Language Study Word
Transcript Language Study Word
Unit 10 Pompeii
Contemporary College English
Questions / Activities
Questions / Activities
1). Why does the author call Pompeii a strange
2). What happened to the city?
3). What was the city like before it was destroyed?
4). What are some other natural disasters in world
history that you have learned about?
1). Understand the structure and the general idea
of the text
2). Know something about the history of Pompeii
and what happened in AD 79
3). Be able to use specific verbs to describe things
4). Be able to create a dominant impression by
using words about five senses
5). Know something about natural disasters
like volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tornado etc.
Robert Silverberg (born January
15, 1935) is an American author,
best known for writing science
In 1956 he graduated from
Columbia University, having
majored in Comparative
Naples is the capital of Campania （坎泊尼亚）
and the third-largest city in Italy, after Rome and
Milan. It has a population of nearly one million
within its administrative limits on a land area of
117.3 km2 (45 sq mi). The urban area of Naples
extends beyond the administrative city limits, with
a population of above three million.
The city of Pompeii is a partially buried Roman towncity near modern Naples. Pompeii was partially
destroyed and buried under 4 to 6 m (13 to 20 ft) of
ash and pumice(浮石) in the eruption of Mount
Vesuvius in AD 79, and it was lost for nearly 1700
years before its accidental rediscovery in 1749.
Since then, its excavation has provided an
extraordinarily detailed insight into the life of a city
during the Pax Romana(罗马 和平时期.)
Today, this UNESCO World
Heritage Site is one of the
most popular tourist
Italy, with approximately
2,500,000 visitors every
(United Nations Education,
Scientific and Culture
Pompeii the Last Day
A multidisciplinary study of the eruption products and
victims indicates that at Vesuvius and surrounding
towns, heat was the main cause of death of people,
previously believed to have died from ash suffocation.
The results of the study, published in 2010, show that
exposure to at least 250 °C hot surges at a distance
of 10 kilometers from the vent was sufficient to cause
instant death, even if people were sheltered within
Pompeii the Last Day
Mount Vesuvius is best known for its eruption in AD 79
that led to the burying and destruction of the Roman
cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum（意大利南部古城.
They were never rebuilt, although surviving
townspeople and probably looters （掠夺者） did
undertake extensive salvage（救援） work after the
destructions. The towns' locations were eventually
forgotten until their accidental rediscovery in the 18th
Pompeii, with Vesuvius towering above
Vesuvius from plane
Inside the crater of Vesuvius
Jupiter is the king of the gods and the god of sky
and thunder. Jupiter was the chief deity （神）
of Roman state religion throughout the
Republican and Imperial eras, until the Empire
came under Christian rule.
Jupiter is thought to have originated as a sky god.
His identifying implement is the thunderbolt（雷
电）, and his primary sacred animal is the
eagle, which held precedence（优先） over
other birds in the taking of auspices（鸟卜者 ）
and became one of the most common symbols
of the Roman army.
Apollo is one of the most important and complex
Olympian deities in ancient Greek and Roman
religion, Greek and Roman mythology.
Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of
light and the Sun, truth and prophecy, healing,
plague, music, poetry, and more.
Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin
sister, the chaste （贞洁）huntress （女猎手）
Isis（埃及神话，爱希丝，生育与繁殖的女神） is a
goddess in Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs. She
was worshipped as the ideal mother and wife as well
as the patron of nature and magic. She was the
friend of slaves, sinners, artisans（工匠）, and the
downtrodden（被践踏）, and she listened to the
prayers of the wealthy, maidens, aristocrats, and
rulers. Isis is also known as protector of the dead and
goddess of children.
The name Isis means
“Throne”. Her headdress（饰
头巾） is a throne. As the
personification of the throne,
she was an important
representation of the
The pharaoh was depicted
as her child, who sat on the
throne she provided.
We know that natural disasters have been reduced to
mere statistics. But over the years people have also
shown intense interest in them. For one thing, natural
disasters cause a lot human tragedy, and human
tragedy has always been a deep concern of human
beings. Second, during a natural disaster, human
beings usually reveal their true colors. We see
ourselves at our best as well as at our worst. third, the
careful study of natural disasters may reveal scientific
laws which may eventually help man discover ways to
deal with natural disasters better. Fourth, natural
disasters are often linked with human errors, and
therefore can lead to our better understanding of
our mistakes and shortcomings.
