School of Education
International education has made a
significant contribution to Australia. It has
grown to now be our third largest source of
overseas earnings ...
The Hon Julia Gillard MP ( May 2009)
• In Australia -Annual export figure for educational
$18.3 billion in 2010 (AEI, 2011)
• $10.4 billion (59%) in Higher Education
• Top 10 contributors were: China (24.3%) India
(14.6%) Republic of Korea (5.7%) Malaysia (4.6%)
Vietnam (4.5%) Thailand (3.8%) Indonesia (3.3%)
Nepal (3.0%) Hong Kong (2.8%) Brazil (2.0%)
Other (including Saudi Arabia – 28.2%)
• In 2009, 320,970 international students studying
with an Australian institution of higher education
• 100,492 (31.3%) of these studying offshore
• MA (Applied Linguistics) course taught
transnationally in Ho Chi Min City.
• Exchange of ideas about teaching and
learning between Vietnamese lecturers and
Australian lecturers on same course.
• Literature describing approaches to teaching
and learning in terms of an ‘Orientalist Binary
Paradigm’ (Takayama, 2008).
• Discourses on Orientalism and ‘othering’
Organisation of the presentation
• Approaches to teaching and learning
• Social and theoretical discourses on Asia
• ‘Spilling over’ of these discourses into
research on ‘Asian’ approaches to
teaching and learning
• Ways forward for teaching and learning in
the Asia Pacific region.
• Mechanistic out – organismic, Humanistic
in (Rogers, Maslow, Tennant, Bloom,
• The learning society (Schon, Hutchins, )
• Transformative learning –– instrumental
learning out – communicative learning in
• Learning =action collectively or
individually, emotional , spiritual (Mezirow,
Daloz, Cunningham, Boyd)
• Experiential and informal (workplace) in –
classroom out (Boud, Eraut)
• ‘Orientalism as a Western style for dominating,
restructuring, and having authority over the
Orient’. ( Said, 1978, p.3)
Orientalism-almost a European
invention…one of its deepest and
most recurring images of the ‘other’
(Saud, 1978, p.1)
The European is a close reasoner; his statements of fact
are devoid of any ambiguity;
The mind of the Oriental , on the other hand , like his
picturesque streets, is eminently wanting in symmetry
The Oriental generally acts, thinks and speaks in a
manner exactly opposite to the European (Cromer,
‘denying of creativity and
‘continued essentially the same’
Women – demure, sensual, subservient
Men- cold, inscrutable, cruel
Spilling over into reports of Asian
approaches to learning?
• reproductive (rote)
• dependent on teacher
• passive – listen and obey
(Noesjirwan, 1970; Chan, 1999; Ballard,
Confucius versus Socrates
• Passivity, obedience, lack of creativity or
critique, pragmatic (surface) learning,
instrumental learning attributed to
• Questioning, evaluating, doubting,
critiquing (deep) and communicative
learning attributed to Socratic West (also
deriving from Dewy (1899, 1916)
Setting the record straight- Confucian
• Confucius urged his students to sift his teachings
and criticise his statements:
11:4 → Hui is no help to me at all. He is pleased
with everything I say.
• He didn’t necessarily endorse teacher/student
The teacher does not have to be more
knowledgeable than the pupil; and the pupil is not
necessarily always less learned than the teacher
(cited in Cheng, 2000, p. 4)
• Dialectic→Ways of thinking and socio-political
structures - Confucian attitudes a product of time
of stability – Taoism, Buddhism approaches
different – less stable (Geyer, 2003).
