated blood: right ventricle, venae cavae, pulmonary veins

49 • Which group is incorrect?

• • • • a. Semilunar valves: pulmonic, aortic b. Structures that carry oxygenated blood: pulmonary veins, left ventricle, aorta c. Layers of the heart: epicardium, myocardium, endocardium d. Abnormal heart rates: tachycardia, bradycardia, normal sinus rhythm

50 • Which group is incorrect?

• • • • a. Atrioventricular valves: tricuspid, bicuspid, mitral b. Layers of the heart: epicardium, myocardium, endocardium c. Abnormal heart rates: tachycardia, bradycardia d. Parts of the conduction system: SA node, AV node, bundle of His, Purkinje fibers, medulla oblongata

51 • Which of the following is true of the myocardium?

• • • • a. Contains thick and thin filaments b. Contains actin and myosin c. Is thicker in the left ventricle than in the right ventricle d. All of the above

52 • During ventricular contraction, the • • • • a. AV valves close in response to intraventricular pressure.

b. ECG is displaying the T wave.

c. Semilunar valves close, causing S 1 .

d. ECG is displaying the P-R interval.

53 • Which of the following is most related to “lubb” (of the lubb-dupp duo)?

• • • • a. Called S 1 b. Caused by the closure of the AV valves c. Occurs in response to ventricular contraction d. All of the above

54 • S 2 is • • • • a. caused by the closure of the AV valves at the beginning of ventricular contraction.

b. the second heart sound.

c. the heart sound caused by the sliding of actin and myosin.

d. All of the above are true.

55 • The purpose of the right heart is to pump blood • • • • a. to the systemic circulation.

b. into the aorta.

c. to the left anterior descending and circumflex arteries.

d. to the lungs for oxygenation.

56 • Which of the following is not considered a “great” vessel?

• • • • a. Left anterior descending artery b. Aorta c. Venae cavae d. Pulmonary artery

57 • Which of the following spaces does not contain the heart?

• • • • a. Thoracic cavity b. Ventral cavity c. Dorsal cavity d. Mediastinum

• The semilunar valves 58 • • • • a. receive blood from the contracting ventricles.

b. are anchored by chordae tendineae.

c. “see” only oxygenated blood.

d. “see” only unoxygenated blood.

59 • Cells that spontaneously depolarize from resting membrane potential to threshold potential • • • • a. are called pacemaker cells.

b. normally arise within the chordae tendineae.

c. are restricted to the SA node.

d. are stored within the pericardium.

60 • Cells that spontaneously depolarize from resting membrane potential to threshold potential • • • • a. are called pacemaker cells.

b. normally arise within the chordae tendineae.

c. are restricted to the SA node.

d. are stored within the pericardium.

61 • Stenosis of which valve causes right ventricular hypertrophy?

• • • • a. Mitral b. Tricuspid c. Right semilunar d. Left semilunar

62 • Which of the following is true about the left ventricular myocardium?

• • • • a. Pumps blood into the pulmonary artery b. Is caused by the sliding of actin and myosin c. Receives oxygenated blood from the precordium d. Contains unoxygenated blood

63 • What is located at the second rib and fifth intercostal space?

• • • • a. Base and apex of the heart b. Semilunar valves c. AV valves d. SA node and AV nodes

64 • The bicuspid and mitral valves • • • • a. are semilunar valves.

b. “see” only unoxygenated blood.

c. "see" only oxygenated blood d. are exit valves.

65 • What are the two phases of the ventricular action potential (cardiac impulse)?

• • • • a. Systole and diastole b. Filling and ejecting c. Depolarization and repolarization d. P wave and T wave

66 • Which of the following electrical events is caused by the outflow (efflux) of K + ?

• • • • a. P-R interval b. Depolarization c. QRS complex d. Repolarization

67 • In normal sinus rhythm (NSR), the • • • • a. cardiac impulse originates in the sinoatrial node.

b. action potential originates in the AV node.

c. AV node activates the SA node.

d. action potential is generated by the sympathetic nerve.