Fifth, the memory of natural disasters can always remind
us that natural power is still much greater than human
power, and it is stupid arrogance on our part to think that
we can conquer nature. Man should forever be humble
and learn to respect nature’s ways, and learn whatever
other useful lessons from them.
What is unique about this particular natural disaster
is the fact the eruption destroyed a Roman city more
than 2,000 years ago, but now the buried city is returned
to us almost intact. What is unique about this particular
natural disaster is the fact the eruption destroyed a
Roman city more than 2,000 years ago, but now the
buried city is returned to us almost intact.
From the ash and rubble of the city we now see what
this Roman City was like with every detail. Among
the 2,ooo dead bodies we see men and women; old
and young; rich and poor. We see gladiators,
tourists, merchants, bakers. We see all kinds of
buildings, including a brothel, and a bakery where
there were still 81 loaves of bread left in the time of
eruption. And in the buildings, we see furniture used
at the time,domestic animals, and frescoes.
No wonder Pompeii has become one of the most
popular historical museums in the world. The
present text is condensed from a much longer article
that appeared in National Geographic many years
ago. But even this much shortened version serves
as a vivid introduction to this great archeological
Part I: Para. 1-7
• A brief account of Pompeii before and after
August 24, AD79.
Part II: Para. 8-9
• A detailed description of what happened on
the day of the eruption.
2. Detailed Analysis
Part I: Main Idea
1). What was the city like before the eruption?
2). What were people in Pompeii doing before the
3). If the city had not been destroyed by the
volcanic eruption, what would it be like today?
erupt; strike; perish; shroud; intact;
no other; come down; hide from; break
through; be in place; come to life; be in
port; clear away
Sentence the day + that clause; to do …is to
Pattern do.; …is all one needs to do.
Part I: Sentence Paraphrase
1). Beneath the protecting shroud of ash, the city
lay intact. (para 5.)
The city remained as it had been
before the eruption. It had been protected by
the thick layer of ash that buried the city deep.
Part I: Sentence Paraphrase
2). A good imagination is all you need to restore it
to activity. (para. 7)
If you have a good imagination you will be able
to imagine what was going on － the sights,
sounds, smells and activities of a busy,
prosperous Roman town.
Part I: Exercises
Translate the following sentences into English.
There are no other Americans in my school.
They've recently come down from London to
live in the village.
Are you trying to hide something from me?
Part I: Exercises
Soon, tiny green shoots will break through the
The books were all neatly in place, carefully
A young girl's childhood memories come to life as
she thumbs through her family photograph album.
Part II: Main Idea
1). What did people do after eruption?
2). What caused the greatest loss of life?
3). Did anyone survive the volcanic eruption? How
did they manage to do it?
4). What would you do if you had been there in
vine-covered; summit; reverberate;
Words pumice; overwhelm; cluster
break loose; blow up; branch out; die
away; go by; be at hand; make one’s
Phrases way; be in store; lose consciousness;
shower of stones
Grammar past participle as attributive
Part II: Sentence Paraphrase
1). The sound of the explosion died away, but it still
reverberated in everyone’s ears. (para. 13)
Paragraphing: Even when the loud sound stopped,
people did not recover from the shock.
2). An hour went by and darkness still shrouded
everything. (para. 14)
Paragraphing: An hour passed, things did not
improve and darkness covered everything.
Part II: Sentence Paraphrase
3). Rushing throngs, blinded by the darkness and
the smoke, rushed up one street and down the
next, trampling the fallen in a crazy fruitless dash
toward safety. (para. 17)
Paragraphing: People panicked. They rushed into
the streets to escape the falling buildings. It was
dark and the air was full of smoke so they could
not see where they are going. They rushed up one
street and down the next in a hopeless attempt to
reach safety. In their blind rush they ran over the
bodies of people who had fallen down.
Part II: Exercises
A mighty force was about to break loose.
He had to blow up the fire to make it burn.
From car retail the company branch out into car
Part II: Exercises
The winds died away after the typhoon had
Victory is at hand.
As time goes by, numerous people come and go,
with countless stories left here.
Part II: Exercises
We tried to make our way through the crowds of
A new trouble was in store for Pompeii.
Though I did not lose my consciousness, the
sharp pain was really killing me.
