Progress Movement - Clovis Municipal Schools

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Transcript Progress Movement - Clovis Municipal Schools

Progressive Era
1900-1916
Expose the ills of society brought on by the Industrial
Revolution and Big Government
– urbanization
– social disorder (labor)
– political corruption
• Write new laws to correct social problems
• Ideas based on Populism and goals of labor movement
• Government can be an instrument of social change
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• Journalistic “Voice” of Progressives
• Investigative journalists –
• Expose corruption and other problems that
needed to be addressed (no solutions)
• Profitable for magazines:
McClure’s, Cosmopolitan, Collier’s
Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle
Lincoln Stephen’s The Shame of the Cities
Ida Tarbell’s History of the Standard Oil Co.
** coined by T. Roosevelt
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Goals of Progressives
1)
2)
End laissez-faire
End abuses of monopolistic power with
antitrust legislation
• ex: Sherman Antitrust Act
3)
Make government more responsive
4)
Limit power of party bosses
• Government the vehicle to
improved society
• end government abuse of
power
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Progressive Methods
•
•
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Rely on Scientific Data
Value of Expert Opinion
Use Collective Action
Inform using Publications-muckrakers
• Pressure on legislatures to pass laws
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Origins of Progressivism
Could You?
• Explain the four goals of progressivism.
• Summarize progressive efforts to clean up
government.
• Identify progressive efforts to reform state
government, protect workers, and reform
elections.
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Progressive Political Reforms
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Political parties corrupt and Undemocratic
– Power must be diminished
– People must be given more power
» Australian (secret) ballot 1890
» Direct primary (nominate candidates)1902
» Initiative (propose laws)
» Referendum (vote yes or no on laws)
» Recall (call for re-election)
» Direct election of Senators (17th)
» Women’s suffrage (19th)
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Progressive Social Reforms
• Temperance movement
– WCTU
– Anti-Saloon League
• 18th amendment (1919)
– Volstead Act enforced prohibition
• Mann Act (1910) (White Slave Traffic) Illegal to
bring women into U.S. or across state lines
for immoral purposes
– Many states passed laws against
prostitution
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Social Gospel Movement
Social responsibility for others’ well
being
“my brother’s keeper”
Church people doing humanitarian
work -- YMCA
PADS program - food pantry
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Progressive Economic Reform
• Hepburn Act of 1906 : Regulate Rail Roads
• Mann-Elkins Act of 1910:
– ICC - Communications
• The Food & Drug Administration (FDA) 1906
– Prohibited mislabeling
– Sanitary Codes
• Tariff Reform - Lowered Tariffs on foreign
goods (permitted competition)
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Federal Reserve Act
• Weakness of existing
system: No plan for
times of financial
crisis.
• Solution: Create 12
Federal Reserve
Districts: “A” - “L”
• Purpose: Control the
Nation’s Supply of
Money
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Robert M. LaFollette
• US Rep and US Senator
• Progressive Wisconsin governor
• Wisconsin a model for progressive reform
“laboratory of progressivism”
“Wisconsin idea”
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Efforts to Clean Up City
Government
•
Toledo Reform - Samuel “Golden Rule”
Jones
– Lower utility rates
– Minimum wage & More Parks.
Reform!!!
•
Commission System
– Galveston, Tx
– Take politics out of the process
– Specialized professional ran
departments.
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The City Manager System
– Elected Boards of Commissioners
– City manager elected by
commissioners
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1904 Election Results
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National Political Reformers
Teddy Roosevelt
Howard Taft
Woodrow Wilson
Progressive Era Presidents 1901-1921 14
Teddy Roosevelt
“Square Deal”
• McKinley Assassination
• VP, Age 42, young, active, reform minded
president
• 1902 anthracite coal miner strike
– Demands: 20%/8hr/union
– Reality: 10%/9hr/no union
• Conservation
– Newlands Reclamation Act (1902)
• Dams for irrigating 16 states
– 150 million acres reserved for public
– National Conservation Commission
• established under Gifford Pinchot
• Northern Securities case (RR monopoly)
– “trustbuster” Teddy
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“Jack and the Giant Killer”
Trustbusting
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Conservation
John Muir
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Teddy Roosevelt
Consumer Protection
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Pure Food and Drug Act
(1906)
– forbade the
manufacture, sale and
transportion of
adulterated or mislabeled
foods and drugs.
(No harmful chemicals and
preservatives-labels
required )
Meat Inspection Act (1906)
– Federal inspection and
regulation of minimum
standards of sanitation.
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“I aimed at the public’s heart and by
accident I hit them in the stomach.”
Upton Sinclair
• A socialist trying to raise an outcry over
working conditions under capitalism
• He wanted people to demand socialism from
their government (do away with capitalism)
• Belief workers should control both the
government and the means of production
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Excerpt from The Jungle
“There was never the least attention paid to
what was cut up for sausage; there would
come all the way back from Europe old
sausage that had been rejected, and that
was moldy and white – it would be dosed
with borax and glycerine and dumped into
the hoppers and made over again for home
consumption . . . There would be meat
stored in great piles in rooms; and the water
from the leaky roofs would drip over it, and
thousands of rats would race about on it . . .
These rats were a nuisance, and the packers
would put poisoned bread out for them; they
would die, and then rats, bread, and meat
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would go into the hoppers together.”
1908 Election Results
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Taft as the Big Guy
• Poor leader – not charismatic like TR
• Lost progressive support over tariff
– Not low enough!!
• Yet, more antitrust suits than TR
• Yet, more conservation than TR
• And…groundwork for 16th amendment
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3rd Party--developed in 1901
dedicated to working class.
Platform: more radical reforms than Progressives
• public ownership or RR, utilities, oil, steel
18 socialists elected city mayors in 1911
presidential candidate Eugene Debs
Peak in 1912 --900,000 votes (6% of total) for
president
Most Americans feared socialism
American workers satisfied with
pay and union progress
Rise of the Socialist Party
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1912 Election Results
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TR-to-Wilson
Election of 1904
Election of 1908
Election of 1912
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Woody as President
“New Freedom”
Economic Reforms attack on the “the triple wall of privilege”
• Federal Reserve System (1913)
– Regulate money supply
• Underwood Tariff (1913)
– LOWERED TARIFFS ON 100+ ITEMS
– GRADUATED INCOME TAX
• Clayton Antitrust Act (1914)
– Strengthened Sherman Antitrust Act
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•Federal Trade Commission Act (1914)
“cease and desist” orders for unfair
business practices
•Adamson Act (1916)
–8-hour work day for RR (new standard)
•Keating-Owens Act (1916)
–no interstate trade if co. employs <14 yr
olds
•Re-elected in 1916
“He kept us out of war”
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Progressive amendments
• 16
• 17
• 18
• 19
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Results of 1916 Election
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African-Americans
Ignored by main progressive movement
Booker T. Washington
Take a lower status temporarily
Vocational training (Tuskegee Institute)
W.E.B. DuBois
Did not agree with BTW (“leading the way
backward”)
“Talented Tenth” AIM HIGHER!!!!
Founded NAACP (1905) - fought racism
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Women’s Efforts
• Charlotte Perkins Gilman wrote Women and
Economics
(1898)
– Child care centers; common dining area
• Margaret Sanger  Planned Parenthood
• Florence Kelley (social worker)
– 10-hour day for women
• Carrie Chapman Catt
– National American Woman Suffrage
Association
– Worked for passage of 19th amendment
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Woman Suffrage Before 1920
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Evaluating the Progressive Era
Successes
Failures
??
??
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