Download Report

Transcript 1395416288PSYCHOLOGY


MEANING OF PSYCHOLOGY  Definitions  Psychology and scientific procedures

Etymological definition

     It is derived from Greek words; psyche and logos. Psyche-mind, we get psych/iatry, psych/osis,

psycho/linguistic, psycho/metric,

Logos-study, we get socio/logy, zoo/logy, bio/logy,

anthropo/logy or axio/logy

When we combine two originally separate words, we get

the study of mind or mental processes.

During Greek times psychology was part of philosophy so they studied mind as they studied philosophy.

Meaning of psychology

 Methods used to study philosophy in Greek times are speculation, reflection, observation (not systematic) and examination of people’s actions.  No rigorous methods were used to study mind; processes and functions.

 Psychology gradually detached from philosophy and became a distinct discipline when there was attempt to study human behavior through scientific methods.

Psychology as a distinct discipline

 A German Psychologist, Wilhelm Wundt started to study mental processes scientifically in 19 th century.  Then, the definition changed a little bit to be the study of mental life as per the influence of Wundt’s studies (Myers 1990;2 & Shaughnessy, J et al 2000).  His studies focused on covert experiences and consciousness, sensations, feelings and thoughts.

 The basic method he used was introspection (looking within).

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

   

The examination of your own thoughts or feelings’ (Oxford English Dictionary 6 th edit.)

The investigator examines the description of people’s thoughts, feelings and reasons of their behaviors. Definition of psychology took another different direction in the early 20 Watson.

th century with the emergence of Behavioral psychology in America associated with an American psychologist, John It was then defined as

the science of behavior

on overt rather than covert behavior.


Another shift of definition

 In 1960s, psychology shifted again on conscious and unconscious state of mind.

 It studies how our mind takes in, processes and retains information.

 Hence the definition took another swing. It included overt (actions) and covert behavior (feelings and thoughts) .

Overt behavior: visible behavior that can be directly observed and measured.

Covert behavior: internal processes; thinking, memorizing, relating, planning and imagining; Feelings sadness, hate, love, joy, disappointment or disgust.  Myers (1990:2) points out that this has led psychology to be defined as ‘the science of behavior and mental


 (Passer, M & Smith, R;2001:4) define it as ‘The

scientific study of behavior and the factors that influence it’


 In the ordinary sense, behavior is used to mean any observable action.

 In psychology, ‘‘behavior’ has a wider sense. It includes observable actions and unobservable thoughts and feelings. So, behavior includes doing actions, feeling and thinking.

Psychology as a scientific study

 Psychology is different from philosophy.

 Philosophy deals with creating ideas, developing assumptions, speculating and reflecting on issues for finding out truth.

 Other ways to find truth: tenacity based on beliefs; authority based on trust and intuition common sense method.

 Psychological truth is not based on either one of the three.

Psychology and Science

    It is based on scientific studies or procedures.

Basic scientific methods: experiment, observation, case studies, survey, correlation As a scientific study, psychology requires precision and accuracy, relies on truth rather than opinion.

Science, according to Omari, I (1976:17) is driven by three forces: curiosity, skepticism, and open mindedness.

Characteristics of scientific procedures

It is:  Systematic: follows a certain order, logical sequence and interrelation of activities, issues, ideas and concepts at all the stages of the investigation.  The steps: problem identification, hypotheses formulation, study design, sampling, determining methods and strategies, data collection, analysis, interpretation and drawing of conclusions.

Characteristics of scientific procedures

Controlled: It limits and restricts un-required data. It ensures that the investigator includes only needed data in the study.  Control begins at the level of design of the determining investigator’s needs.

 A researcher should make careful choice of subjects/respondents, methods, measurement procedures, rationale, how to minimize errors (measurement, sampling) in order to get specific data needed.

Characteristics of scientific procedures


It looks for empirical evidence, the data that can be:  verified and proved by human senses;  known through observation and experience.


Obtaining data that are not based on:  opinion or one’s subjective ideas or biasness.  from one’s sensations, feelings, emotions or common sense

Characteristics of scientific procedures

 The results are only justified by its methods and operationalization.

Verifiable and replicable:

Verifiable: Methods and procedures should provide room for check and verification at every step to:  know how the results have been obtained.

 Validate and prove the results So, they must be:  precise and accurate  clearly and objectively presented

Characteristics of scientific procedures

Replicable: Ability of the study to correct itself when repeated again. Any study must be repeated in a number of times in order to approve the results of the initial investigation.


