Transcript 1 mark - ComputingRevision

```Computing
2012-2013
Intermediate 2
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section I
1. Arrange the following
memory capacities into order
from the smallest to the
biggest.
megabyte byte
kilobyte terabyte
•
•
•
•
•
Byte
Kilobyte
Megabyte
Terabyte
1 mark - KU
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section I
2. Name one input device that
can be used to capture a
graphic.
•
•
•
Scanner
Digital Camera
1 mark for any one
bullet, 1 mark - KU
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section I
3. State one reason why
computer systems use
numbers.
•
•
•
Simple two state system
where ON is represented by
a 1 and OFF is represented
by a 0.
Arithmetic calculations are
simpler since there are
fewer combinations of 1s
and 0s.
It is easier to represent two
states physically on backing
storage devices.
1 mark for any one
bullet, 1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section I
4. Convert the binary number
10110 into a decimal
number.
•
•
22
1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section I
5. A SmartTV has a built-in
computer system. Name this
type of computer system.
•
•
Embedded
1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section I
6.Name the part of the
processor where data or
program instructions are
held temporarily before or
after processing.
•
•
Registers
1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section I
7. Describe one economic
factor that has led to the
development of computer
networks.
•
•
•
•
•
Falling cost of
telecommunication
technologies and services
equipment
organisations
Demand for up-to-date
information
1 mark for any one
bullet, 1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section I
8. State the purpose of a string
variable.
•
•
To store text
1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section I
9. A program asks the user to
enter a 13 digit number.
•
•
Name the standard algorithm
that a program would use to
check the number of digits
• Input validation
1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section I
10. Making use of comments is
one method of improving
•
•
•
•
•
•
Describe one other way of
a program.
Use of meaningful variable
names
Using indentation
Use of blank lines (white
space)
Modular code
1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section I
11. Macros are often used in
an application to improve
productivity. Describe one
method of creating a macro.
•
•
•
Record user actions (as a
series of mouse clicks/moves
and assign actions to
keystroke)
Use a scripting language
1 mark for any one
bullet, 1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section I
12. Predefined functions are
used in programming. Using
a programming language
with which you are familiar:
(a) give an example of a
predefined function.
(b)explain the operation of the
function you have given in
(a) above.
•
•
•
•
•
LEN, ASC, CHR
Any suitable predefined
function
1 mark
Operation of matches
function given in (a).
1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section I
13. Normal and exceptional data
are used to test a computer
program.
State one other type of test
data that should be used to
test a program.
•
•
Extreme
1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section I
14. State the name of the
application which you would
use to type in the code for a
computer program.
•
•
Text editor
1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section 2
15. Blake is a website designer who wants to buy a computer to
store customer details and quotes and to use to design web
sites.
The table below summarises some features of two suitable
choices.
Computer Name
Genius 32
Bell 5120
Processor
3.1 GHz
3.5 GHz
RAM
4 Gb
8 Gb
Magnetic Drive
256 Gb
512 Gb
Optical Drive
CD-RW
DVD-RW
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section 2
(a) (i) State the clock speed of
the Bell 5120.
(ii) Explain what is meant by
the term “clock speed”
•
•
•
•
3.5 GHz
1 mark
Timing pulses per sec which
co-ordinate the operation of
the processor.
1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section 2
(b) The Bell 5120 has a DVDRW drive. Explain why Blake
can use his existing CD-RW
discs in this DVD-RW drive.
(c) Blake’s old computer had a
zip drive. State one reason
why modern computers do
not have zip drives.
•
•
•
•
•
DVD-RW are backwards
compatible with CD-RW.
1 mark
Capacity is smaller than
DVD or most USB flash
drives so there is little use
for it.
Other reasonable
1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section 2
(d) After considering the
features of each computer
and other factors, Blake
32”.
Explain, with reference to
one other factor, why Blake
32.
•
•
The higher specification of
the Bell 5120 will cost
significantly more therefore
Blake chose the Genius 32.
1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section 2
(e) Blake designs an advert to
send to his customers. He
uses a word processing
shown below.
