#### Transcript TODAY TOPIC Chain Drivers

TODAY’S TOPIC Chain Drivers GROUP#1 08-EP-53 08-ME-55 08-EP-54 08-EP-33 M OSAMA AZAM UMER AKRAM M SHAHBAZ SAEED M UMER FAROOQ Why we need chain drivers? On belt and rope drives that slipping may occur. In order to avoid slipping, steel chains are used. INTRODUCTION DEFINITION The chains are made up of number of rigid links which are hinged together by pin joints in order to provide the necessary flexibility for wrapping round the driving and driven wheels. These wheels have projecting teeth of special profile and fit into the corresponding recesses in the links of the chain as shown in Fig. The toothed wheels are known as *sprocket wheels or simply sprockets. Explanation through diagram Practical applications of chain drives The chains are mostly used to transmit motion and power from one shaft to another, when the centre distance between their shafts is short such as in bicycles, motor cycles, agricultural machinery, conveyors, rolling mills, road rollers etc. The chains may also be used for long centre distance of upto 8 metres. The chains are used for velocities up to 25 m / s and for power upto 110 kW. In some cases, higher power transmission is also possible. Advantages and Disadvantages of Chain Drive over Belt or Rope Drive Advantages As no slip takes place during chain drive, hence perfect velocity ratio is obtained. Since the chains are made of metal, therefore they occupy less space in width than a belt or rope drive It may be used for both long as well as short distances . It gives a high transmission efficiency (upto 98 percent). It gives less load on the shafts. It has the ability to transmit motion to several shafts by one chain only. It transmits more power than belts. It permits high speed ratio of 8 to 10 in one step. It can be operated under adverse temperature and atmospheric conditions. Disadvantages The production cost of chains is relatively high. The chain drive needs accurate mounting and careful maintenance, particularly lubrication and slack adjustment. The chain drive has velocity fluctuations especially when unduly stretched. Terms Used in Chain Drive Pitch of chain It is the distance between the hinge centre of a link and the corresponding hinge centre of the adjacent link, as shown in Fig. It is usually denoted by p. Pitch circle diameter of chain sprocket. It is the diameter of the circle on which the hinge centres of the chain lie, when the chain is wrapped round a sprocket as shown in above Fig. The points A, B, C, and D are the hinge centres of the chain and the circle drawn through these centres is called pitch circle and its diameter (D) is known as pitch circle diameter. Relation Between “Pitch” and “Pitch Circle Diameter (p and d) Relation Between “Pitch” and “Pitch Circle Diameter (p and d) A chain wrapped round the sprocket is shown in Fig.. Since the links of the chain are rigid, therefore pitch of the chain does not lie on the arc of the pitch circle. The pitch length becomes a chord. Consider one pitch length AB of the chain subtending an angle Ө at the centre of sprocket (or pitch circle), Let D = Diameter of the pitch circle, and T = Number of teeth on the sprocket. From Fig. we find that pitch of the chain We can observe that: AC = OA sinθ = OA sin(180/T ). As AC = p/2 and OA = d/2, Therefore, p/2 = (d/2)sin(180/T ) p = d sin (180/T ) Or d = p cosec (180/T ) Kinematics of Chain Drive Let us consider two sprockets, in which driven sprocket is larger than the driver sprocket. AC is the pitch of driving sprocket, and BB2 is the pitch of driven sprocket. We want to compare the angular velocities of two sprockets. Kinematics of Chain Drive Initially when the driving sprocket was at A, the driven was at B, with the centers O1 and O2 respectively. To find the instantaneous centre, we produce O1O2 and AB to meet an point I. Kinematics of Chain Drive If ω1 and ω2 are the angular velocities of driver and driven sprockets respectively, then, ω1 * O1I = ω2 * O2I ω1/ ω2 = O2I/ O1I = (O2O1+ O1I)/ O1I ω1/ ω2 = 1+(O2O1/ O1I). So, ω1/ ω2 is inversely proportional to “O1I”. Kinematics of Chain Drive The instantaneous centre of rotation changes along with the rotation. The relation ω1/ ω2 = 1+(O2O1/ O1I) represents the minimum velocity ratio, as B is the lowest point of pitch and I is at the greatest distance from the driving sprocket. Kinematics of Chain Drive When A moves to A1, B moves to point B1. So the instantaneous centre of rotation will be I1.which as compared to I, is nearer from the driven sprocket. So velocity ratio will be maximum. Kinematics of Chain Drive In actual practice, the smaller sprocket must have a minimum of 18 teeth and hence the variation of velocity ratio from the mean value is very small. Classification of Chains 1. 2. 3. The Chains, on the basis of their use, are classified into the following three groups: Hoisting or hauling (or crane) chains. Conveyer (or tractive) chains. Power transmitting Hoisting or hauling (or crane) chains 1. 2. These chains are used for hoisting and hauling purposes. These are of two types: Chains with oval links. Chains with square links. Hoisting or hauling (or crane) chains 1. Chains with oval links: The links are of oval shape. The joint of each link is welded. Such type of chains are used only at low speeds such as chain hoists and in anchors of marine work. Hoisting or hauling (or crane) chains Chains with square links: The links are of square shape. Such type of chains are used in hoists, cranes, dredges. These are cheaper than oval link chains, but the kinking occurs easily on overloading. Conveyer Chains 1. 2. These chains are used for elevating and conveying the material continuously. These are of two types: Detachable or hook joint type chain. Closed joint type chain. Conveyer Chains 1. 2. 3. Properties: Usually manufactured by cast iron. Do not have smooth running qualities. Run at low speeds of about 3 to 12 Km/h. Power transmittin chains •Transmission of power when the distance between the shafts is short •Have provision for efficient lubrication Three types 1.Block chain 2.Bush roller chain 3.Inverted tooth or silent chain Power transmittin chains 1. Block chain it is also known as bush chain Produce noise because of rubbing between teeth and links Power transmittin chains Bush Roller chain it consist of 1. Outer plate or pin link plate 2. Inner plate or roller link plate 3. Pins 4. Bushes 5. Rollers Advantages of bush chain •Extremely strong •Simple in construction •It gives good service under sever condition •Can be used with little lubrication •Produce little noise •Rollers resist wear inverted tooth or silent chain Purpose •Noiseless running •Eliminates the effects on chain and sprocket caused by stretching Length of chain L=∏(r1 + r2)+2x+ (r1 - 2 r2) /x Numerical Examples EXAMPLE #1: A chain drive is used for reduction of speed from 320rpm to 128rpm. The number of teeth on driven sprocket is 50, (a)Find the number of teeth on driving sprocket. (b)If the pitch circle diameter of driving sprocket is 300mm, find out the pitch of chain drive. Numerical Examples A chain drive having a speed of driving sprocket 220rpm, and the number of teeth on the driving and driven sprocket are 24 and 48 respectively. (a) Find out the driven speed of sprocket. (b) If p=25mm, find out the circle diameter of driven sprocket. (c) If k=33, find out the length of chain. Numerical Examples A chain drive is used for reduction of speed from 240rpm to 120 rpm. The number of teeth on the driving sprocket is 20. Find the number of teeth on the driven sprocket. If the pitch circle diameter of the driven sprocket is 800mm, determine the pitch and length of chain. Numerical Problem A chain drive is used for increase in speed from 180rpm to 360rpm. The number of teeth on the driven sprocket is 30. If the pitch circle diameter of the driving sprocket is 900 mm and center to center distance between two sprockets is 1200mm. Determine the length and the pitch of the chain.