Setting the record straight- Socratic
• Learning (surface/deep) in Western universities
dependent upon nature and year of course (Kirkpatrick
& Mulligan, 2002) ‘Deep’ approach takes years to
develop – even for academics (Haggis, 2003)
• Memorisation does not preclude deep understanding
• Critical’ thinking often just means mirroring lecturer’s
ideas (Webb, 1997; Sandeman-Gay, 1999)
• Asking Asian students to critically think in university
settings - are we really just asking them to imitate our
preferred learning style? This is Behavourist not
organismic (Kegan, 1994).See Mahbubani quote
• Not always safe for students to articulate critical
thought e.g. Indonesian student
• Can have a teacher centred approach which
produces independent learners (Brookefield,
• Western learning theory and teaching
practices = ‘grand narrative’ , ‘hegemonies’
that don’t fit reality of most learners in mass
educational systems (Haggis, 2003)
• Mental colonisation – power and privileged
versus feelings of worthlessness, thinking
incongruent with ‘essence of being’ (Apsland,
1999). Quote Mahbubani
• Learning a product of its time (Foucault,
• Recent research has laid ground for
dismantling ‘Orientalist binary paradigms’
(Takayama, 2008) often based on ‘othering’
and Orientalist notions.
• Asia much more confident now – rapid
economic development. Quote Mahbubani,
• Lecturers educated at post grad level in
Western universities can occupy ‘the Third
Space’ (Kramsch, 1993a, 2009) –
• Are we yet again heading in different
directions though? Japan/USA
• More focus on social/ theoretical discourses,
history and cross cultural awareness in teacher
education (pre-service and in-service) and
knowledge of recent empirical research
• More collaborative (across national borders)
qualitative research by practitioners in the field
recognising power relations , ethnocentricity etc
• Joint delivery of transnational courses with
onshore and offshore teachers/lecturers;
recognition of offshore teachers superior
intercultural competence = learning opportunities
for those in East and West.
• More symmetrical dialogue – Asian teachers and
Australian teachers which goes beyond national
differences and binary paradigms and is situated
in a globalised world.
Aspland, T. (1999). ‘You learn round and I learn square’: Mei’s story. In
Y. Ryan & O. Zuber-Skerritt (Eds.), Supervising postgraduates from
non-English speaking backgrounds (pp.25-39). Buckingham: Open
Australian Education International (AEI) (2011).Transnational education
in the higher education sector. Research Snapshot , May.
Bloom, B.S. (Ed.). (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: Book 1
cognitive domain. London: Longman
Boud, D. & Walker, D. (1990). Making the most of experience. Studies
in Continuing Education, 12 (2), 61-80.
Boyd, R.D. (1989). Facilitating personal transformations in small
groups: Part 1.Small Group Behaviour, 20 (4), 459-474.
Boyd, R.D. (1991) (Ed.). Personal transformations in small groups: A
Jungian perspective. London: Routledge.
Boyd, R., & Myers, J.G. (1988). Transformative education.
International Journal of Lifelong Education, 7 (4), 261-284.
Brookefield, S. (1985a). Self-directed learning: A critical review of
research. In S. Brookefield (Ed.), Self directed learning: from theory
to practice (pp. 5-16). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Chan, S. (1999). The Chinese learner – a question of style. Education
and Training, 41 (6/7), 294-304.
Cheng, X. (2000). Asian students’ reticence revisited. System, 28, 435446.
Confucius the analects.(1979). Middlesex, England: Penguin.
Cunningham, P. (1998). The social dimension of transformative
learning. PAACE Journal of Lifelong Learning, 7, 15-28.
Daloz, L. (1986). Effective Teaching and Mentoring: Realizing the
Transformational Power of Adult Learning Experiences. San
Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Daloz, L. (1999). Mentor: Guiding the journey of adult learners. San
Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Delacroix (1834). Algerian Women.
GATE (1997). Certification Manual, Global Alliance for Transnational
Dewey, J. (1899). The school and society. Chicago: University of
Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the
Philosophy of Education. USA: Macmillan.
Dirlik, A. (1996). Chinese history and the question of Orientalism.
History and Theory, 35 (4), 96-118.
Eraut,M. (2004). Informal learning in the workplace. Studies in
Continuing Education, 26 (2), 247-273.
Foucault, M. (1972). The archeology of knowledge and the discourse
on language. New York: Tavistock.
Geyer, R. (2003 September 19). Europeanisation, Complexity, and the British
Welfare State. Paper presented at the UACES/ESRC Study Group on The
Europeanisation of British Politics and Policy-Making, Department of
Politics, University of Sheffield, UK.
Giroux, H.A. (1981). Ideology, culture and the process of schooling. London:
Golden, A. (1997). Memoirs of a geisha. USA: Knopf.
