Transcript Islam HSC REVISION
• • •
Significant Person or Practice (Sayyid Qutb)
• • Contributions to the development and expression of Islam Impact on Islam
Ethics (Sexual Ethics)
• Core ethical teachings
Significant Practice (Hajj)
• • • Describe the practice Principal beliefs expressed through the practice Significance of the practice to individuals and the Muslim community
Sayyid Qutb: Contributions
• • His Writings (show context. When were they written? What are they about? What was happening in his life at the time?) • • Social Justice in Islam (during his time in the USA) In the Shade of the Qur’an (upon his return to Egypt and assuming a more active role in the Muslim Brotherhood) • Milestones or Signposts (during his time in prison, whilst being tortured and, eventually, executed) His position as editor of the Muslim Brotherhood newsletter
• He reintroduced/reinterpreted a number of Islamic concepts • • • Jahiliyyah – pre-Islamic ignorance; people didn’t know what God’s will was until Muhammad brought them the Qur’an. Qutb wrote that Jahiliyyah refers to ANYBODY who is not Muslim (by his own definition), and he also attached the idea that these people were BARBARIC. Salafism – going back to the earliest days of Islam, under the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs. Salafists believe that the earliest Muslims were the most perfect and pious Jihad – “Struggle/strive against evil”. In Islam, the GREATER JIHAD (internal struggle) is the most important, followed by the LESSER JIHAD (physical struggle). Qutb, however, stated that physical action had to take place (as part of his vanguard for an Islamic revolution).
• • • • • • Takfir – Qutb had a very clear definition of “Muslim”. Anybody, even Muslims, who were different to this idea were “excommunicated”. Nizam Islami – true Muslim Nizam Jahi – false Muslim, affected by “Jahiliyyah” Shari’ah – The law of Islam, i.e. God’s will, as determined through Islamic Jurisprudence. Qutb argued that Shari’ah was the ONLY truly Islamic way to govern any society/nation. Qutb argued against secular governments because, he said, they remove the power from God and give it to people.
Tawhid – Qutb’s most central idea, also the central idea in all of Islam. There is ONLY ONE GOD and, so, all things will be at peace if they submit to the One God.
Vanguard – Qutb called for a vanguard to eventually start an Islamic Revolution.
• REMEMBER • DEVELOPMENT = the ideas/theology/growth behind the tradition of Islam • EXPRESSION = the physical way the tradition of Islam is practiced • IMPACT/EFFECT = what happened to Islam as a result of the contributions? Short & long term?
• Qutb had a LIMITED effect on Islam: • Only a small section of Islam was directly effected by Qutb’s ideas: Islamist groups. • The majority of Islam was indirectly effected because Qutb was offering a new interpretation – the rest of Islam would have to reaffirm the more widely accepted understandings of Islam.
• Short Term: • He influenced the Muslim Brotherhood to rebel against the West, specifically the Western-backed Nasser Government of Egypt • During his life, Qutb’s contributions had a limited impact, directly on those members of the Muslim Brotherhood who were given new understanding of their Islamic faith through Qutb’s writings. The majority of other Muslims in the world were unaffected, and Islam as a whole tradition did not change significantly.
• Long Term: • Years after Qutb’s death, his writings are still being used by Islamist groups, and his ideas on jihad, jahiliyya, tawhid, etc, are also the focus of many of these groups.
• Islam as a whole tradition, however, has not been impacted in a large way by Qutb’s contributions, however moderate Muslim scholars (ulama) continue to make more sense of the Qur’an and their faith in ways significantly different to Qutb’s interpretations.
Quotes from Qutb’s writings:
• “Mankind today is on the brink of a precipice… because humanity is devoid of those vital values which are necessary not only for its healthy development but for its real progress… It is essential for mankind to have new leadership!” • Qutb says humanity needs new leadership based on God’s will (Shari’ah) • This quote demonstrates his call for an Islamic revolution • “Only Islamic values and morals, teachings and safeguards, are worthy of mankind… Islamic society is truly civilised” • For Qutb, Islam is the only true system to live in peace in the world • “Jahiliyya… takes the form of claiming the right to create values, to legislate rules of collective behaviour, and to choose any way of life that rests with me, without regard to what God has prescribed” • Qutb defines jahiliyya • “How must the Islamic resurrection begin? A vanguard must resolve to set it in motion in the midst of jahiliyyah that now reigns over the entire earth” • A call for a vanguard of Islamic revolutionaries
• Always Remember: • You MUST show an understanding of the Ethical System (i.e. Islamic Jurisprudence) • • SUNNI Qur’an SHI’ITE Qur’an • Hadith Hadith • Ijma’ Ayatollah • Qiyas • All these steps are taken to determine Shari’ah
Fiqh – legal rulings by the Ulama (Muslim scholars) Fatwa – an instruction given by the Ulama
• • The ultimate purpose in Islam is to submit to the will of the one God (Allah). SO, the ethical teachings determine actions which are: • Halal (permitted by God) •
Mustahab (highly recommended)
Mubah (neutral) Makrah (highly discouraged)
• Haraam (forbidden by God) Also remember that family is fundamentally important in Islam, so teachings on sexuality are often linked with the concept of family.