 To measure is to describe data, events or behavior using numbers. Description of using numbers is done at every stage; statement of the problem, design, sampling, collection and analysis of data.


Logic:The ability to reason correctly. Deductive and Inductive logical explanations and arguments are necessary in conducting any scientific study.


 Theory: ‘a logically organized set of propositions (claims, statements, assertions) that serves to define events (concepts), describe relationships among these events, and explain the occurrence of these events’ (Shaughnessy, J et al, 2000:30).

Theory :

 guides framework of the problem of the study;  displays data systematically and orderly;  guides interpretation of data;  generates predictions in a situation where no data has been obtained.

Importance of studying human behavior scientifically  Complexity and instability of human behavior which becomes uneasy to determine it.  There are many interactive factors that shape and change behavior.

 There are many specific aspects of behavior to be studied: abilities, attitudes, thought, experiences.


Psychology: the scientific study of human and animal behavior .

 Its major focus is to study and formulate principles about human and animal behavior.

 Education can be defined as the process of

facilitating acquisition of knowledge, skills and values.

 Major concern of education is practice

What is educational psychology?

 Rosser, R & Nicholson (1987:3) believe that educational psychology is devoted to help

teachers apply principles and knowledge of

psychology to educational concerns.

 Reilly and Lewis (1983:6) define it as the

application of psychology to teaching and solving educational problems

Meaning of Educational psychology

 Durojaiye, M.O (1976:4) defines it as the study

of the ways in which the learner can be most effectively brought in to successful interaction with the material to be learnt, the learning situation and the teachers who provide the learning opportunity.

 Slavin, R (1988:3): the study of learners,

learning and teaching.

Meaning of Educational psychology

    The definitions show that: Educational psychology is an applied branch of psychology.

It focuses on understanding teaching, learning and learners.

It facilitates the work of the teacher by enabling him or her to choose, decide and do what is appropriate for teaching and learners.

It combines theory and practice; psychology deals with theory and education with practice.

Meaning of Educational psychology

Educational psychology’s major focus is on:  Learner  Learning  Teaching

Characteristics of the learner

 Physical characteristics  Mental ability and health  Emotional characteristics  Social characteristics  Moral characteristics  These children’s characteristics affect their learning in various ways, therefore the teacher must understand how they affect learning.


  The learner must be understood because he is the target in the teaching and learning process.

Understanding the learner will enable the teacher to provide meaningful learning experience in terms of:  Designing effective learning strategies  Involving learners in the learning process  Motivating learners  Designing learning materials  Formulating learning objectives

Learning process

 Psychological principles suggest that children learn in various ways. They learn by:  Observing, inferring, experimenting, practicing, asking and answering questions, manipulating objects, imitating, acting, listening and inquiring.  These modes of learning are promoted by teachers’, parents’ or any other person’s motivation, encouragement and challenges.


 It is the process of facilitating learning by putting the learner in the most conducive environment for learning. In facilitating learning the teacher must do many things like:  Guiding, supporting, instructing, giving good treatment, help students to solve problems, appraising, encouraging, leading and observing.


 It is believed that understanding the learner and the learning process, teaching can be facilitated through:  Good organization of the lesson  Effective motivation of students  Creation of effective learning environment  Appropriate choice of materials and strategies  Appropriate assessment of students


      The knowledge of learner and learning process will moreover enable the teacher to understand: his or her professional responsibilities How to behave How to interact with students How to organize himself or herself How to organize learning experiences

Application of psychology in education

Psychology is applied in Education in the following main areas:  Curriculum plan and design   Educational and School leadership Educational Measurement and Assessment     Classroom management Educational research Devising and using Teaching and Learning methods and materials Educational Guidance and Counseling  Planning lessons


    Durojaiye, M. O. (1976): An Introduction to Educational Psychology. Evans Brothers: London.

Elliott, S et al (2000): Educational Psychology: Effective Teaching, Effective Learning;.McGraw Hill, Boston.

Myers, D. (1990): Exploring Psychology;Worth Publishers, New York Passer, M & Smith, R (2001): Psychology: Frontiers and Applications, McGraw Hill Boston. Reilly, R and Lewis, E (1983): Educational Psychology: Application For Classroom Learning and Instruction, McMillan Publishing, New York.

 Rosser, R & Nicholson, G (1987): Educational psychology: Principles and Practice. Little Brown and Comp. Boston.

 Slavin, R (1988): Educational Psychology: Theory into Practice, Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs

Sample of Exam Questions

Explain how you can apply psychology in choosing and using: 1.

Learning materials 2.

Managing classroom during teaching