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Oil, Gas and Mining Sustainable Community Development Fund (CommDev)

Dafna Tapiero

[email protected]

Veronica Nyhan Jones

[email protected]

Arjun Bhalla

[email protected]

What is CommDev?

• • • • •

$12 million fund focused on helping communities receive sustainable benefits from Extractive Industry (EI) projects

Supports IFC/World Bank clients/companies who want to collaborate to go above and beyond social and environmental safeguards Provides public goods for all stakeholders on community development in extractive contexts Offers capacity building, TA, tool development and information sharing through on-line clearinghouse Global, but emphasizes Africa (60 – 70%)


Key Themes for CommDev

• • • • • • • • • Stakeholder Engagement Strategy (Participatory Planning) Local Economic Development & Supply Chains Local Revenue Management Capacity Building for Govt, Companies, Communities Monitoring & Evaluation (Participatory) Communication & Information Sharing Artisanal and Small-scale Mining (w/ CASM) Gender


Community Development Strategy

Stakeholder Engagement Help build awareness and engage stakeholders

across all sectors and create an association for consultation and dissemination of information.

Participatory Monitoring Train community, company and

governments to participate in on-going monitoring and evaluation of programs

Increase Participation Establish Participatory Planning Mechanisms

• Multi-stakeholder involvement • Identify actionable and measurable interventions • Increase quality of participation

Implementation Assist company in

implementing select community development programs with local partners

Joint Strategy Development Facilitate design of community development strategy

• Provide toolkits, case studies and best practice documents • Identify measurable impact of community development actions

Communication Help organize

vehicles to continue company-community local govt dialogue on implementation


Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E)

• • • • As much about building relationships, trust and mutual learning as it is about collecting and reporting data Includes viewpoints of all stakeholders — integrating diverse priorities and concerns The opportunity to demonstrate a company's value in the community Rely heavily on participation and engagement of communities

Good upfront M&E = Good project design Who measures matters!


CommDev-Funded Projects









Participatory Environmental Monitoring around Mine,


Framework for Sustainable Development around Mining,


Capacities of Traditional Authorities and Local Government for Community Development,

South Africa

Alternatives for Artisanal & Small-Scale Miners,


Social Accountability to Improve Impact of Mining Canon,


Municipal Capacity to Manage Oil Royalties,


Regional Development Foundation in Anosy,


Indigenous Business Development,


More projects under development in Tanzania, Colombia, Ghana…


CommDev Learning Products

• • • • •

Participatory Planning & Monitoring for Companies and Communities Local Conflict Management Toolkit Indicators for Monitoring Corporate Community Development Investments ASM & LSM Good Practice Guide w/ CASM Foundations for Community Development


The Project Cycle

BCS & CommDev 8


Spectrum of Community-Company Engagement

Negative stereotypes of other Disengage Inform Consult

Violent tactics: involuntary resettlement, destruction of livelihoods, environment Active disengagement; isolation, barriers to avoid contact; ignorant about communities, history, local knowledge Violent tactics: sabotage, destroy property, hurt people Active disengagement; refusal to negotiate; or inaction arising from powerless ness or lack of information

Each party is communicating with the other, but in an ineffective manner

Provide information about activities and rights in ways that are understandable to the public Naming, blaming, shaming based on information accessed.

More open flows of information: some listening and some information giving Giving information in a responsive mode; still limited choice in type and amount of information to give or receive

Attempts by one party to communicate with another; mostly one-way communication; partially effective


Elicit information from and participation by community


Identify and work together on areas of mutual interest and complementary capacity Share perspectives and priorities. Provide information about what is needed (claims to rights?) Identify ways to work with company in ways that bring local knowledge, perspective and skills to bear on issues, plans and actions

Beginnings of constructive joint action


Control and responsibility to take decisions and act jointly to change the context for mutual benefit Control and responsibility to take decisions and act jointly to change the context for mutual benefit

Co-planning, co-monitoring and multi-directional accountability

Goal: Shared-understanding Trust Legitimacy Power-sharing

Participatory planning and monitoring – tools and mechanisms

• • • • • • • Participatory Planning Community Forums Good Neighbor Agreements Community Suggestion Boxes • • Participatory Budgeting Citizen Report Cards • Community Scorecards

Activities integral to using these tools:

Monitoring and Measurement Training and capacity building Access to information

Business-Community Synergies


Participatory planning and monitoring approaches at different stages of the project cycle

Stages of the Project Cycle and sample tools What is happening within companies?