Some core teachings to consider: • • • TAWHID • The belief in ONE God, which requires SUBMISSION to his will JIHAD • The strive for perfect submission to Allah’s will. Can be physical (lesser jihad) or internal (greater jihad) FIVE PILLARS • An expression of faith, these are also obligatory actions which are good, ethical actions.
• • • Contraception Homosexuality Sex outside of marriage • Are there any differences amongst Muslim variants?
Sexual Ethics (Contraception)
• • • • In Islam, family is central and the ultimate ideal. The use of contraception should be considered in this context Not forbidden, rather discouraged Hadith indicates Muhammad approved of birth control in some instances Qur’an: “Do not kill your children for fear of want. Allah will provide”
Sexual Ethics (Pre/Extra-Marital Sex)
• • • • • Forbidden (Haraam) Hadith: “They will be punished, who engage in illicit sex” Hadith: “Let no man be in privacy with a woman who is not lawful to him” Qur’an: “Those who seek anything beyond that (sex inside marriage) are transgressors” Qur’an: “Let those who cannot find a match keep chaste” • • Sex is seen to be a natural part of the human experience, but it should only occur within the context of marriage.
To commit adultery, or to have sex before marriage, is seen to be going directly against the will of Allah.
Sexual Ethics (Homosexuality)
• • • • Forbidden (Haraam) Qur’an: “Of all creatures, do you approach males and leave the spouses that the Lord has created for you?” Qur’an: “You come with lust unto men instead of women” Qur’an: “He creates mates for you, that you may find rest in them, and he envisaged between you love and compassion” • There is no justification for homosexual sex in Islam
Hajj (Describe the Practice)
• Describe the Hajj • Step-by-step description of each day • Give specific terminology, e.g.: • Tawaf (circling the Ka’bah) • Ihram (white clothing/state of mind) • • Wuquf (Stand before Allah – on the Mount of Mercy) Umma (worldwide Islamic community) • etc.
Hajj (Principal Beliefs)
• • Principal Beliefs expressed in Hajj Be really specific about the beliefs expressed in Hajj, e.g.: • Tawaf reflects Tawhid – the Umma acts as one in completely submitting to Allah’s will • Wuquf reflects Akhira – Muslims be God for forgiveness in the hope that they may reach Paradise (Janna) when they die
Article of Faith Tawhid Oneness of God & Submission to God’s will Event in Hajj
Tawaf Circling the Ka’ba Wuquf Stand before Allah – at Arafat Jamarat Stoning of the Pillars Eid-al-Adha Feast of Sacrifice
The Ka’ba is a shrine to the One God. Through circumambulation, Muslims show a sign of their unity (Umma) and submission People beg God for forgiveness as a sign of submission. They restate their commitment to Islam By rejecting Sata, Muslims are accepting Allah Sacrificing a lamb reflects Abraham’s submission to God’s will; Muslims emulate this
Rusul Prophethood Malika Angels Kutub’allah Books of Allah
Hajj was performed by the Prophets, including Abraham and Muhammad 1.
Prophethood places importance on Muhammad as the ideal Muslim. Muslims try to emulate the actions of their prophets 1.
Sa’i – Jibr’il (Gabriel) saved Hagar and Ishmael by providing them with water (Well of Zamzam) 1.
The story of Hajj is found in all sacred texts – e.g. Abraham sacrificing his son Qur’an clearly outlines the steps of Hajj in the chapter titled “Al-Hajj” 1.
The Angel Jibr’il (Gabriel) intervened and saved Hagar and Ishmael Books of Allah are believed to be inspired words of Allah The chapter “Al-Hajj” is the direct word and will of God
Akhira Life after death/Judgement
Wuquf Shaving/cutting of hair Ihram 1.
Muslims beg for forgiveness of their sins in this life, so as to achieve Paradise in the afterlife Shaving/cutting hair represents “rebirth” Ihram symbolises the equality of all people on the Day of Judgement
• • Significance to the Individual & Community Once again, give specific examples from the Hajj, e.g.: • Individual: Wuquf is the most significant part of the Hajj for individuals. They experience a “re-birth” or renewal of spirit. Many pilgrims are deeply moved and experience strong emotions • Community: Hajj is significant for the Umma. All men are expected to wear only the Ihram as a sign of complete equality in God’s eyes. So, rich and poor men from any nation are equals on the Hajj. This builds a very strong sense of community amongst groups of pilgrims