AP Review Powerpoint

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Transcript AP Review Powerpoint

Welcome to the
AP Human Geography
Saturday Cram Session
Grab a packet, you need a pen/cil
AP TEST
• Part I. Multiple Choice
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75 Questions in 60 minutes
• Part II. Free Response Questions (FRQs)
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3 FRQ’s in 75 minutes
AP Review Models
To practice FRQ’s
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Google AP Central.. Go to website
AP Courses and Exams
Course Home Pages
AP Human
AP Human Exam Info
Click on any year to see the questions and
answer guidelines
• http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/me
mbers/exam/exam_information/2004.html
The Demographic Transition
: The demographic transition consists of four stages, which move from high birth
and death rates, to declines first in birth rates then in death rates, and
finally to a stage of low birth and death rates. Population growth is most
rapid in the second stage.
Ravenstein’s Migration Laws
• 1. Most relocate a short distance and remain within same
country
• 2. Long-distance migrants to other countries head for major
centers of economic activity
• 3. Each migration flow produces a compensating counter-flow.
• 4. Natives of towns are less migratory than those from rural
areas.
• 5. Females are more migratory than males.
• 6. Economic factors are the main cause of migration.
• Human capital theory of migration: that
educated workers often migrate from poor
to wealthy countries. This benefits both
countries.
• Life Course theory of migration: the
interaction of major life events (marriage,
having a baby, divorce, college grad) with
migration have major repercussions on a
society.
• ex. Married individuals less likely to move than
singles. Families with more kids move less
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U.S.
Immigration
Patterns
U.S. has more foreign-born residents than
any other country: approximately 43
million as of 2010—growing by 1 million
annually.
• Three main eras of immigration in the U.S.
– 1. Colonial settlement in seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
– 2. Mass European immigration in the late 19th
and early twentieth centuries (in 3 waves)
– 3. Asian and Latin American integration in the
late Twentieth and early twenty-first centuries
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Possibilism v. Environmental
Determinism
• Environmental Determinism• aspects of physical geography, particularly
climate/vegetation, influenced the psychological
mind-set of individuals, which in turn defined the
behavior and culture of the society that those
individuals formed.
• Possibilism- the theory in geography that human
behavior, and therefore culture, is not merely
determined by the environment but by human
agency and innovation
Language Family Map
Language Family
Trees
Fig. 5-3: Family trees and estimated numbers of speakers for the main
world language families.
Major Language Families
Percentage of World Population
Fig. 5-11a: The percentage of world population speaking each of the main language
families. Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan together represent almost
75% of the world’s people.
Kurgan Theory of Indo-European
Origin
Marija Gimbutas postulated:
•Kurgan people came from
steppe region of Russia and
Kazakhstan
•3500-2500 BC
•used horses as weapons to
conquer much of Europe and
South Asia
•In short, war and conquest
spread language
Fig. 5-9: In the Kurgan theory, Proto-Indo-European diffused from the Kurgan
hearth north of the Caspian Sea, beginning about 7,000 years ago.
Anatolian Hearth Theory of IndoEuropean Origin
Fig. 5-10: In the Anatolian hearth theory, Indo-European originated in
Turkey around 2,000 years before the Kurgans and diffused
through agricultural expansion.