•
•
•
•
•
one object and one
operation that may have
been used to create the
Text, change font
Text, centre text
Image, Align Right
Other valid object and
operation combination.
1 mark for object, 1
mark for operation
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section 2
(f) Blake wants to send the
using e-mail.
State one feature of e-mail
that would allow Blake to
send the advert to all his
customers in one operation
•
•
Mailing list
1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section 2
(g) Blake’s e-mail is very
lots of messages requesting
messages from lots of new
customers who want more
Describe how Blake can use
a feature of his e-mail
software to organise these
messages.
•
•
•
Make new folders for each
Move messages into the
relevant folder.
1 mark each bullet, 2
marks
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section 2
to his client server network.
Explain the role of the
(i) client and
(ii) the server
in this type of network.
•
•
•
•
Client makes requests to the
server for resources such as
files, authorisation etc.
1 mark
Server controls the network,
manages services, file
storage.
1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section 2
16. A computer game keeps a score table to remember the
name and score of each player. Some sample data stored by
the computer game is shown below
……
Name[21] Sally Stuart
Name[22] Chris Reed
Name[23] Joe Beach
Name[24] Bruce White
Name[25] Amy Long
……
……
Score[21] 254
Score[22] 231
Score[23] 315
Score[24] 532
Score[25] 202
……
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section 2
(a) Name the data structure
used to store “Name” and
“Score”.
(b) Name the standard
algorithm that would be
used to find the highest
score.
•
•
•
•
1D-Array
1 mark
Find Max
1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section 2
(c) One option in the game is to display all the names and scores
of the previous players and then the average score. The
pseudocode for this part of the program is shown below:
1.
player =1
2.
total = 0
3.
loop
4.
display name[player], score[player]
5.
player = player + 1
6.
until no more players left
7.
calculate average
8.
display average
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section 2
(i) Step 2 and Step 5 are the
beginning and end of a
conditional loop.
•
A conditional loop is used
because the number of
players (1 mark) is
unknown (1 mark)
•
Structure diagram/Chart
Other valid
1 mark
Explain why a conditional
loop is used here.
(ii) Name and describe one
other design notation that
could have been used.
•
•
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section 2
(iii) State which stage of the
software development
process is being carried out
when the pseudocode is
written.
•
(iv) Using a high level language
with which you are familiar,
write one line of program
code that will represent
Step 7 of the algorithm
above.
•
•
•
•
•
Design
1 mark
Visual Basic
average = total / player
1 mark for assignment
and division
1 mark for use of
program variables
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section 2
(d) The average score is
calculated as 342.736 points.
Describe how floating point
representation is used to
represent real numbers such
as this one.
•
Number is stored as a
mantissa (1 mark) and
exponent (1 mark)
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section 2
(e) A player has the option at
the end of a game to print a
certificate showing his/her
name and score.
•
•
•
State one reason why a
laser printer is used to print
the certificate rather than an
inkjet printer.
•
Able to print a greater
number of sheets without
replacing toner/ink.
Other valid
Note: may not be higher
resolution.
1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section 2
(f) The computer game has
been compiled.
(i) Describe how a compiler
translates a high level
language program into
machine code.
(ii) Name one other type of
translator.
•
•
•
•
Compiler translates the
whole program into machine
code in one operation.
1 mark
Interpreter
1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section 2
(iii) State two reasons why a
high level language was used
rather than machine code.
•
•
•
•
•
Easier to understand
Easier to edit
Easier to find errors
Portable
1 mark
Computing – Intermediate 2
Section 2
(g) The computer game is
supplied with a technical
guide. Describe two
features of a technical guide.
•
•
•
•
•
How to install software
Troubleshooting
System specification
Other valid
1 mark
(h) An error is found in the
computer game. Some
changes are made and a new
version of the game is made
available on a web site for
people who have paid for
Which stage of the software
development process has
just been carried out?
[END OF SECTION II]
•
•
Maintenance
1 mark
SECTION III - Part A – Artificial Intelligence
17. MoviesForYou is an online
film service which has
thousands of members. The
system randomly
recommends movies which
users have not seen but
these random
recommendations often
result in a member receiving
an unsuitable
recommendation.