68 • During ventricular filling, the • • • • a. semilunar valves are open.

b. AV valves are closed.

c. QRS complex is “happening.” d. ventricles are relaxed.

• Heme contains • • • • a. albumin.

b. plasma.

c. iron.

d. erythropoietin.

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70 • Erythropoietin • • • • a. is secreted by the kidneys.

b. stimulates the bone marrow to produce RBCs.

c. is released in response to hypoxemia.

d. All of the above are true.

71 • Which of the following is least associated with hemostasis?

• • • • a. Coagulation b. Platelet plug c. Jaundice d. Blood vessel spasm

72 • An antithrombin agent • • • • a. causes jaundice.

b. prevents blood coagulation.

c. fights infection.

d. stimulates the synthesis of hemoglobin.

73 • Which of the following is most associated with a blood clot?

• • • • a. Agglutination b. Hemophilia c. Fibrin strands d. Rh factor

74 • What is the normal pH of blood?

• • • • a. 7.00 to 7.45

b. 7.35 to 7.45

c. 6.92 to 7.25

d. 7.45 to 7.80

75 • What is the name of the condition caused by a diet that is deficient in iron?

• • • • a. Leukopenia b. Anemia c. Jaundice d. Kernicterus

76 • Which type of blood is called the universal donor?

• • • • a. O b. AB c. A d. B

77 • Which of the following is caused by agglutination of the RBCs?

• • • • a. Hemolysis b. Coagulation c. Crenation d. Hemostasis

78 • What is the breakdown product of heme?

• • • • a. Thrombin b. Plasmin c. Bilirubin d. Albumin

79 • Which of the following types of blood can a person with type O blood receive safely?

• • • • a. A type b. B type c. AB type d. O type

80 • Which of the following is related to the white blood cell?

• • • • a. Phagocytosis b. Oxygen transport c. Hemoglobin d. Bilirubin

81 • Which type of blood is called the universal recipient?

• • • • a. Type O b. Type AB c. Type A d. Type B

82 • Which of the following is characteristic of the platelet?

• • • • a. Granulocyte b. Bilirubin c. O 2 transport d. Stickiness

83 • To which component of the red blood cell does oxygen loosely bind?

• • • • a. Cell membrane b. Globin portion of the hemoglobin c. Iron molecule within heme d. Bilirubin component of the heme

84 • At the end of 120 days, the red blood cell • • • • a. is removed from the circulation and broken down.

b. becomes known as a “poly.” c. becomes known as a reticulocyte.

d. is converted to fibrin.

85 • Plasma • • • • a. gives blood its red color.

b. is the primary oxygen-carrying part of the blood.

c. is considered intracellular fluid.

d. is the fluid part of the blood.

86 • Which of the following conditions is most likely to cause erythroblastosis?

• • • • a. The baby is Rh– and the mother is Rh–.

b. The baby is Rh+ and the mother is Rh+.

c. The baby is Rh+ and the mother is Rh–.

d. The baby is Rh+ and the mother is type A+.

87 • Which of the following conditions is caused by an overdose of heparin or warfarin sodium (Coumadin)?

• • • • a. Bleeding b. Infection c. Jaundice d. Thrombosis

88 • Which of the following does the prothrombin time measure?

• • • • a. The amount of oxygen in the blood b. Clotting activity of the blood c. Bone marrow activity d. The degree or intensity of jaundice

89 • Donor blood is typed and cross-matched with the recipient’s blood to prevent which condition?

• • • • a. Infection b. Myelosuppression c. Agglutination d. Petechiae formation

90 • Both the red blood cell and white blood cell • • • • a. are classified as granulocytes or agranulocytes.

b. contain iron that acts as a binding site for oxygen.

c. contain hemoglobin.

d. are produced in the bone marrow.

