Chapter 8 Ancient China

Download Report

Transcript Chapter 8 Ancient China

Chapter 8 Ancient China
Geography Shapes Life in Ancient China
Chapter 8 Lesson 1
 Located on the Eastern side of Asia
 Lies about same latitude lines as United States
 Bordered on the east by the Yellow Sea, East China Sea,
and the Pacific Ocean
 Deserts edge the northern and western lands.
North—Gobi Desert
West—Taklimakan Desert
 Mountain ranges form tight curve on western border
Pamir, Tian Shan, and Himalaya mountains.
Isolated by Barriers
 Did not interact with other
civilizations because
geographically separated
from other civilizations
because of:
Mountain ranges
Large bodies of water
 Made spread of ideas
Two River System
 Chang Jiang/Yangtze
located in central China
 Huang He/Yellow River is
located to the north
 Both deposit yellow silt
 Farming done between
the two rivers—area
called North China Plain
A Varied Climate
 Western China: dry like
Western United States
 Northern China: like New
England (Maine, New
Hampshire, Connecticut,
Wheat and millet grown
in the drier northern
 Southeast China: like
southern United States
Rice grown in the moist
Shang Dynasty
 Around 2000 B.C.
farming settlements
along the Huang He grew
into cities.
 The beginning of Chinese
culture developed.
 China is the oldest,
longest lasting
civilization in the world!
Shang Kings
 Dynasty: line of rulers from
the same family
 1766 B.C. Shang family
started to rule some cities.
 Kings were responsible for
religious activities.
 Claimed to rule with gods’
 Controlled central portion of
North China Plain
 Relatives ruled distant areas
 Protected themselves from
nomads, the Zhou, to the
North and west with chariots.
Shang Families
 Respect for family and
ancestors very important
 Family was closely tied to
 Believes spirits of
ancestors could bring
good fortune to family
 Family paid respect to
father’s ancestors by
making animal sacrifices
 Men were in charge of
the family
Developing Language
 Oracle bones—animal
bones or turtle shells on
which Shang royal
priests used to interpret
messages from the gods.
 Priests would make
scratch marks on bones
and shells—early form of
Developing Language Continued…
 Pictograph system of
writing developed
 Used simple
drawings/symbols for
words or ideas
 To barely be able to
read and write must
know at least 1,500
Characters in the
Chinese alphabet
 Scribe needed to know
10,000 characters
The Zhou Dynasty
 1027 B.C. the Zhou ruler,
Wu Wang, defeated the
Shang dynasty.
 A new dynasty was
 Adopted many Shang
ways and started the
pattern of Chinese
Dynastic Cycle
1. Mandate of
Heaven: The
people believe
the new
dynasty has
the gods’
The new
restores peace
and order.
The dynasty’s
power grows
The dynasty is
Disasters such
as floods,
famines, and
The people
believe the
dynasty has
lost the gods’
Zhou Government
 Did not have strong
central government.
 Family members or
trusted friends were put
in control of regions
 Regions owed military
service to the Zhou king,
and the king would
protect their lands.
 As cities grew lords
became more powerful
and fought against
themselves to expand
Chinese territory.
The Time of the Warring States
 800 B.C. Invaders killed
the Zhou king, but the
Zhou family escaped and
set up a new capital.
 The Warring States:
Starting around 403
B.C., Lords and regions
fought constantly due to
the fact the Zhou kings
were weak.
China’s Ancient Philosophies
Chapter 8 Lesson 2
 Philosophy: study of
basic truths and ideas
about the universe
 Legalism: a belief that
rulers should use the
legal system to force
people to obey laws
 These people believed a
strong government was
the answer to China’s
Strict Laws and Harsh Punishments
 Legalists’ beliefs:
Human nature is
naturally wicked, and
people must be forced
to do good.
Government must pass
strict laws to control the
way people behave
Harsh punishments
make people fear doing
An Increase of Government Control
 Shang Yang wanted people to turn in others who broke
the law.
 He thought that people who did not report lawbreakers
should be punished.
 Legalists:
thought those who did their duty should be rewarded.
did not want people to complain about government.
Favored arresting people who questioned the government
or taught different ideas.
Thought rulers should burn books that contained different
philosophies or ideas.
 Lived 551-479 B.C.
 Developed ideas to end
conflict and have peace in all
 Believed:
respect for others was
absolutely necessary for
peace and harmony
Government leaders should
set a good example
 Students collected Confucius’
teachings and ideas to make
book called the Analects which
Confucianism is based.
The Five Relationships
 Confucius created code
of proper conduct for
 Each relationship has its
own duties and own code
of conduct.
Father and Son
Elder Brother and
Junior Brother
Husband and Wife
 Relationships fall under
two categories:
Proper conduct in the
Proper conduct in
Friend and Friend
Ruler and Subject
Proper Conduct
 Authority should be
 Ruler should lead in a
right, moral way and
subjects will obey.
 Ruler should treat
subjects with respect.
 Confucius believed
respect and good
behavior started at
 Filial Piety—respect for
one’s parents and
The Impact of Confucianism
 Confucianism set out clear
family and social roles.
 Chinese found ways to
avoid problems and live
 Many rulers tried to follow
 By encouraging education,
Confucius laid groundwork
for fair and skilled
government officials.
Daoism & The Way
 Is said to be started with Laozi, “Old
 Book of teachings called Dao De Jing
(The Book of the Virtue)
 Believes “The Way” or Dao guides all
 All creatures except humans follow