Green, A. (2000). Converging paths or ships passing in the night? An ‘English’
critique of Japanese school reform. Comparative Education, 36, 417-435.
Haggis, T. (2003). Constructing images of ourselves? A critical investigation
into ‘approaches to learning’ research in higher education. British
Educational Research Journal, 29 (1), 89-104.
Johnson, M.C. & Boud, D. (2010). Towards an emergent view of learning work.
Journal of Lifelong Education, 29 (3), 359-372.
Kegan, R. (1994). In over our heads:The mental demands of modern life.
Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Kember, D. 2000 Misconceptions about the learning approaches, motivation
and study practices of Asian students. Higher Education, 40 , 99-121
Kirkpatrick, A., & Mulligan, D. (2002). Cultures of learning: Critical reading in
the social and applied sciences. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 25
Knowles, M. (1973). The adult learner: A neglected species. Houston: Gulf
Kramsch, C. (1993a). Context and culture in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford
Kramsch, C. (2009). Third culture and language education.
Mahbubani, K. (1998). Can Asians think? Singapore: Times
Malcolm, J. (1815). The history of Persia from the most early
period to the present time. London: John Murrray.
Maslow, A.H. (1970). Motivation and personality. New York:
Harper & Row.
Merriam, S.B. & Caffarella, R.S. (1999). Learning in adulthood:
A comprehensive guide. 2nd Ed. San Francisco, CA:
Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative dimensions of adult learning.
San Francisco,CA: Jossey-Bass.
Mezirow, J. (1994). Understanding transformation theory. Adult
Education Quarterly, 44 (4), 222-233.
Mezirow, J. (1996). Contemporary paradigms of learning. Adult
Education Quarterly, 46 (3), 158-173.
Mezirow, J. (2003). Transformative learning as discourse.
Journal of Transformative Education, 1 (1), 58-63.
Noesjirwan, J. (1970). Attitudes to the Asian student studying in
the West. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1, 393-397.
Nozaki, Y. (2009). Critical teaching about Asia: Orientalism,
postcolonial perspectives and cross-cultural education.
Journal of Intercultural Studies, 30 (2) 141-155.
Rogers, C.R. (1969). Freedom to learn. Ohio: Bell &
Rohmer, S .(1913). The Mystery of Dr. Fu-Manchu.
Said, E. (1993). Culture and imperialism. London: Chatto
Said, E.W. (1978). Orientalism. London: Penguin
Sandeman,-Gay, E. (1999). Supervising Iranian students:
A case study. In Y. Ryan & O. Zuber-Skerritt (Eds.),
Supervising postgraduates from non-English speaking
backgrounds (pp.40-47). Buckingham: Open
Sayer,A. (1997). Essentialism, social constructionism
and Beyond. Sociological Review, 45 (3) 456-487.
Schӧn, D. (1983). The reflective practitioner: how
professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.
Spies, W. (1939). The Landscape and its Children.
Spivak, G.C. (1999). A Critique of Postcolonial Reason:
Toward a History of the Vanishing Present.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Takayama, K. (2008). Beyond Orientalism in comparative
education: challenging the binary opposition between
Japanese and American education. Asia Pacific Journal of
Education, 28 (1), 19-34.
Tavakoli-Targhi, M. (2001). Refashioning Iran: Orientalism,
occidentalism and historiography. St Antony’s, New York:
Tennant, M. (1988). Psychology and adult learning. London:
Routledge Tennant, M. (2006). Psychology and Adult learning.
Abingden, Oxon: Routledge.
Tennant, M. (2006). Psychology and adult learning. Abingdon,
Tretchikoff, V.(1950). The Green Lady.
Tweed, R.G. (2000). Learning considered within a cultural
context: Confucian and Socratic approaches. PhD Thesis.
The University of Colombia .
Ware, P., & Kramsch, C. (2005). Toward an intercultural stance:
Teaching german and English through telecollaboration. The
Modern Language Journal,89 (2), 190-205.
Webb, G. (1997). Deconstructing deep and surface approaches
towards a critique of phenomenography. Higher Education, 33