SECTION III - Part A – Artificial
Intelligence
(a) One way of improving the
decision making could be to
use an expert system to
make the recommendations.
(i) What is an expert system?
(ii) Describe how an expert
system is created.
•
•
•
•
A computer program that
human expert.
1 mark
Human expert provide facts
and rules (1mark) then
coded by knowledge
engineer (1mark)
2 marks
SECTION III - Part A – Artificial
Intelligence
expert system to
recommend movies for
members.
•
•
•
•
no omissions/ builds up data
over time.
1 mark
human expertise to
Setup/running costs
1 mark
SECTION III - Part A – Artificial
Intelligence
(iv) State one example of a
hardware development,
other than higher capacity
hard drives, that has allowed
expert systems to be more
effective.
•
•
•
•
Cheap memory,
Faster processors
Other valid
1 mark
SECTION III - Part A – Artificial
Intelligence
(b) Draw a semantic net to
represent the following
facts.
MoviesForYou Gold is a
MoviesForYou Silver is a
MoviesForYou
Gold
MoviesForYou
Silver
is_a
is_a
Service
has
3 months
free
•
•
•
Nodes correct, 1 mark
Connections correct 1
mark
2 marks
SECTION III - Part A – Artificial
Intelligence
(c) The follow search tree represents a problem associated with
making movie recommendations.
The solution to the problem is “Teen Drama”
List which nodes will be visited to reach the solution “Teen
Drama” if the search is:
Movies
Action
Superhero
Martial Arts
Childrens
Cartoon
Drama
Teen Drama
Detective
Horror
Survival
Horror
Vampire
SECTION III - Part A – Artificial
Intelligence
(i) A depth first search?
•
•
•
•
Movies, Action, Superhero,
Martial Arts, Childrens,
Cartoon, Teen Drama
1 mark
Movies, Action, Childrens,
Drama, Horror, Superhero,
Martial Arts, Cartoon, Teen
Drama
1 mark
SECTION III - Part A – Artificial
Intelligence
(d) Some members don’t like
the recommendations they
children are being
recommended horror films.
•
•
•
•
•
Explain who may be held legally
responsible if the “computer”
gives advice that appears to be
incorrect.
May be the original expert who
gave incorrect information.
May be knowledge
engineer/programmer who
introduced an error when
coding.
Other valid.
1 mark
SECTION III - Part A – Artificial
Intelligence
18. RoboClean is a robot
which has been programmed
to clean floors and avoid
obstacles.
(a) (i) State one application of
artificial intelligence that
could be used to identify
obstacles.
(ii) Describe one problem that
could affect the success of
RoboClean in correctly
identifying obstacles.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Vision system
1 mark
Field of vision of robot
Height of obstacles
Other valid
1 mark
SECTION III - Part A – Artificial
Intelligence
(iii) Name two sensors that
would help RoboClean avoid
obstacles.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Vision(camera)
Touch/proximity/pressure
Infrared
Light
Sonar
Other valid
2 marks
SECTION III - Part A – Artificial
Intelligence
(b) RoboClean uses an Artificial
Neural System to help plan
routes to move around
rooms to clean.
(i) What is an Artificial Neural
System?
using an Artificial Neural
System for this purpose.
•
•
•
•
•
Electronic model of the
human brain (consisting of
many interconnected
processors).
1 mark
Expensive to set up
Cannot explain reasoning
prediction or decision
1 mark for 1 bullet
SECTION III - Part A – Artificial
Intelligence
19. SkiAgency is an employment agency who supply snow sport
instructors across Europe.
(see paper)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
teaches(fred, skiing)
teaches(fred, snowboarding)
teaches(edith, skiing)
teaches(edith, climbing)
teaches(edith, snowsled)
6.
7.
8.
9.
works(fred, france)
works(fred, italy)
works(edith, france)
works(edith, spain)
10. years_employed(fred, 12)
11. years_employed(edith, 7)
12. experienced_teacher(X):- years_employed(X,Y), Y>=5.
SECTION III - Part A – Artificial
Intelligence
(a) State a query based on the
above rules, which would
•
•
?teaches(fred, skiing).