World Religions
Self-Sufficiency Approach
• Also known as “balanced growth”
• Elements
– Country spreads investment equally across all sectors
and regions of its economy
– High tariffs protect domestic industries
– Price supports (subsidies) for farmers
– Reducing poverty is primary goal
• Problems
– Inefficiency
– Large (and expensive) bureaucracies
Rostow’s Dev. Model
1. Traditional society
– High % of labor force in agri
– Output consumed by producers (subsistence)
– Wealth used for “nonproductive” activities
• Military
• Religion
Rostow’s Dev. Model
2. Preconditions for takeoff
– Elite group initiate innovated econ activities
– Investment in new tech and infrastructure for
specific industries
– Goal is to prepare this industry to compete in
world markets
Rostow’s Dev. Model
3. Takeoff
– Rapid growth in area of investment
• Industry develops
• Infrastructure develops to support it
– Labor force moves from farming to urban
manufacturing
– Rest of econ still traditional
Rostow’s Dev. Model
4. Drive to Maturity
– Modern tech diffuse to wide variety of
industries
• Making more industries better able to compete in
world market
– Education and skills diffused to wide
segments of population
– Entrepreneur class beginning to generate and
operate on own
Rostow’s Dev. Model
5. Age of Mass consumption
– Shift of econ from heavy industry to consumer
goods
– Country is now developed
– Examples of countries using this: Japan,
Asian Tigers, Saudi Arabia, UAE, etc(SW Asia
countries) who focus on OIL industry
Which basic shape are they?
Can you name the country?
Do you know the pro’s and
con’s of each shape?
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Government Systems
• Democracy
• Autocracy : monarchy or dictatorship
• Anocracy: combination of demo and auto
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Theocracy?
Government by religion. Example?
Islamic Republic of Iran, Vatican City
Oligarchy?
Rule by a few
Governments…
• Federal v. Unitary
• Unitary System: most power placed with the
central government. Examples?
• China, Cuba, France, Yemen, Afghanistan
• Most countries fit here
• Federal System: power is allocated from a central
government to smaller regional units
• USA, Russia, Pakistan, Australia, Switzerland,
Brazil, Iraq
• EXCLAVE- a bounded territory that is part of a
particular state but is separated from it by the
territory of a different state.
• Example: Nakhijaven, Azerbaijan
• ENCLAVE- any small, relatively homogenous
group, region or state surrounded by another
larger region or state
• Example: Lesotho
C is A's exclave, and B's enclave
C is A's exclave, but is not an enclave of B or D
Theories of global power
Hegemony
• Heartland Theory:
• Sir Halford Mackinder (early 20th century)
• The Eurasian landmass is the world’s
heartland/center and thus the key to world
domination
• Rimland Theory: Nicholas Spykman
• The Eurasian rim, not its heart, is the key
to global power
Other economic theories
• Dependency Theory- based on an idea
that countries on the periphery provide
resources to countries in the core. A
reaction to Rostow’s modernization
• World Systems Theory- based on the idea
of core, periphery and semi-periphery–
creating the international division of labor.
Does not focus on nations/states– but
global or macro analysis
• Least Cost Theory- businesses will locate
where profit is maximized based on labor,
transportation, and agglomeration.
• Locational Interdependence Theory- that
business competitors, in trying to
maximize profits, will seek to constrain
each other's territory as much as possible
which will therefore lead them to locate
adjacent to one another in the middle of
their collective customer base. Example?
• mattress anyone?
• 1st Agricultural Revolution• (Neolithic Revolution between10-12,000
years ago), invention of agriculture- rise
of civilization
• 2nd Agricultural Revolution• ( coincided with IR), better farming
techniques and tools– shift from
subsistence to commercial ag.
• 3rd Agricultural Revolution
• (mid 20th Century)- biotechnology, use of
science and chemicals, genetically
modified seeds, etc.
Von Thünen Model & Access to Markets
Fig. 10-13: Von Thünen’s model shows how distance from a city or market affects
the choice of agricultural activity in (a) a uniform landscape and (b) one
with a river.
Burgess Concentric Zone Model
Middle Class
Immigrant / Low Income Housing
Working Class Housing
Suburbia
Fig. 13-5: In the concentric zone model, a city grows in a series of rings surrounding
the CBD.
Similarities b/t
Burgess Model
&
von Thunen Model
Prior to the development of
modern transportation systems,
how was the cost of land
affected by its distance from
market?
How has modern transportation
systems affected the cost of
land relative to its distance from
market?
Sector Model
Fig. 13-6: In the sector model, a city grows in a series of wedges or corridors
extending out from the CBD.
Multiple Nuclei Model
Fig. 13-7: The multiple nuclei model views a city as a collection of individual centers,
around which different people and activities cluster.
