Transcript WWI Causes

1st World War in history
•Great War or War to End all War
•Not called WWI until after
•Total war
•Involved 60 nations and 6
Cost of War
•$400 billion
•$10 million dollars an hour
16 million deaths
•First war of the Industrial
New Weapons vs old tactics of
 Imperialism-
European powers were
going to all parts of the world to gain
 Africa, Asia, The Pacific
 By 1910, the most desirable
colonies had
been taken.
 Germany envied France and Britain b/c
they had the most richest colonies.
 They soon realized that the only way to
get land in Africa was to take it away
from the colonizers.
European nations competing for colonies around the
forms- 1: to act in the country’s own
national interest.
 Ex: Alsace-Lorraine-strip of land on the
boarder of France and Germany.
 Had been taken by Germany in 1871 and
France was expecting to gain it back.
 Germany did not want to give it up.
 This caused problems in their
 2. The
longing for an ethnic minority
independence in a nation where there
are many different/diverse groups.
 Ex: Austria-Hungary- Hungarians and
German speaking Austrians governed
millions of Czechs, Slovaks, Poles Italians,
Romanians and Serbs.
 These different groups wanted their own
independent self government and lands.
 This often caused conflict within the
nation itself.
 Building
up a nation’s military for war
and giving them more power than the
 Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great
Britain, Russia
 Spend large sums of money on new
weapons and warships.
 All of these countries were preparing for
•European nations began forming
military alliances with one another to
maintain a balance of power ……..
Triple Alliance
Central Powers
Triple Entente
Allied Powers
Austria-Hungary Empire
Great Britain
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
Franz Ferdinand’s funeral procession
Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist
assassinated the Archduke. He was
trying to gain allowances for his fellow
Serbs who lived under Austrian rule.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and
his family. Archduke was heir to
the throne in the Austrian
Hungarian Empire. His
assassination June 28, 1914
eventually led to WWI.
 When
the Archduke was assassinated,
Bosnia along with Serbia were annexed
to Austria-Hungary.
 Austria-Hungary was convinced Serbia
has something to do with the killings.
 They used this excuse to declare war on
Serbia on July 28, 1914.
 This set off the chain reaction of alliances
throughout Europe.
 July
29, 1914- (Russia was Serbia’s
protector) began mobilization.
 Germany demanded Russia stop. They
didn’t. Germany declared war on Russia.
 Russia’s
ally France declared war on
 Germany
 Great
declares war on Belgium.
Britain declared war on Germany.
 Quick
sweep through France to knock
the French out of the war then turn east
and defeat Russia.
 Germany
 This
is between France and Russia.
plan was put in order to avoid
fighting both countries at the same time.
 Germany
had to pass through Belgium to
get to France
 Belgium was neutral.
 Germany
hoped Britain would stay out of
the war.
 The invasion of Belgium brought Britain
into the war.
 1 week after the conflict started all of
Europe’s great powers were involved.
 Central
 Allies
 Germany
 Russia
 Austria-Hungary
 France
 Bulgaria
 Serbia
 Great
Archduke and
Demands Russia
Schlieffen Plan
Declares war on
July 28, 1914
Russian’s ally
France readies
Britain Enters War
after invasion of
August 4, 1914
Russia Begins
July 29, 1914
Declares war on
August 1,1914
Central Powers
and Allies Formed
 Stalemate-
Both sides can’t gain the
 Germany
and France and Britain
 1914
Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria join
Central Powers
 Italy
and Romania join Allies
 Central
 Allies
 Germany
 Russia
 Austria-Hungary
 France
 Ottoman
 Serbia
 Bulgaria
 Great
 Italy
 Romania
 Machine
guns and
rapid fire artillery
 Air
 Zeppelins
 Grenades
 Tanks
 Submarines
 Poison
 Battle
of Somme in
1916 British troops
lost 20,000 troops in
one day.
 Trench
 Contracted
 Constant
 No
lice from rats
man’s land
 Casualties
(French had 1,000,000
casualties in first 3 months of war)
Trench Warfare
 Some
felt personally involved b/c 92
million were immigrants or children of
 Germans
 Most
and Irish for Central Powers
Americans for Allies
 Wilson
wanted Americans to remain
•Panama Canal was completed in
August of 1914 just a week before
WWI began in Europe.
•Woodrow Wilson became President
in 1912.
•Americans were shocked by the
outbreak of war but………… was
in Europe.
•US was officially NEUTRAL
 American
Neutrality- Influenced by trade
 Preparedness
Movement- Be ready for
war. Patriotic education (Propaganda)
 Peace
Movement- Progressives, social
reformers and women. (Women
marching down streets proclaiming
 Isolationists-
Stay out of war
 Interventionists-
U.S. should intervene on
side of Allies
 Internationalists-
Get involved only to
solve the problem and promote peace.
 Britain
blockades Germany for its
 Later
Britain took all of the goods that
were supposed to go into Germany.
(Food, cotton, medicine, gasoline)
 German
response = blockade of Britain
 U-Boats-
Britain and Germany competed
to build the largest and strongest navy.
 Germany blockaded Britain by navy.
 Propaganda used by Britain to sway U.S.
 Lusitania- 128 Americans killed
 Germany agreed to stop blowing up
passenger ships.
 March 24,1916 Sussex was sunk by
 Killed
2 Americans
 Sussex
Pledge- Germans would warn
ships before they sank them.
 Wilson
authorized banks to make a huge
loan to the Allies.
•May 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the
Lusitania which was British passenger liner.
•Germans believed it was carrying
contraband (weapons) to the British.
•Killed 1,198 civilians including 128 Americans.
•U.S. and other countries outraged towards
Germany because of “unrestricted submarine
•US believed the Germans had violated
international law of targeting civilians
 Jan. 31, 1917
Germany informs U.S. that
the Sussex pledge would be ended.
 Feb. 3
U.S. cuts off diplomatic ties with
 Zimmerman
Note- Germany promises
lost land to Mexico if they declare war on