#### Transcript Pyramids

```Square
Rectangle
Hex
Cone
What are they ?
See some examples
How do you draw them ?
What are they?
They are 3-D shapes which start off with a
simple shape such as a Square at the
bottom ( THE BASE ) and rise up to a point.
e.g. An Egyptian pyramid starts with a Square
base
Some Examples
Triangle
Hexagon
Circle
Square
How do you draw them ?
The 2 drawings below both describe the Square prism shown in fig 1.
1. Complete the elevation of each drawing.
2. Complete the end elevation of each drawing
Name :
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Teacher
DRAWING
1. Complete the elevation of the drawing.
2. Complete the end elevation of the drawing
3. Produce the surface development
Name :
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Teacher
DRAWING
1. Complete the elevation of each drawing.
2. Complete the end elevation of each drawing
3. Produce the development
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Teacher
DRAWING
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DRAWING
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DRAWING
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Outline to Finish
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DRAWING
3
4
1
2
(4)
(3)
(1)
(4)
1
2
2
3
Front Elevation
End Elevation
Development of a
Rectangular Pyramid
How many sides does it have?
5
4 Triangles and
Describe the shapes of the sides
1 Rectangle
Are all the triangles the same?
Why?
No
Because two edges on the base are long and two
are short. This creates two different sizes of
triangle.
The Development
Base
Preferred Method
Why?
Imagine this shape
sheet metal.
• Less cutting
• Less waste
• Less joining
Base
Drawing Method
Step 1 - Draw the base
Step 2 requires a True Length which isn’t on the drawing and
has to be created
Step 3
Construct the True Length
right angles to the red line
in the plan, the red line in
the Front Elevation is a
true length
Front Elevation
Using the True Length
Step 4
Use the true length to
construct the four sides
Name :
Class :
Date :
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Teacher
DRAWING
Solid Hexagonal Pyramid Multi-View
Drawing the Plan View
1
2
6
3
5
4
3/2
4/1
5/6
Drawing the End Elevation View
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2
6
3
5
4
3/2
4/1
5/6
4
5/3
6/2
1
Drawing the Surface Development
Use a compass and lift the true
length of the pyramid edge.
Draw a horizontal and vertical
centre line to indicate the apex
of the surface development
Draw a large Arc with the
compass set to the true
length.
Draw a line between the
apex and the arc. This is the
first edge
Use a compass and lift the
length of side from the plan
Transfer this size to successive
points on the arc. At each mark
draw a line across.
Draw a straight line between
the arc points.
Now draw, using a 30o/600
set square, one hexagon in
the positions shown.
Outline to Finish
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DRAWING
Department of Technological Education
Cut Square Pyramid - Question
The given views show the Front
Elevation and unfinished Plan
of a cut square pyramid.
Draw the following views :The completed Plan
End Elevation
Surface Development of sides
True Shape of cut
Department of Technological Education
Finding Position of End Elevation
Using the Plan and the Front
Elevation project the position of
the End Elevation and show the
slope of the sides.
Number each of the points
in each view.
1
2
4
3
1/4
2 /3
3/4
1 /2
Department of Technological Education
Finding Position of cut on End Elevation
Project from the Front Elevation to
find the cut surface on the End
Elevation.
1
2
4
3
1/4
2 /3
Darken the outlines on the
End Elevation.
3/4
1 /2
Department of Technological Education
Finding Position of cut on Plan
Project from the Front Elevation to
find the cut surface on the
Plan.
1
2
4
3
1/4
2 /3
Darken the outlines on the
Plan.
3/4
1 /2
Department of Technological Education
Finding True Length of pyramid corner
Before the Development can be drawn
it is necessary to find out the
True Length of the corner of the
pyramid so that accurate sizes for
the development and the cut
points can be found
Draw a curve on the plan with the
centre being located at the centre
of the pyramid, the radius being
measured at one of the corners,
and the end point of the curve
being the centre line.
Project the point found onto the
Elevation baseline and draw a
generator to the apex of the
pyramid.
Project the cut points from the
elevation onto this True Length
line.
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2
4
3
1/4
2 /3
3/4
1 /2
Department of Technological Education
Drawing the outline of the Development
Indicate where the development is
going to be placed, and then
draw the first generator to
indicate one corner of the
pyramid.