1 mark
SECTION III - Part A – Artificial
Intelligence
(b) (i) What would be the first
solution to the query
experienced_teacher(X)?
(ii) Complete a trace for this
solution using the numbering
system shown above.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
X = fred
1 mark
12 Subgoal
years_worked(X,Y)
10 matches X=fred and
Y=10
12 Second subgoal Y>=5
succeeds
first subgoal 1 mark
idea of second subgoal
succeeding 1 mark
2 marks
SECTION III - Part A – Artificial
Intelligence
(c) Create a rule to find
teachers who will work in
France teaching
snowboarding.
•
•
•
•
french_ski_worker(X):works(X,france),
1mark
teaches(X,snowboarding).
1 mark
2 marks
SECTION III - Part A – Artificial
Intelligence
(d) Potential teachers can
form from the company’s
web site.
application form to her
palmtop. State one input
device that could be used to
complete the application
form.
•
•
•
•
Touchscreen,
Microphone,
Keyboard
Any one bullet for 1
mark
SECTION III - Part A – Artificial
Intelligence
(ii) Users of the web site can
company using exchanging
text messages with a
program called “WebHelp”
which simulates
conversation with a human.
Name this type of natural
language processing
application.
•
•
Chatterbot
1 mark
SECTION III - Part B – Computer Networking
20. Paula is a web designer and has designed a site for selling ebooks online.
The URL of a page she is currently editing is:
http://www.mye-bookstore.co.uk/thriller/detective.html
SECTION III - Part B – Computer
Networking
(a) From this URL state:
(i) The name of the server
hosting the web page.
•
•
•
(ii) The name of the protocol
being used.
•
www.mye-bookstrore.co.uk
1 mark
hypertext transfer protocol
1 mark
SECTION III - Part B – Computer
Networking
(b) (i) Describe how the
Domain Name Service (DNS)
would find this URL on the
Internet.
•
•
•
(ii) State one limitation of
using domain names across
the Internet.
•
The appropriate server is
found (1 mark) and
translates the domain name
into an IP address (1 mark)
2 marks
Running out of domain
names
1 mark
SECTION III - Part B – Computer
Networking
(c) Paula has developed a WAP
version of the site which
supports microbrowsers.
(i) What is a microbrowser?
•
(ii) State one reason why
mobile phones use
microbrowsers.
•
•
•
•
A browser that is used on
small screens of mobile
devices.
1 mark
They have small file sizes
which match the small
memory sizes of mobile
phones.
Web-pages can be displayed
on smaller screens.
Any one bullet, 1 mark
SECTION III - Part B – Computer
Networking
she has been editing to her
web server. Explain what is
•
•
describe Internet access
which is faster than dial-up
of ISDN connection. It
Cable connections.
1 mark
SECTION III - Part B – Computer
Networking
(e) Paula has implemented a
backup strategy in case the
web server should fail.
Describe how a successful
backup strategy would help
should the server fail.
•
•
•
A backup strategy ensures
that regular backups are
mark).
These backups can then be
used to rebuild the server in
the event of a failure (1
mark)
Suitable description of
backup strategy with
restore for 2 marks
SECTION III - Part B – Computer
Networking
(f) Apart from saving on costs,
state two other ways that
booksellers benefit from
selling e-books online.
•
•
•
•
Worldwide market
Other valid
1 mark each bullet, 2
marks
SECTION III - Part B – Computer
Networking
(g) The increasing use of
mobile devices to read ebooks could be seen as an
example of converging
technologies.
•
•
Not convergent:
This is a new technology as
using technology tools prior
to this.
•
Explain why this may or may
not be an example of
“converging technologies.”
•
•
•
Convergent:
and mobile device are two
technologies being brought
together and therefore
represent converging
technologies.
1 mark either point
SECTION III - Part B – Computer
Networking
21. Gaile is a player of “War Of
Guilds”, an online computer game
which has millions of players. She
plays the game from her laptop in a
cafe, over a wireless LAN.
(a) When Gail loads the game the
screen below is
Explain why Gaile has to complete
this screen to access the game.