Creation of a border
• Phase 1: definition- when the exact
location is legally described an negotiated
• Phase 2: delimitation: when the boundary
is drawn onto a map
• Phase 3: demarcation:when the boundary
is visibly marked on a landscape with a
fence, wall, sign, etc.
Core and Periphery
United Nations Millennium Goals
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Millennium Development Goals Eight Goals for 2015
1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
2 Achieve universal primary education
3 Promote gender equality and empower women
4 Reduce child mortality
5 Improve maternal health
6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
7 Ensure environmental sustainability
8 Develop a global partnership for development
Helpful video links
• http://www.mapsofwar.com/ind/history-ofreligion.html
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4BbkQi
QyaYc
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lAXladJ
wbOI
Review links
• www.collegeboard.com AP, AP Central,
Human Geography, Exam Information,
• www.studystack.com Human Geography
study cards and games
• www.quizlet.com Human Geography
vocabulary
Vocabulary- Development
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Agglomeration
Alfred Weber
Backwash effect
Bulk/Weight gaining
Bulk/weight reducing
Commodification
Comparative
advantage
Conglomerate
corporation
Dependency theory
Development
Development gap
Footloose industries
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GDP
High-tech corridor
Industrialization
Informal sector
Multinational corporation
New international division of labor
Nongovernmental organization
North-South Split
Quaternary
Secondary
Spatially variable costs
Special economic zone
Substitution principle
Remittance
Replacement level
Vocabulary:
fertility
Population/Migration
Seasonal
movement
1st Agricultural
Space-time
Revolution
compression
nd
2 Agricultural
Spatial Interaction
Revolution
Net-in migration
Step migration
Graying
NIR
TFR
population
One-child policy
Thomas Malthus
Infrastructure
Pandemic
Transhumance
Intervening
Place desirability
Underpopulation
obstacle
Population
Involuntary
explosion
migration
Physiological
Migration
density
Pull-factor
Vocabulary—Culture
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Acculturation
Assimilation
Caste system
Christianity
Cultural geography
Cultural landscape
Culture complex
Culture hearth
Denomination
Diaspora
Ethnic religion
Ethnocentrism
Genocide
•Independent innovation
•Islam
•Judaism
•Koran/Q’uran
•Nonmaterial
components
•Perceptual regions
•Polytheistic
•Possibilism
•Relocation diffusion
•Siddhartha Gautama
•Standard language
•Stimulus diffusion
•Theocracy
Vocabulary – Political Geography
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Benelux
Centripetal forces
Compact
Delimitation
Ethnonationalism
Federalism
Forward Capital
Frontier
Geopolitics
Heartland Theory
Imperialism
Median line
principle
• Mercantilism
• Multinational state
Nation
New World Order
Operational boundary dispute
Perforated
Sovereignty
State
Subsequent boundary
Territorial morphology
Territoriality
Warsaw Pact
World-systems analysis
Vocab. Agriculture/Rural Land
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Agribusiness
Agriculture
Capital-Intensive farming
Commercial farming
Dairying
Debt-for-nature swaps
Double cropping
Enclosure movement
Extensive subsistence ag.
1st Agricultural Revolution
Green Revolution
Hunters and gatherers
Intensive Subsistence
Mediterranean Ag.
Milkshed
Mixed crop and livestock
Plantation agriculture
Ranching
Seed Agriculture
Shifting cultivation
Slash and Burn
Third Agricultural Rev.
Transhumance
Undernutrition
Vegetative planting
Settlements/Urbanization
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Bid-rent curve
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CBD
Cumulative causation
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Edge city
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Ghettoization
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Hinterland
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Megacity
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Megalopolis
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Micropolitan statistical area•
Periferico
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Primacy
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Racial steering
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Range of goods
Shock city
• Spatial competition
Squatter settlement
Street morphology
Suburbanization
Threshold
Uneven development
Urban banana
Urban hierarchy
Urbanization
World city
Zone in transition