Measure the length of the corner
of the pyramid using the True
Length line and draw a curve on
the Development at this size.
1
2
1
2
4
3
Step off the length of each of the
sides of the pyramid onto the
Development.
3
Draw generators to each of these
points to indicate the fold lines
Number each of the points.
1/4
2 /3
3/4
1 /2
4
1
Department of Technological Education
Drawing the cut on the Development
Step off from the True Length line
the distance from the apex of
the pyramid to each cut point
and transfer these sizes to the
correct generators on the
Development.
Join each of the points to
show the developed shape of
the cut. Also add the flat
edges to the base of the
pyramid on the Development.
1
2
1
2
4
3
3
Darken the outlines on the
Development.
Add the fold lines to complete
the view.
1/4
2 /3
3/4
1 /2
4
1
Department of Technological Education
Drawing the True Shape
To find the True Shape, project the
cut points away from the Front
Elevation at right angles to the
cut.
Draw a datum line on the
True Shape parallel to the cut
line of the Front Elevation
and at right angles to the
lines just projected. Use the
centre line of the plan as a
datum line.
Measure the vertical
distances from the datum to
each of the cut points on the
plan. Transfer each of these
sizes on to the True Shape.
Join each of the points found
to produce the True Shape.
Complete the view by
darkening the outlines.
1
2
1
2
4
3
3
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2 /3
3/4
1 /2
4
1
Department of Technological Education
Cut cone
The given views show the
Front Elevation and
part Plan of a cut cone.
Draw the following views :Complete Plan
End Elevation
Development
True Shape of cut
Department of Technological Education
Finding position of End Elevation
Start drawing the End
Elevation by projecting
the height and width
from the given views.
Department of Technological Education
Drawing Generators on Plan
Use 30o and 60o lines to
divide the Plan into 12
equal parts.
Number each of the
points on the Plan.
12
11
1
10
2
9
3
8
4
7
6
5
Department of Technological Education
Transfer Generators from Plan to Elevation
Project each of the
points from the Plan
onto the Elevation base.
12
11
1
10
2
9
Number each of the
points on the Elevation
making sure that the
numbers correspond
with those on the Plan.
3
8
4
7
910 11
8
7
6
12
6
5
1
5
23
4
Department of Technological Education
Drawing generator on Elevation
Draw generators from
the apex of the cone to
each of the points
1
0
found on the base of
the cone.
9
12
1
1
1
2
3
8
4
7
910 11
8
7
6
12
6
5
1
5
23
4
Department of Technological Education
Drawing generators onto End Elevation
Project the position of
the generators onto the
End Elevation by
10
projecting the points
from the Plan.
9
Number each of the
points on the End
Elevation.
12
11
1
1
2
3
8
4
7
6
5
Draw generators from
the apex to the base.
910
8
11
7
12
6
1
5
23
4
67
5
8
4
9
3
10
2
1112
1
Department of Technological Education
Finding cut points on End Elevation
Project the points
where the generators
on the Elevation cross
the cut onto the End
Elevation.
Mark each of the points
found with a small dot.
12
11
1
10
2
9
3
8
4
7
910
8
6
11
7
12
6
5
1
5
23
4
67
5
8
4
9
3
10
2
1112
1
Department of Technological Education
Completing End Elevation
Complete the End
Elevation by drawing a
smooth curve through
each of the point and
then darkening the
other outlines on the
view.
12
1
1
1
1
0
2
9
3
8
4
7
910
8
11
7
6
12
6
5
1
5
23
4
67
5
8
4
9
3
10
2
1112
1
Department of Technological Education
Finding cut points on Plan
Project the points from the
cut on the Elevation up to
the correct generator lines
on the Plan.
1
0
12
1
1
1
2
9
(Note that points
6 and 12 will not be able to8
be found at this time.)
3
4
7
6
5
Mark each of the points
found with a small dot
910
8
11
7
12
6
1
5
23
4
67
5
8
4
9
3
10
2
1112
1
Department of Technological Education
Finding points 6 and 12 on Plan (alternative 1)
Project point 6 and 12 onto
the outside generator on the
Elevation.
