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General Procedure
of Shipbuilding
Soo-Kwan Oh
Technical/ Marketing Manager
For the benefit of business and people
SUMMARY
1
FROM CONTRACT TO
DELIVERY
2
CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY
3
LARGE CONTAINER VESSEL
2
1
> From Contract to
Delivery
3
1
CONCEPT
From Contract to Delivery
Owner Project
Shipyard
CONTRACT
Contract/ Business Dept.
Ship Sales Engineering Dept.
DESIGN
Basic/ Production
Purchasing of Material
Owner/ Class Approval
PRODUCTION
DELIVERY
Purchasing Dept.
Hull
Hull Outfitting
Machinery Outfitting
Electric Outfitting
Painting
Quality Assurance
Production Control
A/S
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1
INITIAL STAGE
From Contract to Delivery
Owner
Project Planning
Broker
Shipyard
* Owner
* Shipyard
Purpose
Route
Economic
Contract/ Business Dept.
Ship Sales Engineering Dept.
OFFER
BRIEF SPEC’
Negotiation
Technical Meeting
Full Spec’/ Class
Cost Balance
Letter of Intent
Total Quantity
Option
Delivery Date
CONTRACT
Contract Specification
Contract G/A, Midship, Piping Diagram
Accommodation Plan
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1
From Contract to Delivery
INITIAL STAGE
 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT
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1
From Contract to Delivery
INITIAL STAGE
 75K MIDSHIP
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1
From Contract to Delivery
INITIAL STAGE
 75K MIDSHIP
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1
From Contract to Delivery
INITIAL STAGE
 DIAGRAM OUTFIT
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1
From Contract to Delivery
INITIAL STAGE
 DIAGRAM OUTFIT
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1
From Contract to Delivery
INITIAL STAGE
 DIAGRAM OUTFIT
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1
From Contract to Delivery
INITIAL STAGE
 DIAGRAM-MACHINERY
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1
From Contract to Delivery
INITIAL STAGE
 DIAGRAM-MACHINERY
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1
From Contract to Delivery
INITIAL STAGE
 DIAGRAM-MACHINERY
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1
From Contract to Delivery
INITIAL STAGE
 ACCOMMODATION PLAN
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1
From Contract to Delivery
INITIAL STAGE
 ACCOMMODATION PLAN
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1
From Contract to Delivery
INITIAL STAGE
 ACCOMMODATION PLAN
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1
DESIGN STAGE
From Contract to Delivery
 DESIGN STAGE
Basic Design
Key Design
Production Design
Lines, Propeller
General Arrangement
Trim & Stability
Loading, etc.
Hull Key Plan
: Midship Section
Construction Profile & Deck Plan
Shell Expansion
Structure Drawing
: Cargo Hold
Engine Room/ Fore Body/ Aft Body
Stern Frame/ Accommodation
Production Drawing : Shop Drawing/ Cutting Plan
Hull Design
Structural Analysis
Painting
Purchasing Order
: Static Analysis –Coarse Mesh/ Fine Mesh
Fatigue Analysis
Sloshing Analysis
Bow Impact & Slamming Analysis
Vibration Analysis
: Steel Plate, Angle etc, Paint
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1
DESIGN STAGE
From Contract to Delivery
Hull Outfitting Design
Key Design
: Piping Diagram, Ventilation
Mooring, Anchoring, Steering
Life Saving, Fire Fighting
Traffic Arrangement
Production Design
: Pipe Piece, Traffic Piece, etc
Small Equipment
Accommodation Design : Interior, Piping, Outfitting
Purchasing Order
Machinery Outfitting
: Pipe, Valve, Equipment
Key Design
: E/R Piping Diagram,
Machinery Arrangement, M/E,
Generator, Boiler, Compressor
Production Design
: Pipe Piece, Vent Piece, etc.
Small Equipment
Purchasing Order
: Equipment, Valve, etc.
