Prep., Conj. & Interj.

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Transcript Prep., Conj. & Interj.


What are prepositions? Page 152


_____________________ the box If you can place a word in the blank and it describes a relationship with the box, then that word is a preposition. *NEVER place a VERB on that blank line.


A preposition is a word that shows a relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentence. • Robots in outer space perform useful functions. • The robot is above the spacecraft.


PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, its object, and any modifiers.

• Robots conduct missions for the space program. • Among their many tasks is photographing the planets.

PRACTICE & APPLY Complete exercise on page 154 using Activ Inspire.


Sometimes the same exact word can be used as a preposition or as an adverb.

If the word has no object, then it is an adverb. • The spacecraft has no gravity within its walls. • The spacecraft has no gravity within.

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES PART 1 • Adjective Phrases An adjective prepositional phrase modifies a noun or pronoun. • Like an adjective, a prepositional phrase can tell which one, how many, or what kind. • Robots perform several jobs in the automobile industry. • The sprayer on an assembly line is an industrial root.

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES PART 2 Adverb Phrases • An adverb prepositional phrase modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. • An adverb prepositional phrase can tell where, when, how, why, or to what extent. • Industrial robots operate from fixed positions. • These robots are reprogrammable for various tasks.

PRACTICE & APPLY Complete exercise on page 157.

(on next slide)

1.Automotive manufacturers around the world have installed robots. 2.In factories, robots work quickly and efficiently. 3.Many factory robots are arms on moving rails. 4.Mechanical arms move systematically down an assembly line. 5.Robots work chiefly under hazardous conditions. 6.With great precision, robots spray-paint cars.

7.They are immune to dangerous paint fumes. 8.Mold-maker robots inject red-hot metal into molds.

9.Robots handle materials that would cause damage to human flesh.

10.Arc welding is another job among the many risky jobs that robots perform.


What are conjunctions? Page 158


DEFINITION OF A CONJUNCTION: A conjunction is a word used to join words or groups of words together. • #1 Coordinating Conjunctions • #2 Correlative Conjunctions

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS A coordinating conjunction connects words used in the same way. The words joined by a conjunction can be subjects, objects, predicates, or any other kind of sentence parts.


• • • • • • • • •

and but for or nor so yet while until

COORDINATING CONJUNCTION EXAMPLES 1. Motors and software control a robot named Cog. 2. Cog can make eye contact and track motion.

3. Cog is a computer-drive machine, but it acts like a human being. 4. Kismet, another robot, can smile or look sad.


Correlative conjunctions are pairs of words that connect words used in the same way. Like coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions can join any part of the subject together.


• • • • •

both…and either…or not only…but also neither…nor whether…or

CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTION EXAMPLES 1.Cog moves not only its head but also its arms. 2.Both Cog and Kismet are robots with intelligence.

PRACTICE & APPLY Complete exercise on page 160.

(on next slide)

1. Cog and Kismet are two robots developed at MIT, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2. The robot Cog has an upper body, but it doesn’t have any legs. 3. Cog’s achievements are few, yet they are so impressive. 4. Cog not only stares at strangers but also follows them with its gaze as they cross a room. 5. Cog can play drums and even played them in a rock video. 6. It can move a toy or pick up a stuffed animal. 7. Kismet needs constant stimulation, yet it is easily amused. 8. Its features are cartoon-like, and its big blue eyes open wide. 9. Kismet can respond to its handlers’ actions with a smile or a look of interest. 10.Neither Cog nor Kismet is programmed with emotions.

INTERJECTIONS An interjection is a word or phrase used to express emotion. An interjection can stand alone or be set off by a comma. Writers often use interjections to express strong emotions (such as anger, joy, concern, surprise, terror, and disgust).




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