91 • Which of the following is least descriptive of blood?

• • • • a. The average man has 4 to 6 L of blood.

b. The normal pH of blood is 7.35 to 7.45.

c. Oxygenated blood is redder than unoxygenated blood.

d. Water is three to five times more viscous than blood.

92 • Which anticoagulant is secreted by mast cells (basophils)?

• • • • a. Plasmin b. EPO c. Vitamin K d. Heparin

93 • Which of the following is true of iron?

• • • • a. Is in the heme part of hemoglobin b. Is necessary for erythropoiesis c. Binds reversibly to oxygen d. All of the above

94 • A person who is taking warfarin (Coumadin) is advised to limit the intake of spinach and broccoli because they • • • • a. are irritating to the lining of the digestive tract and can cause bleeding.

b. interfere with the absorption of vitamin K by the digestive tract.

c. contain lots of vitamin K, the antidote to Coumadin therapy.

d. contain excess extrinsic factor.

95 • Systole and diastole describe the function of the • • • • a. pericardium.

b. SA node.

c. myocardium.

d. mediastinum.

96 • During atrial systole, the • • • • a. AV valves are closed.

b. ventricles are relaxed.

c. ventricles are in systole.

d. semilunar valves are open.

97 • What happens during ventricular diastole?

• • • • a. The ventricles are filling with blood.

b. All semilunar valves are open.

c. Both AV valves are closed.

d. Blood is pumped to the lungs and systemic circulation.

98 • What term refers to the amount of blood pumped by the ventricle in one beat?

• • • • a. Cardiac output b. Blood volume c. Hematocrit d. Stroke volume

99 • Which term refers to the amount of blood pumped by the heart in 1 minute?

• • • • a. Stroke volume b. Cardiac output c. Starling’s law of the heart d. Inotropic effect

100 • Decreased blood flow through the coronary arteries is most likely to cause • • • • a. valve damage.

b. pulmonary edema.

c. angina pectoris.

d. bradycardia.

101 • Which term refers to a heart rate less than 60 beats/min?

• • • • a. Bradycardia b. Heart block c. Fight-or-flight response d. Tachycardia

102 • What is the term for the sequence of events that occur during one heartbeat?

• • • • a. Stroke volume b. Cardiac output c. Cardiac cycle d. Systole

103 • Cardiac output is determined by heart rate and • • • • a. systemic vascular resistance.

b. stroke volume.

c. hematocrit.

d. hemoglobin concentration.

104 • An ejection fraction of 30% is • • • • a. normal.

b. characteristic of a healthy person who is engaged in aerobic exercise.

c. characteristic of a failing heart.

d. the amount of oxygenated hemoglobin in the blood in the left ventricle.

105 • Which of the following is the most likely consequence of acute left ventricular failure?

• • • • a. Jugular vein distention b. Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly c. Pulmonary edema d. Pedal edema

106 • Most of the symptoms of acute left-sided heart failure are • • • • a. relieved by morphine.

b. cured by an antibiotic.

c. respiratory in nature (e.g., dyspnea, orthopnea).

d. confined to the lower extremities, as in pedal edema.

107 • Furosemide (Lasix), a potent diuretic, is administered in acute ventricular failure to • • • • a. strengthen myocardial contractile force.

b. increase plasma K + levels.

c. excrete excess water and relieve the edema.

d. relieve pain.

108 • Ventricular systole refers to • • • • a. ventricular depolarization.

b. the opening of the valves of the ventricles.

c. ventricular filling.

d. contraction of the ventricular myocardium.

109 • Venodilation • • • • a. increases afterload.

b. decreases preload.

c. increases end-diastolic volume.

d. stretches the ventricular myocardium.

110 • Jugular vein distention is most associated with • • • • a. right-sided heart failure.

b. aortic valve stenosis.

c. left wall infarct and left ventricular failure.

d. low volume shock right-sided heart failure.