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1
DESIGN STAGE
From Contract to Delivery
Electric Outfitting
Key Design
: Automation
Electrical System
Navigation Equipment
Production Design
: Cable Piece
Light Equipment
Purchasing Order
: Switch Board
Equipment, Cable, Sensor
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1
PRODUCTION STAGE
From Contract to Delivery
CONDITION
Yard Facility
Production Control
Material Control
Production Control
Production – Hull, Hull Outfitting,
Machinery Outfitting, Paint
Quality Assurance
HULL PRODUCTION
Cutting
P.E
Grand P.E
Sub-Assembly
Block
Painting
Assembly
Inspection
Owner/ Class
Each Block
Pre-Outfitting
Dock Erection
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1
PRODUCTION STAGE
From Contract to Delivery
OUTFITTING PRODUCTION
Pre-Outfitting
In Block
Outfitting
In Dock
Outfitting
In Quay
Dock Painting
Cosmetic
Painting
PAINTING
Block Painting
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1
DELIVERY & A/S
From Contract to Delivery
READY TO SEA TRIAL
Official Sea Trial
Shipyard, Owner, Class
Shipyard
Ship owner
Speed
Endurance
Tank Test
Anchoring/ Mooring
Rudder, Steering
Vibration, Noise
Equipment Operation
Navigation
Correction
If Any
Delivery
Sign
Departure
A/S
(1 YEAR)
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2
> Classification
24
2
MAJOR WORK
Classification
SHIP’S SAFETY DURING LIFE TIME
 DRAWING APPROVAL
Yard Design
Maker Design
 INSPECTION DURING BUILDING
 CERTIFICATION
Intermediate
 INSPECTION AFTER DELIVERY
Periodical
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CLASS PROCESS
SHIP NEW CONSTRUCTION :
Design review
Commercial
Follow-up in service
T0
T0 + C
Contract
Delivery
to Owner
RFC
Signed
Ad 523
signed by
LPO
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CLASS PROCESS
Design review : basically 4 BV actors
BVN surveyors
Field surveyor
LPO
Marine Center
DTM support
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CLASS PROCESS
Design review
T0
Contract
LPO core activity : Design review
• Design review can start before RFC signed
( TAKE CARE - CONTRACT DEFINITION )
T0 + C
Delivery
to Owner
•Completed when Ad 523 + annexes are examined and
signed
( technical green light given to CM for Class certificate )
RFC
Signed
Ad 523
signed by
LPO
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CLASS PROCESS
Design review
LPO core business : Design review against Referential
T0
Contract
• Referential : BV Rules / IMO Reg.
• LPO Interpretations :
- allowed with BV Rules ( within general conditions)
- not allowed for IMO Reg.
T0 + C
Delivery
to Owner
• Rules : technical interpretations / protect interest of
Owner ( final CLIENT )
RFC
Signed
• High technical knowledge frequently requested as
Clients may be less educated / powerfull than BV
Ad 523
signed by
LPO
• Great risk of uncontrolled move from design review
activity to Consultancy activity
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CLASS PROCESS
Follow-up in service
T0 + C
Delivery
to Owner
Scrap
LPO activity :
• Design review at any time in case of
conversion
• Rules : technical interpretations / protect
interest of Owner
or
• Technical support of CMs / Station surveys
Ad 523
signed by
LPO
• Several LPOs may be concerned
• Technical documentation processing
( drawings + calculation sheets )
Change
of
Class
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TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
 Different from Class design review : BV acts as designer in scope of
Consultancy
 Technical expertise and knowledge is ( must be ) sold to Client
 Highly profitable
 HIGH RISK OF :
- transfer of Yard know-how
- confusion on status of conclusions
- pressure from management
 ALWAYS BE CLEAR ABOUT THE CAP YOU WEAR / THE FORMAT OF
COMMENTS YOU ARE ALLOWED TO GIVE
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2
IACS MEMBERS
Classification
 MEMBER
ABS : American Bureau of Shipping
BV : Bureau Veritas
CCS : China Classification Society
DNV : Det Norske Veritas
GL
: Germanischer Lloyd
KR
: Korean Register of Shipping
LR
: Lloyd Register
NK
: Nippon Kaiji Kyokai
RINA : Registro Italiano Navale
RS
: Russian Maritime Register of Shipping
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2
IACS MEMBERS
Classification
 ASSOCIATES
IRS
: Indian Register of Shipping
 REQUIREMENTS
- Procedural Requirement
- Unified Requirements
- Unified Interpretations
- Guide Line & Recommendations, etc.
 Web Site
www.iacs.org.uk
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3
> Large Container Vessel
34
SUMMARY
1
General : Large Container
Vessels
2
Bureau Veritas References
in Large Container Vessels
3 BV Hull Expertise
- Steps of review process
- Torsion analysis
- Fatigue analysis
- Bow flare analysis
4
BV Lashing Expertise
5 BV Shaft Alignment Expertise
6 Parametric Roll Calculation
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1
GENERAL
LARGE CONTAINER VESSELS
 The size range for the largest containerships is expected to increase
significantly in the near future as economies of scale remains the
dominant operational factor driving efficient transport.
 The Largest containerships currently in service are in the 7000-8000 TEU
range. Many leading shipyard have developed designs for vessels with
additional containers rows, tiers and holds. Increase main dimension
and capacity up to 9000/10000 TEU.