二、Phrases and Expressions
1. At hand
8. Branch out
2. Die away
9. Pour down
3. Plunge into
10. Make one’s way to
4. In store for
11. Descend on
5. Arm of
12. Restore sb/sth to sth
6. Come down from
13. Go over
7. Strike on
14. Blow up
Adj. a. very strong and powerful
b. large and impressive
Examples: a mighty warrior
the mighty Mississippi river
He struck him with a mighty blow across
v. 1). to cover sb./sth. Completely
e.g.: A great wave overwhelmed the boat 。
2). to have such a strong emotional effect on
sb. that it is difficult for them to resist or know
how to react. （感情或感觉）充溢，难以禁受
e.g. :She was overwhelmed by feelings of guilt.
The beauty of the landscape overwhelmed me.
3). To defeat sb. Completely
4). to be so bad or so great that a person cannot
deal with it; to give too much of a thing to a person.
e.g.: We were overwhelmed by requests for
●Overwhelming Adj. 巨大的，压倒性的
e.g.: The evidence against him was overwhelming.
v. 1). to be lost or destroyed
2). (people or animals) to die. especially in a
sudden violent way 死亡，暴死
e.g.: A family of five perished in the fire.
Early building were made of wood and
●perishable adj. 易腐烂的，易变质的
adj. 1). causing death or illness if swallowed
or absorbed into the body
2). extremely unpleasant or unfriendly
● poisonous chemicals/plants
the poisonous atmosphere in the office
v. 1). (sound) to be repeated several times as
it is reflected off different surfaces .
e.g.: His voice reverberated around the hall.
2). to seem to shake because of a loud noise.
e.g.: The hall reverberate with the sound of
music and dancing.
3). to have a strong effect on people for a long
time or over a long area.
e.g.: Repercussions （反响）of the case
continue to reverberate through the finacial
● reverberation n. 影响 （广泛指消极的）
adj. 1. fierce and violent
2. involving very strong criticism猛烈抨击的
3. an offensive way of referring to groups
of people or customs that are considered
to be simple and not highly developed.蒙昧
e.g.: She had been badly hurt in what
police described as ‘a savage attack’.
e.g.: The article was a savage attack on
the government’s record.
savage can also be used as verb and noun.
v. 1. to attack sb. violently
2. to criticism sb./sth. severely
e.g.: She was savaged to death by a bear.
Her latest novel has been savaged by the critics.
v. 1). to suddenly break into small pieces;
to make sth. Suddenly break into small pieces
e.g.: He dropped the vase and it shattered
into pieces on the floor.
The explosion shattered all the windows
in the building.
2). to destroy sth. completely, especially sb’s
feelings, hopes or beliefs; to be destroyed in
e.g.: Her experience of divorce shattered her
illustrations about love.
My whole world shattered into a million pieces.
3). to make sb. feel extremely shocked and upset.
e.g.: The unexpected death of their son
v. 1). to cover or hide sth.
2). to hide information or keep it secret and
e.g.: The city was shrouded in mist.
His family background is shrouded in mystery.
v. 1). to hit your foot against sth while you are
walking or running and almost fall
e.g.: The child stumbled and fell.
2). to walk or move in an unsteady way
e.g.: We were stumbling around in the dark
looking for a candle.
3). to make a mistake and stop while you are
speaking or reading to sb. 结结巴巴的说话
e.g.: In her nervousness, she stumbled over
v. 1. to become unsteady and fall down; to make
sth do this 使失去平衡而坠落，倒塌，倒下
2.to make sb lose her position of power or
e.g.: He brushed past, toppling her from her stool.
a plot to topple the President (plot:阴谋)
v. 1). to step heavily on sb./sth. so that you
crush or harm them/it with your feet
2). to ignore sb’s feelings or rights and treat
them as if they are not important
e.g.: He was trampled to death by a runaway
The government is trampling on the views of
v. 1). to get back sth you no longer have,
especially an ability or a quality 重新获得，恢复
2). to get back to a place that you have left
e.g.: The party has regained control of the region.
They finally managed to regain the beach.
v. 1). to take sth into the mind and learn or
Eg.: It’s a lot of information to absorb all at once.
2). to take in a liquid, gas or other substance
from the surface or space arround.吸收（液体，
Eg.: Plants absorb oxygen.
3). to inerest sb very much so that they pay no
attention to anything else.