•
•
the game to confirm
that Gaile is who she
claims to be. This
her in game account.
1 mark
SECTION III - Part B – Computer
Networking
(b) The following message is
displayed when she logs in.
Explain why the game has
displayed this message.
(c) Gaile receives the email and
contained in the email.
•
•
•
•
•
•
To protect her account from
being hacked the game
recognises that she has
logged from a location not
associated with her account.
1 mark
Can move to news item by
different content.
1 mark
SECTION III - Part B – Computer
Networking
(d) (i) What hardware will
Gaile’s laptop need so that it
can connect to the wireless
LAN?
using a wireless connection
compared to a cabled
connection
•
•
•
•
•
•
Wireless NIC
1 mark
No requirement to run
cables
Laptop can be moved when
connected
Other valid
1 mark
SECTION III - Part B – Computer
Networking
(e) Gaile often uses a web site
that provides hints and tips
on using “War of Guilds”.
•
•
When she tries to access
the site from school she gets
the message “blocked
content”. Describe one
reason for this message
appearing.
Filtering software in school
content.
1 mark
SECTION III - Part B – Computer
Networking
(f) She tries to play the game
on the school network. The
following message appears
on her computer.
“Encrypted data detected:You
are not authorised to use
encryption on this network”
(i) Explain why the “War of
Guilds” game uses
encryption?
•
•
Data is encrypted to prevent
personal information being
intercepted.
1 mark
SECTION III - Part B – Computer
Networking
(ii) Explain why the school do
not allow encrypted data to
be sent from the network.
•
•
If data is encrypted then the
school network software
1 mark
SECTION III - Part B – Computer
Networking
(g) “War of Guilds” attracts
customers to their web site
to buy the game using emarketing.
(i) Describe two ways, other
than e-mail, that “emarketing” can be used to
attract customers to the
web site.
•
•
•
•
pages.
Using social media to
promote game
Other valid
1 mark each bullet, max
2 marks
SECTION III - Part B – Computer
Networking
(ii) “War of Guilds” send an email to all the game’s players.
the e-mail complain of a
problem with the character
set.
Explain what is meant by a
“character set”
•
•
The list of characters a
laptop/device recognises (list
of characters on own not
enough for mark).
1 mark
SECTION III - Part B – Computer
Networking
(iii) If a player did not wish to
from “War of Guilds” what
could he do to the settings
for his email program?
•
•
•
Create a folder rule to
automatically delete/move
the emails.
Other valid.
1 mark
Section III – Part C –Multimedia Technology
22. “Designs for you” create
digital images and designs for
their customers.
created using a vector
graphics package.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
(i) Name two attributes of
the line object used in the
design.
Colour
Style
Thinkness
Start X
Start Y
End X
End Y
Other valid
Any two attributes for 2
marks
Section III – Part C –Multimedia
Technology
(ii)Name one file type used to
store graphics in vector
format.
(iii) The customer for this
image doesn’t want it to be
slanted at 45 degrees. He
wants the image to be
rotated so that the line is
horizontal.
Explain how using a vector
graphics package makes this
using a bit-mapped graphics
package.
•
•
•
•
SVG
1 mark
Vector allows objects to be
edited via their properties
rather than trying to edit
individual pixels.
1 mark
Section III – Part C –Multimedia
Technology
(iv) Describe one other
graphics package” over a
“bit-mapped graphics”
package.
•
•
•
Ability to layer shapes
Other valid
1 mark
Section III – Part C –Multimedia
Technology
(b) A version of the salon logo
is saved as a JPEG file and
another as a GIF file.
(i) State the difference in
colour depth between a
JPEG file and a GIF file.
(ii) JPEG uses lossy compression.
Explain what is meant by the
term “lossy compression”.
•
•
•
•
•
JPEG is 24-bit colour (1
mark)
GIF is 8-bit colour (1 mark)
2 marks
Lossy compression involves
removing data from the file
which you hope will not be
missed such as certain
colours..
1 mark
Section III – Part C –Multimedia
Technology
(iii) What type of compression
do GIF files use?