 In the future the carrying capacity of containerships is expected to
increase to 12000 TEU and above
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1
LARGE CONTAINER VESSELS
GENERAL
 Fleet development for container ships
Fleet development in '000 teu
8,000
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
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1
LARGE CONTAINER VESSELS
GENERAL
 Order Books for container ships
Order book Feb 2005, number of ships
250
200
150
100
50
0
<1000
10002000
20003000
30004000
40005000
50006000
60007000
70008000
8000+
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1
GENERAL
LARGE CONTAINER VESSELS
 Challenges with the increase of size of containerships
• Torsion/Warping stress
• Fatigue
• Acceleration forces on lashing
• Engine power
• Shaft alignment
• Parametric roll
• Slamming/Bow impact
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2
BV REFERENCES
CONTAINER SHIPS BUILDING
 LAST MAIN REFERENCES
• HHI
» 1x5,500 TEU containerships for YANG MING LINE
» 1x7,800 TEU containership for CMA CGM
» 10x5,100 TEU containerships for CMA CGM (under building)
» 2x5,100 TEU containerships for CMA CGM (under building at HSHI)
» 2x9,200 TEU containerships for CMA CGM (under building)
» 2x9,200 TEU containerships for CMA CGM (under building at HSHI)
» 2x8,200 TEU containerships for CMA CGM (under building)
» 2x8,200 TEU containerships for CMA CGM (under building at HSHI)
» 1x8,200 TEU containership for YANG MING LINE (under building)
• DSME
» 1x6,500 TEU containership for CGM CMA
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2

BV REFERENCES
CONTAINER SHIPS BUILDING
LAST MAIN REFERENCES
• HHIC
» 2x1,600 TEU containerships for DELMAS
» 4x1,600 TEU containerships for VROON
» 2x4,300 TEU containerships for CMA CGM
» 3x6,500 TEU containerships for CMA CGM
• SHI
» 8 x 5,770 TEU containerships for CMA CGM
• CSBC
» 18x2,200 TEU containerships for WAN HAI LINES, DELMAS, CMA CGM,
YANG MING LINE
• IMABARI
» 3x5,500 TEU containerships for COSCO
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2
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
BV REFERENCES
< 9,200 TEU CONTAINERSHIP >
 Main Dimensions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Length btw. PP
333,44 m
Breadth
42,8 m
Depth, to upper deck
27,3 m
Draught, summer
14,5 m
Speed
24,25 kn
Power
68656 kW
 Key elements: Between half December and the end of March the complete structure has been
reviewed. This was only possible in close cooperation with the Shipyard. Several meetings at the
shipyard site, exchanging information and calculation results and discussing the findings, have
taken place. Two offices of Bureau Veritas, Korea and Paris, have been working around the clock in
order to make the deadlines of the shipyard.
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3
CRITIAL AREA OF LARGE CONTAINER
SHIPS
BV HULL EXPERTISE
Hatch coamings /
Superstructures connection
Longitudinal Hatch Coamings
Bow Flare
impact
Bottom
Slamming
Transverse Bulkhead
connections
Cross-deck structures
Hatch corners
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3
BV HULL EXPERTISE
STEP OF REVIEW PROCESS
 DESIGN REVIEW PROCESS
» General and subdivision arrangement
» Mid-ship section : Longitudinal strength and local rule scantlings
» All sections : Longitudinal strength and local rules scantlings
» Torsion model : Warping stress estimation all along the vessel
be included in the global stress)
(to
» Key drawings: primary members calculation (local + global stress)
» Detail drawings / reinforcement : bracket reinforcement under stack...
» Bow impact and flat forward bottom area
» Other calculations: Loading manual strength analysis, Lashing...