Eg.: This work had absorbed him for several years.
4). to use up a large supply of sth,especially money or
Eg.:The new proposals would absorb $80 billion of
the federal budget.
n. 1). A group of people who do sth together
Eg.: He persuaded a small band of volunteers to
Eg.: She is a singer with a band.
3). a range of numbers, ages, prices, etc.withing
which people or things are counted or measured
Eg. the 25-35 age band. 25 岁到35 岁的年龄段
● Tax bands 税收等级
v. To be organized into bands of price,income etc.
Eg.Tax is banded according to income.
● Band together
Local people banded together to fight the drug
n 1). piece of wood 木板
Eg.he had ripped up the carpet,leaving only the
bare boards . 他用力扯去地毯，只剩下裸露的地板.
2). a group of people who have power to make
decisions and control a company or other
Eg. The board is/are unhappy about falling sales.
●Members of board 全体委员
●Across the board 全体，整体，全面
●Go by the board 被废弃，被忽视。
All her efforts to be polite went by the board and she
started to shout.
●On board 在(船上，飞机上，火车上)
Take sth on board 采取，采纳，接纳（主意，建议）
Eg.I told her what I thought,but she didn’t take my
advice on board.
v. 1). To get on a ship,train,plan,bus
The ship was boarded by customs officals .
2). to leave and take meals in sb’s home,in
return for a payment付费（在某人家里），膳宿
●board at ....../with sb
Eg. She always had one or two students
boarding with her. 他的家总有一两名寄宿者。
v.To divide into two or more parts, especially smaller
or less important parts 分开，分叉
eg.The accident happened the road branches.
● branch off ①分叉②改道，转道
1). eg.:Just after the lake, the path branches off
to the right. 小路经过湖后，向右分出一条岔道。
● branch out(into sth) 拓展（新业务),涉足(新工作）
eg.:the company branched out into selling insurance.
v. 1). to fall down or fall in suddenly(突然地）倒塌
The roof collapsed under the weight of snow.
2). to fall down, especially because you are very
Eg.:he collapsed in the street and died two hours
3). to sit or lie down and relax, especially working
When I get home ,I like to collapse on the sofa and
listen to music.
4). to fail suddenly or compeletely
Eg.: talks between management and unions have
n. 1). A sudden failure of sth, such as an institution, a
business or a course of action 突然失败，倒闭，崩
The collapse of law and order in the area
2). A sudden fall in value突然降价；突然贬值；暴跌
The collapse of share prices/the dollar/the market
v. to push your body close to the ground by bending
you legs under you.蹲，蹲下
Eg.: He crouched down beside her.
●crouch over sth/sb 俯身接近
Eg.:He crouched over the papers on his desk.
n. a crouching position蹲着的姿势
She dropped to a crouch.她俯身蹲了下来。
v. 1). To come or go down from a higher to a lawer
Eg.:the results,ranked in descending order
2). To slope downwards 下斜，下倾
At this point the pass descends steeply.
3). To arrive and begin to affac sb/sth降临，来临
Eg.: Night descends quickly in the tropics.
●Be descended from sb 是某人的后裔
He claims to be descended from a spanish prince.
●Descend into sth
The country was descending into chaos.
●Descend on sb/sth 突然大批来访
Hundreds of football fans descended on the city.
●Descend to sth
They descended to the level personal insults.
n.1). a slow steady movement from one place to
another; a gradual change from one situation to
another, especially to sth bad.
Eg.:a population drift away from rural areas
2). the movement of sea or air 气流，水流，流动
Eg.: the general direction of drift on the east coast.
3). the general meaning of what sb says or writes
Do you catch my drift?你明白我的大意吗？
v. 1). To move along smoothly or slowly in water or air.
Eg.: clouds drifted across the sky.
2). To move or go somewhere slowly. 缓缓移动，
Eg.: Her gaze drifted around the room.
3). To happen or change,or to do sth without a
Eg.: I didn’t intend to be a teacher-----I just drifted
4). To go from one situation or state to another
without realizing it 无意间进入，不知不觉陷入
Eg.: finally she drifted into sleep.
●Drift apart 逐渐疏远
Eg.: As children, we were very close, but as we
grew up, we just drifted apart.
●Drift off 入睡，睡着
v. To leave a person or place very quickly,
especially in dangers. 逃避，逃跑。
●Flee（from）sb /sth；flee （to/into.......)