Company perspective How do communities see it?

Community perspective A Co-planning and Monitoring Approach •

Exploration/project concept

information meetings •

Feasibility studies and project planning

community forums •


community Scorecard •


pariticipatory budgeting •


participatory evaluation •

Downsizing, closure, divestment

citizen report cards

Post-closure Legacy

• Very small footprint; • Small chance of moving to next stage; • New personnel, not same as those in exploration • Opportunity for local jobs • Limited employment opportunities for locals • Hardly noticeable; • Some use local labor, supplies; • Heightened awareness that a big project may take place • Influx of people: contractors, migrants; • Few permanent jobs with company • Environmental and social impact studies and plans • Local partners are very important in planning closure • Legacy has a strong impact on company reputation • Questions and expectations of benefit • Environmental reconstitution in some places, or destruction.

• Sustainable infrastructure • Tools for engagement are limited by likelihood of project development • Relationship building. Confirmation of rules of relationship.

• Processes in place for complaints management • Relationship building. Confirmation of rules of relationship.

• Confirmation of rules of relationship.

• Include local government and communities in planning process. • Participatory engagement


Local Conflict Management Toolkit

• • • •

Conflict analysis tools

to diagnose and understand existing/potential conflict (awareness, stakeholder & conflict mapping, conflict sensitive business practices…)

Community development implementation tools

that take conflict into account (Do No Harm, Participatory Needs & Opportunities Assessment, Community Environmental Monitoring…)

Dispute resolution tools

to mediate and resolve conflict as it arises (Grievance Mechanisms, Alternative Dispute Resolution)

Guidance offered per EI Project Cycle Stage

Environmental Resources Management


Conflict Flashpoints in Community Development

Flashpoint Flashpoints in Community Development Design

Selection of Target Communities

Perception that selected groups are being favored – e.g. for ethnic reasons – rather than development needs or because of direct effects of project

Prioritization of Community Needs

Issue of Concern Certain leaders may try to sway discussions in their favor to the disadvantages of other groups within the community Recommendation Develop selection criteria for target communities that are clear, robust and transparent. If you get it wrong the first time, do not be concerned about expanding or reorienting the program if necessary (see BTC and Ahafo case studies) Base community development programs on transparently conducted participatory needs assessment (see Tool: Participatory Needs and Opportunity Assessment (PNOA)) which includes all community groups including the vulnerable and marginalized.

Other Flashpoints: Representation on CD program committees or community-based organizations (CBOs),Collection of Community Contributions and Local Government Engagement.

Flashpoint in Porject Management: Management of Project Resources, Program Results and Outcomes.

Flashpoints linked with Closure or Change: mismanagement of response to grievances, Unmanaged Expectations, Change in Management team or community relations manager.

Exit of Donors, Program Exit, Untimely management or 13

Managing Conflict during Extractive Industries Project Cycle Stages

Stages of the Project Cycle Normal questions/concerns within companies Normal questions/concerns within communities Types of Community Development activities to consider Suggested Tools Exploration/project concept

• What do we say to the communities when they ask us what they will receive from this project? • Will they build roads and hospitals?


• How can we stick to our tight timeline and avoid any disruption by local communities? • There is an influx of people: contractors, migrants in the area. These strangers don’t understand our local culture and customs. • Consult communities to determine who is directly affected by exploration and what community development needs they have, using participatory techniques and ensuring you don’t raise expectations or just extract a laundry list of needs. • Continue to undertake investments to show tangible contributions and build trust. For oil and gas, construction phase is often the highest profile and most intrusive and full ramped up community investment program is advisable. • Project tools companies normally use:

• Risk Assessment • Screening

• Project tools companies normally use:

• ESHIA Management Plan implementation • Implement Grievance Mechanism 14

Map of Conflict Causes and Intervention Possibilities


Five Take-aways For Practitioners






Community development always has the potential to cause conflict so ensure that, at a minimum, your design is conflict-aware.