 IN PARALLEL TO DESIGN REVIEW PROCESS
» FEM (VeriSTAR) calculations: double check for design review
» Fatigue Analysis with Mars/VeriSTAR
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3
BV HULL EXPERTISE
TORSION ANALYSIS
MARS - TORCIS ANALYSIS
»
TORCIS calculation
2 calculations:
wave 60 degree
wave 120 degree
Modelisation of
all cargo holds
Estimation of shear force
in cross deck beams
Estimation of warping stress
in side shell , upper-deck
all along the vessel N/mm2
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3
BV HULL EXPERTISE
TORSION ANALYSIS
MARS - TORCIS ANALYSIS
Buckling due to warping
Fatigue due to warping
(L27) 16 years
(L28) 17 years
(L29) 13 years
(L30) 15 years
(L31) 17 years
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3
TORSION ANALYSIS
BV HULL EXPERTISE
 Analyses based on complete ship model
VeriSTAR is use for
- Buckling analysis (coarse mesh)
- Yielding analysis (fine mesh)
- Fatigue analysis (very fine mesh)
Full model of 9200 TEU containership
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3
BV HULL EXPERTISE
TORSION ANALYSIS
 Methodology and steps of a VeriSTAR CSM calculations
»σX1 =
σs1 + γw1(Cfvσwv1+Cfhσwh1 + CfΏσΩ )
γs1
Quartering sea: Maximize static , vertical bending (50%), horizontal bending (100%) and torsion (100%)
50% Vertical Bending moment
Maximum Torsion at fore part
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6
COMPLETE SHIP MODEL
3D FEM CALCULATIONS
VERISTAR
 Methodology and steps of a VeriSTAR CSM calculations
» Coarse mesh modelling : full ship
» Definition of ballast areas and container loading points
» Static calculation with lightship weight: loading conditions
– lightship (checking case)
– ballast (maximum Bending moment)
– full load (maximum draft)
– compare data with loading manual
(draft,displacement,still water bending moment…)
» Wave Load calculations: load cases
– based on selection of design waves (table 5)
– Head Sea (longitudinal strength)
– Beam Sea (transverse strength)
– Quartering sea (torsion strength)
» Fine mesh analyses
– based on areas to be analysed (Table 1)
– Hatch corners, cross deck, connection superstructure,connection girders...
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3
BV HULL EXPERTISE
COMPLETE SHIP MODEL
 Principle Design wave load (see also Table 5)
» Maximum Vertical Wave Bending Moment in Hogging condition
» Maximum Wave Torque at vicinity of 0.25L (aft part)
» Maximum Wave Torque at mid-ship
» Maximum Wave Torque at vicinity of 0.75L (fore part)
» Maximum vertical acceleration in inclined conditions
Sea keeping calculation
Iterative process
» Maximum vertical acceleration in upright conditions
» Maximum transverse acceleration
 Wave design load to be associate with loading conditions
» Ballast, full load
» Load cases
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3
TORSION ANALYSIS
BV HULL EXPERTISE
 Stresses and Deformation
Stress in Hatch coaming
Connection superstructure
Stress Cross deck
Stress Girders
Buckling in bottom area
Head Sea Condition
Stress Hatch corners
Buckling in bulkhead and bilge area
Quartering sea condition
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3
TORSION ANALYSIS
BV HULL EXPERTISE
 Areas to be analysed through fine Mesh models
Examples:
- Hatch Corners
- Connection of hatch coaming
with superstructure
- Transverse Bulkhead
- Support Bulkhead
- Transverse Frame
- Bottom Girders
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3
TORSION ANALYSIS
BV HULL EXPERTISE
HATCH CORNERS
Typical stress range in head sea
Typical stress range in oblique sea
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3
BV HULL EXPERTISE
TORSION ANALYSIS
 Support Bulkhead
Maximum pressure
in alternate condition
one bay empty
Shear stress
at maximum draft
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3
BV HULL EXPERTISE
TORSION ANALYSIS
 Connection with
superstructure
Stress concentrations
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3
FATIGUE ANALYSIS
BV HULL EXPERTISE
 Steps for Fatigue calculation of side shell longitudinals:
» 1st step : 2D Fatigue Analysis
» 2nd Step: 3D Fatigue Analysis
 Fatigue calculations for Hatch corners
» One Step: 3D Fatigue Analysis
Cracks in side shell longitudinal due to fatigue
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3
BV HULL EXPERTISE
FATIGUE ANALYSIS
 Side Shell longitudinals
To compare with Mars results
Fatigue
Hot spot 1
Damage Fatigue
Life calculation
to be over 20 years
Fatigue
Hot spot 2
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3
FATIGUE ANALYSIS
BV HULL EXPERTISE
 Hatch Corners
In order to increase fatigue life,
compromise between:
- sufficient reinforcement
- smooth grinding
Especially fore part area due to high
torsional loads
Hot spot edge of the corner
Hatch corner in the midship and fore part
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3
BV HULL EXPERTISE
FATIGUE ANALYSIS
 Hatch Corners
In order to increase fatigue life,
compromise between:
- sufficient reinforcement
- smooth grinding
Smooth Grinding improves
the fatigue life by 2
Hot spot edge of the corner
Hatch corner in the aft part at ER
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3
BV HULL EXPERTISE
SLAMMING/ BOW IMPACT
 Slamming
Maximum impact in forward area:
- Buckling in transverse frames
- Buckling on side shell plate and stiffeners
- Detail connections in forward area
VeriSTAR calculations with maximum vertical
Blow flare analysis
acceleration and in sagging condition.
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3
BV HULL EXPERTISE
SLAMMING/ BOW IMPACT
 Buckling in transverse frame at fore part
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END
Thank You
for
Your Attention !
62