A camp for refugees fleeing from the war.
He was caught trying to flee the country.
n. ●On the hoof
v. To kick a ball very hard or a long way
●Hoof it to go somewhere on foot
Eg.: We hoofed it all the way to 42nd street.
adj: complete and not damaged
Eg.: Most of house remains intact even after
two handred year.
He emerged from the trial with his reputation
n. A loaf of bread 一条面包
Two white loaves ,please. 请拿两条白面包。
A sliced loaf 一条切片面包。
v. To spend your time not doing anything, especially
when you should be working.
Eg.: A group of kids were loafing around outside.
v. 1).To happen suddenly and have a harmful or
damaging effect on sb/sth.侵袭，爆发
2).To discover gold, oil, etc. by digging. 开采出
3).to go somewhere with great energy or purpose.
e.g. The area was struck by an outbreak of cholera.
They had struck oil in that area.
We left the road and struck off across the field.
4).To hit sb/sth hard or with force. 撞击，碰撞
5).To come into sb’s mind suddenly. 突然想到
6).To refuse to work as a protest. 罢工
e.g.: The children ran into the road and was struck
by a car. 孩子跑到公路上给车撞了
It suddenly struck me how we could improve
the situation. 我一下子明白了我们如何改善局面。
The union has voted to strike for a pay increase
of 6%. 工会投票决定罢工，要求加薪6%。
Close to you in time or distance 即将到来;在手边
e.g.: I haven’t my book at hand. I’ll show it to
The autumn harvest is at hand.
● hand down 把….传下来；宣判
● hand on
● hand over
to become gradually weaker or fainter and finally
e.g. The sound of their laughter died away.
●die down : to become gradually less strong,
loud, noticeable, etc.
●die off: to die one after the other until there
are none left.
●die out: to stop existing.
1). to experience sth unpleasant 陷入（不快的事情）
2). to jump into sth, especially with force
3). to start doing sth in an enthusiastic way, especially
without thinking carefully about what you are doing
e.g.: The country plunged deeper into recession.
The pool was declared open and eager
swimmers plunged in/into.
She was about to plunge into her story
when the phone rang.
4. In store for
Waiting to happen to sb. 即将发生，等待着
e.g.: We don’t know what life holds in store for us.
If she had known what lay in store for her,
she would never have agreed to go.
1). vary in order to expand; 扩大，扩展
2). to start to do an activity that you may not done
before especially in your work or business.
e.g.: I continued studying moths, and branched
out to other insects.
I decided branch out on my own.
6. Pour down
e.g.: Suddenly there was a startling flash of
bright lightening, and thunder rolled. Rain
started to pour down .
● pour sth. into sth.
to provide a large amount of money for sth.
● pour out 倒出 (想法、情感、经历等)
7.Make one’s way to
find a way to somewhere; go forward
to visit sb. or sth. in large numbers 降临，来临
Hundreds of football fans descended on the city.
A section of a large of organization that deals with
one particular activity 分部，职能部门
Eg. The research arm of the company.
10.come down from
to come from one place to another 从......到......
come down from the sky 从天空落下来
means cross one’s mind 1). 打在…上
Eg.: 1). Our boat struck on a sunken rock.
2). I struck on turning on the radio on the
way to the station.
12.Restore sb/sth to sth
to bring sb/sth back a former condition,place or
Eg.: restore farmland to lakes 退田还湖
restore stability to finan 稳定金融市场
We hope to restore the regarden to its
1). To examine or check sth carefully 仔细检查
Eg.: Go over your work before you hand in it.
2). to study sth carefully,especially by repeating
Eg.: He went over the events of the day in his
1). To explode; to be destroyed by an explosion
A police officer was killed when his car blew up.
2). To start studdenly and with force爆发
A storm was blowing up . 暴风雨大作。
A crisis has blown up over the president’s latest
1. Suppose you survived the volcanic
eruption, retell how you managed to
escape to your partner.
2. Suppose you are a visitor in
Pompeii, retell what you have
seen to your partner.
3. In both retellings, please use as
many specific words as you can to
make your account vivid.
1. What makes ruins like
2. Ruins of quake-hit Sichuan
now become new tourist
hotspots. Is it suitable to
develop “disaster tourism”?
3. What insights about life do
tourist expect to gain?