•
•
Lossless
1 mark
Section III – Part C –Multimedia
Technology
(c) “Designs for You” also
create some 3D digital
images for a customer. (see
paper)
Shape 1
Shape 2
(i) How has “Shape 1” been
manipulated to become
“Shape 2”.
•
•
Rotated clockwise and tilted
forward.
1 mark
Section III – Part C –Multimedia
Technology
(ii) The faces of the cube do
not look very interesting.
State what can be done to
improve the appearance of
the cube.
•
Add a texture to the surface
(1 mark)
Section III – Part C –Multimedia
Technology
23. Nick is a multimedia producer and is working with a local
pet shop to prepare a promotional video to be played on
television and online video sites. The manager of the shop
wants the video to be a collection of photographs, video and
music.
Image A
Image B
Section III – Part C –Multimedia
Technology
(a) Nick uses a digital camera
to capture a photograph of
some animals in the shop.
(i) Nick edits Image A to
produce Image B as shown
above.
State which feature of the
image editing software Nick
has used.
•
•
•
Increased contrast
(also accept increase
brightness)
1 mark
Section III – Part C –Multimedia
Technology
(ii) The digital camera has a
CCD. Describe the function
of a CCD in a digital camera.
•
•
The CCD (charged coupled
device) uses sensors to
capture light coming in
through a lens and then
converts it.
1 mark
Section III – Part C –Multimedia
Technology
(iii) This image is 3.2 Mb. The
digital camera has a memory
card with a capacity of 4 Gb.
Calculate how many images
can be stored on the
memory card.
•
•
•
•
4GB = 1024 * 4 = 4096 Mb
(1 mark)
4096/3.2 = 128 (1 mark)
128 images will fit on
memory card.
2 marks
Section III – Part C –Multimedia
Technology
(b) Nick has to edit the audio
from an interview with an
employee of the shop. A
copy of the audio track is
shown below.
•
(i) Describe a problem with
this audio recording.
(ii) Describe how this problem
can fixed using audio editing
software.
•
•
•
•
It doesn’t use the full
dynamic range available
1 mark
Normalise the wave form.
Increase Volume
1 mark
Section III – Part C –Multimedia
Technology
(iii) This recording was
sampled at a sampling
frequency of 48 kHz with a
bit depth of 16 bits. Explain
each of the following terms.
bit depth
sampling frequency
•
The number of bits used to
store each sample taken of
the sound. The more bits the
greater the details stored. (1
mark)
•
•
The number of times per
second that the audio is
sampled and a value stored
using the bit-depth. The
higher the frequency the
more accurate the
representation of the
sound.(1 mark)
Section III – Part C –Multimedia
Technology
(c) Nick has also recorded
some video of pets in the
shop.
(i) Nick used a digital video
camera to capture the
footage. State one benefit of
using a digital video camera
rather than a webcam to
capture this video.
•
•
•
•
•
A digital video camera can
have better resolution
and/or colour bit depth than
a webcam
More features with digital
video camera such as zoom,
replay etc
Digital video camera can
store data on tape, DVD etc
Webcam moved with
difficulty/ inflexible
1 mark for any bullet
Section III – Part C –Multimedia
Technology
(ii) The footage is three
minutes long when it needs
to be two minutes long.
Which video editing tool can
Karin use to make the video
the correct length?
(iii) The final video file is 5 Mb
but needs to no bigger than
3Mb. Apart from
compression and changing
the length of the video,
describe two ways that
Karin can reduce the video
file size?
•
Timeline (1 mark)
•
Reduce the number of
frames per second
Reduce the bit depth of the
video
Reduce the height/width of
the frames
1 mark each bullet, max
2 marks
•
•
•
Section III – Part C –Multimedia
Technology
(d) Nick has created a MIDI
soundtrack to play during
the video.
(i) Give one reason why Nick
has chosen a MIDI
soundtrack rather than one
based on digitized sound.
(ii) Name one attribute of a
MIDI instruction.
•
•
•
•
Smaller file size.- 1 mark
Easier to manipulate
recording – 1 mark
Instrument, pitch, volume,
duration, tempo
Any of the above 1 mark
```