Transcript Canadian Nationalism - Hunting Hills High School
Canadian Identity and Nationalism
Canadian identity has historically, been very hard to define. If you ask “Us” what makes us Canadian, most Canadians will say because I am Canadian… or say, I am not America.
We are good at telling people what Canadians “are not”, but we are not good at defining our identity.
“I am Canadian”
The Railway and Canadian National Identity
Many people died to make the CPR.
Most were immigrants and there were no labor laws back then, so you can imagine the working conditions.
How is the CPR a Canadian symbol?
Is it a “Canadian” symbol if it was built on the backs of immigrants?
“The Canadian Railroad Trilogy” Canadian Heritage Moment p. 76
Much of Canada’s history has been framed by being one of Britain’s colonies.
Beyond the CPR, Vimy Ridge, the Conscription crises and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms are also pivotal events in the minds of Canadians as defining “our” coming of age.
Vimy Ridge Pierre Trudeau- The Greatest Canadian
How has Canadian nationalism changed?
“Our” nationalism used to be framed by our the country’s British history.
However, it is now recognized that there are many other groups of people that helped create this country, both before and since confederation.
Metis and First Nations Nationalism
The White Paper This was a proposal by PM Trudeau and his Minister Jean Chretien to create a “just society”. It called for the end of treaty rights, reserves, and resource rights.
This would make aboriginal peoples have the same status and rights as other people.
How do you think the First Nations peoples reacted to this?
Métis and First Nations Nationalism
They were outraged.
The First Nations peoples wanted to maintain their equal, but different status, and wanted to be able to seek self-determination and self-governance.
As a result, changes were made and ultimately resulted in First Nations and Métis peoples being recognized as a distinct collective of people in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
After years of wars between the French and English, the English ultimately won the “rights” to British North America, or Canada.
Up to that point, the dominant culture in Quebec had been French.
Since then, Quebec has fought to maintain their Francophone culture in a dominantly Anglophone nation.
As a group, Francophones are another collective in Canadian society that are recognized as distinct in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
What are competing (contending) nationalist loyalties?
How do you decide where your loyalties lie?
There are often different celebrations for different cultures. How do those celebrations work within the ideas of nationalism?
National Aboriginal Day parade Fete National parade Chinese New Year parade Edmonton Caribbean Arts Festival parade All of these are celebrated in Canada, but are they Canadian?
Cultural pluralism people from many nations living together.
Respect for cultural differences Ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups live together in harmony Canada is a multicultural nation and sometimes this combination of cultures leads to conflict of loyalty.
Unlike Canada, the USA seems to have little trouble defining its nationalism The USA was born out of a revolution against British control Unlike Canada, the United States was born with a Declaration of Independence and a Constitution As well, unlike the multicultural nature of Canada, the United States is understood to be a Melting Pot
Although the United States is a Melting Pot and expects a certain amount of assimilation to sustain their nationalism, it does not mean that there are not conflicting ideas.
Civil War: 1861-1865 Slavery divided the North and South and resulted in years of war and death There are still lingering tensions today America Dream The idea that if you come to America, anyone can make it
Competing Nationalist Loyalties
When immigrants come to this country they are have a right to maintain their culture and beliefs.
Canada makes this work through ACCOMMODATION Canadian public institutions adapt to the religious and cultural practices of minorities.
Ex. Sikhs wearing turbans in the RCMP Ex. Wearing a hijab in sports July 1 in Newfoundland- bloodiest day in Newfoundland history (WWI)
There has long been conflict between French and English in Canada In 1995 there was a referendum for Quebec to decide whether or not they should separate from the country 50.52% decided they should stay In 2006 that number rose to 58% CBC News in Review- The Referendum Of course there are two sides to every story Sovereigntists support separation because they want Quebec to be an independent nation (sovereign) Federalists want Quebec to remain a part of the Canadian confederation.
First Nations Contending Loyalties
Although the Canadian government currently has a policy of accommodation, it has not always been that way Previously, the government tried to ASSIMILATE cultures, especially the First Nations peoples.
They used various methods; most notably residential schools. They also used the reserve system to SEGREGATE the First Nations population.
First Nations Contending Loyalties
In 1990, there was a land dispute between a group of Mohawks and a group who wanted to expand a golf course onto Mohawk land.
This is known as the OKA CRISIS because of its location near Oka, Quebec.
At first, the Mohawk group set up a road block, but as the Quebec provincial police were sent in it turned violent.
Eventually more than 2500 Canadian soldiers were brought in.
The protest started on July 11, and ended on September 26.
CBC news report
First Nations Contending Loyalties
After the Oka Crisis, the Canadian government set out to avoid a similar situation from happening again.
At the heart of this commission was the idea that the relationship between First Nations peoples and the people of Canada should be based on mutual recognition, respect, sharing, and responsibility.
The government formally apologized for the wrongdoings of the past.
First Nations peoples reacted differently to this statement- some say it as empty words, others felt it was a positive step.
First Nations and the Meech Lake Accord
Nationalist loyalties might be when two nationalities with which you identify come into conflict Non-nationalist loyalties are those feelings you have about different issues that are not tied to your nationality .
Ex. religion, culture, class, ethnic, region
Your non-nationalist loyalties may come into play when the idea of your nation, goes against an issue of personal interest.
Ex. Winnipeg General Strike Unions are groups that bargain on the part of workers.
They have not always been legal or favored in Canada In 1919, workers in Winnipeg that wanted to unionize went on strike Unfortunately it did not end peacefully and did not further the cause of unions However, this is an example of non-nationalist loyalties because even though the strike was illegal, the people fought for what they believed in.
Religion and Region
Ireland- Catholics and Protestants In Ireland Catholics and Protestants fought for their respective religious freedom for years.
It was often bloody and brutal This is a non-nationalist loyalty because government policies conflicted with people’s religious beliefs The National Energy Program In 1980, PM Pierre Trudeau introduced a program to protect Canadians from rising world oil priced Albertans were concerned that this would harm their economy and many lost their jobs Eventually a truce was made between the Alberta and Canadian governments to give more power over royalties to Alberta.
This is a non-nationalist loyalty because one part of the country was in conflict with the federal government.
Case Study: Oil Sands
Many people are needed to process the oil This caused a huge influx (growth) in population to the Fort McMurray area This caused a huge increase in housing costs which left many people unable to afford housing How might this be an issue of contending loyalties?
Developing the oil sands causes huge devastation to the environment How might THIS be an issue of contending loyalties?
Dealing with loyalties
Over the years, various governments have had different policies to deal with contending loyalties.
Accommodation and assimilation have already been discussed.
Segregation is one way a government deals with people they don’t agree with African Americans in USA
Other contending loyalties
War Conscientious Objectors in WWI/WWII Hutterites, Mennonites and Doukhobors have pacifist beliefs and although the government of Canada did not force them to fight, they faced questions from the population as to their loyalty to Canada Conscientious objectors in Vietnam Draft dodgers moved to Canada to avoid going to war Illegal Can’t go back to the US Post- 9/11 racial profiling People with similar names may be arrested or detained Wrongfully put in jail