 Humans must learn to live in harmony
with nature and with their inner
feelings to find the way.
Following the Way
 Daoists accepted things as they were.
 Did not become involved with government
 Tried to understand nature and live in harmony with it.
 Yin Yang: two things that interact with one another
Yin (black): all things cold, dark, and mysterious
Yang (white): all that is warm, bright, and light.
Compliment each other
Helps people understand how the fit into the world.
The Qin and the Han
Lesson 3
The Qin Unified China—A Legalistic Ruler
 New ruler came from
state of Qin
 New emperor -- Shi
 Stopped battles within
warring states. Co
 Conquered rival states
 Drove out nomadic
 China grew the largest it
had ever been!
A Legalistic Ruler Continued…
 Shi Huangdi didn’t
believe in Confucian
 Killed 460 government
critics and Confucianists
 Ordered burning of
books that had ideas he
Uniting China
 Wanted total control of
Took land away from
defeated noble families
Forced nobles to live at the
capital so he could watch
This weakened noble families’
 Shi Huangdi build highways
and irrigation projects.
Forced peasants to work on
Set high taxes for peasants
to pay
 Made a standard measure of
weights, coins, and writing to
unite the country.
The Great Wall of China
 Shi Huangdi planned the
Great Wall along the
northern border to keep out
 Thousands of peasants and
criminals forced to build it.
 Many died and the people
resented the emperor.
 Great Wall linked many
small walls that were built
during the time of the
Warring States.
 Earliest walls built of earth,
later stone and brick were
The Qin Dynasty Ends
 Shi Huandi died in 210 B.C.E.
 Created an elaborate tomb with terra cotta soldiers.
 Archeologists discovered the soliders in 1974
Han Dynasty
 The Han Dynasty began in 202 B.C.E. after Liu Bang
defeated the Qin forces.
Han Government
 Liu Bang kept Qin policies of
central government, but
lowered taxes.
 Made punishments less
 Peasant men owed the
government a month of
labor/work a year on
government projects.
 Peasants built roads, canals,
and irrigation projects.
Han Government Cont…
 Bureaucracy: network of
appointed officials that assist
in government
 Officials helped Liu Bang
enforce rules.
 Bureaucrats put family
members and trusted people
in local government
 Set up a system of tests to
find the most educated and
ethical people for the
imperial bureaucratic state.
Tested people on their
knowledge of Confucianism.
Empress Rules
 Liu Bang died 195 B.C.
 Widow, Empress Lu took
the thrown for their young
 Outlived son and continued
to put babies on the throne
so she could rule for them.
 When she died in 180 B.C.
all her family members
were killed.
Expanding the Empire
 Wudi (descendent of Liu
Bang) ruled the Han empire
from 141-87 B.C.E.
 Made many military
conquests including southern
Chinese provinces, northern
Vietnam, and northern Korea.
 Chased nomadic invaders out
of northern China
 China was almost as large as
modern day China.
 The Han empire faced
rebellions, peasant revolts,
floods, famine, and economic
disasters, but stayed in power
until 220 C.E./A.D.
Daily Life in Han China
 Majority of society lived
and worked on farms.
 Farmers lived in one to
two story houses in
villages near their farm.
 Barns, pigsties, and
storage buildings were
located in the village.
 Rich farmers had ox to
pull their plows while
poor farmers had to pull
the plows themselves.
Daily Life in Han China Cont…
 Farmers wore simple
clothing and sandals like
 Clothing was stuffed like
quilts for colder weather.
 Northern farmers grew
wheat or millet.
 Southern farmers grew rice.
 Families kept vegetable
gardens for additional food.
 Fish and meat were
expensive so people ate
small portions.
City Living
 Cities were centers of
trade, education, and
 Merchants, craftspeople,
and government officials
lived in the city.
 Cities were crowded and
had lots of entertainment
Included musicians,
jugglers, and acrobats
 Some cities had street
The Legacy of Ancient China
Chapter 8, Lesson 4
The Silk Road
 Only Chinese new how to
make silk during the Han
 Silk is a luxury fabric
around the world.
A Trans-Eurasian Link
 Silk Roads: land trade routes that
people took to trade silk and
other goods on caravan trails.
 Trails stretched from China to
central Asia to Mesopotamia to
 Trans-Eurasian: stretched across
two continents and part of global
trade network.
 Goods leaving China included:
 Goods exchanged from the west
Sesame seeds and oil
Precious stones
Cultural Diffusion
 Cultural Diffusion: the
spread of ideas and
 Cultural diffusion also was
traded on the Silk Road.
 For example:
Military methods
Western cultural styles
The Spread of Buddhism
 During Han Dynasty
Buddhist monks took the
Silk Road spreading the
religion to China, Japan,
and Korea.
 Chinese Buddhists
modified the religion to
fit their traditions.
Influential Ideas and Beliefs
 Confucianism remained
important in Chinese
government and
 Had a lasting influence.
 Ideas about social duty
are still important to
 Became influential
philosophy in Japan,
Korea, and Vietnam.
 By 6th century became
religion with priests,
rituals, and volumes of
 Remained primarily a
Chinese belief.
Chinese Inventions and Discoveries
Agricultural Improvements
 The plow and farm tools
increased crop production
 China lacked gold and
 For example:
 Important to trade silk for
this scarcity
Collar harness
Better plow
 Books used to be made out of
 105 A.D./C.E. paper was
invented by china
 Made it less expensive for
 Important in a culture that
valued learning.
 Silk is can be dyed brightly
and is long lasting.
 1 lb. silk equals 1 lb. of