12
1
1
1
1
0
2
9
Project this point
up
to the centre line of the8
Plan.
3
4
7
Use compasses to rotate
this point onto the
correct generators for
points 6 and 12.
6
5
Mark each of these
points with a small dot
1
0 1
1
9
8 7
1
2
6
1
5
23
4
6
8
4
9
3
1
01
1
2
2 11
Department of Technological Education
Finding points 6 and 12 on Plan (alternative 2)
Project points 6 and 12 from
the End Elevation onto the
correct generators on the
Plan.
1
0
12
1
1
1
2
9
3
8
4
7
1
0 1
1
9
8 7
6
1
2
6
5
1
5
23
4
6
8
4
9
3
1
01
1
2
2 11
Department of Technological Education
Completing Plan
To complete the Plan draw a
smooth curve through each
of the 12 points found.
12
1
1
1
1
0
2
9
3
8
4
7
1
0 1
1
9
8 7
6
1
2
6
5
1
5
23
4
6
8
4
9
3
1
01
1
2
2 11
Department of Technological Education
Development of surface (1)
Mark the position where the
apex of the Development will
be placed.
Draw the first
generator.
12
1
1
1
1
0
10
9
Draw the base line of the
8
Development.
Step off the size to each
generator point along the
base.
9
2
3
11
4
7
6
12
5
1
2
Number each of the
points found.
3
4
Draw generator lines from
the apex to each of the
points on the base.
1
0 1
1
9
8 7
5
1
2
6
1
5
23
4
6
8
4
9
3
1
01
1
2
2 11
9
8
7
6
Department of Technological Education
Development of surface (2)
It is necessary to find
the ‘true length’ of the
cut points along each
generator.
12
1
1
1
1
0
9
To find these sizes
project a line through
each point on the cut 8
of the Elevation to the
outside generator.
9
2
1
0
3
1
1
4
7
6
1
2
5
1
2
3
Mark each of the found
points with a small dot.
4
5
6
1
0 1
1
9
8 7
1
2
6
1
5
23
4
6
8
4
9
3
1
01
1
2
2 11
9
8
7
Department of Technological Education
Development of surface (3)
Measure the distance from the
apex to each point on the
outside generator.
12
1
1
1
1
0
Transfer this size to
the
9
correct generator on the
Development.
8
1
0
3
1
1
4
7
Mark each point with
a small dot.
9
2
6
1
2
5
1
2
Draw a smooth curve
through each point found.
3
4
Darken each of the other
outlines on the
Development.
1
0 1
1
9
8 7
5
6
1
2
6
1
5
23
4
6
8
4
9
3
1
01
1
2
2 11
9
8
7
Department of Technological Education
True Shape of cut (1)
Project each of the points on
the cut of the Elevation away
at right angles to the cut
surface.
1
0
12
1
1
1
1
0
9
Draw a datum line on
8
the True Shape
– in
this case the centre line
has been chosen.
9
2
3
1
1
4
7
6
1
2
5
1
2
Number each of the
lines projected up to the
True Shape.
3
4
5
6
1
0 1
1
9
8 7
1
2
6
1
5
23
4
6
8
4
9
3
1
01
1
2
2 11
9
8
7
Department of Technological Education
True Shape of cut (2)
Measure the sizes from the
cut points to the centre line
on the Plan and transfer
each of these sizes to the
0
correct lines on the True 1
Shape.
12
1
1
1
1
0
9
Note – These sizes can also8
be measured from the End
Elevation.
9
2
3
1
1
4
7
6
1
2
5
1
Mark each of the points with
a small dot.
2
3
4
5
6
1
0 1
1
9
8 7
1
2
6
1 23
5 4
6
8
4
9
3
1
01
1
2
2 11
9
8
7
Department of Technological Education
True Shape of cut (3)
To finish the True Shape
draw a smooth curve
through each of the points
found.
12
1
1
1
1
0
9
2
1
0
9
The final drawing should
8
look like
this.
3
1
1
4
7
6
1
2
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
0 1
1
9
8 7
1
2
6
1 23
5 4
6
8
4
9
3
1
01
1
2
2 11
9
8
7
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Teacher
DRAWING
SUMMARY
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Teacher
DRAWING
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DRAWING
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