Engage your stakeholders. Involve them in participatory processes which build trust in both the design and implementation of your projects. Implementing just any community development is not always good for communities or for your company. Effective community development is conflict-aware, participatory, based on a systematic identification of needs and opportunities and strategic to the business. If you are operating in a conflict environment, you can make a positive contribution to peace-building using indirect approaches through community development, making your business environment more stable.

Deal with company-induced conflict as quickly and transparently as possible to avoid escalation. Community development is no substitute for understanding and resolving grievances head-on.


Conflict Analysis Tools



Raising Awareness of Conflict Causes & Intervention Strategies Conflict Mapping - Channel Research 3.





Conflict Sensitive Business Practice: Guidance for Extractive Industries Stakeholder Mapping Actor Mapping 8.


Based on the Do No Harm Framework Identifying Community Investment Priorities Using Environmental, Social And Health Impact Assessment (Eshia) Participatory Needs and Opportunity Assessment (Pnoa) Community Environmental Monitoring Committee 10. Grievance Mechanisms 11. Alternative Dispute Resolution


Case Study examples

1. BTC/SCP Pipelines – Community Investment Program (CIP), Republic of Georgia 2. Marlin Mine, Guatemala 3. Occidental & Ecopetrol, Colombia 4. Niger Delta, Nigeria 5. Oundjo Tribe, Koniambo Nickel Sas, New Caledonia 6. Ahafo Gold Mine Development – Ghana 7. Artisanal and Small-scale Mining, Democratic Republic of Congo 8. Michigan Mining and Multi-stakeholder Dialogue


Indicators of Community Investment

Evaluate six common dimensions:

Education, Health, Infrastructure, Livelihoods, Stakeholder Engagement, Capacity Building •

Go beyond inputs and outputs:

Quantitative & qualitative

indicators to track Inputs, Outputs, Outcomes, Local Development Impacts, and Company’s Return on Investment •

Solicit diverse local participation

in designing community investment programs, setting criteria for success and tracking progress

IFC Environment & Social Dept.


Indicators for Community Investment...Education ex:

Inputs Outputs

•   


Money spent (and value of in-kind contributions)  Number of schools built Number of teachers hired Volume of supplies acquired 


Examples of Participatory Focus Groups (

Women’s Group, Youth Group, Traditional Auth/Local Government)

Stakeholder perceptions of their engagement in design process Stakeholder perceptions of quality of schools and teachers a. Does the new school meet local cultural concerns? Is the school located in a safe place for children (especially girls) to walk to and from?

b. Are students treated fairly regardless of family status?

c. Is the curriculum culturally appropriate? Consistent w/ state-funded schools?

Outcomes Develop ment Impacts Company Return on Investmnt

  % change in access to education rates % change in grade completion rates    Quantity of links to employment or higher education a. change in number of students who went on to better jobs or higher education Changes in operating environment/productivity affected by relations with community stakeholder groups impacted by school Number of youth hired  Community perception of quality and usefulness of education a. Does the school provide skills children need to work locally, ie, agriculture?

b. Does the school prepare youth to compete for scholarships to enter the next level?


Has the company school freed up gov’t resources for other needed projects?

 Quality of links to employment or higher education • Stakeholder perceptions of their voice/ engagement in implementation and monitoring • How many young people have secured local jobs vs. how many have decided to move away?

• How many graduates were hired by the company and made higher income?

• Did the program change community perceptions of local gov’t positively or negatively?

      Changes in local stakeholder perceptions about the company Changes in company workforce perceptions of local community Changes in quantity and quality of opportunities to discuss local priorities with company reps Changes in feelings of hostility toward the company Changes in vandalism rates of company property Quality of relations between the company and local government or traditional authorities


Information Clearinghouse


Information Clearinghouse


• • • • • A resource for global good practices, tools, training programs and methodologies for supporting community development in mineral extractive environments Over 1,500 selective resources available Resource Center organized into 20 key topic areas Set of tool kits to guide users implementing community development projects Case studies, TORs, current news and events, glossary, external links and more…