Goal Setting Theory - Lead More
Transcript Goal Setting Theory - Lead More
Section 11- Goal Setting Theory
Leaders are Readers
• The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People
Stephen R Covey (2004)
– “#2 Begin with the End in Mind”
• The HP Way, David Packard (2005)
– “We thought if we could get everyone to agree on
what our objectives were and to understand what
we were trying to so, then we could turn them
loose and they would move in a common
• This is Goal Setting
• Goal: What an individual is trying to accomplish
through his or her behavior and actions.
• Goal Setting Theory: A theory that focuses on
identifying the types of goals that are most
effective in producing high levels of motivation
and performance and why goals have these
• Goal setting can operate to enhance both intrinsic
motivation (in the absence of any extrinsic
rewards) and extrinsic motivation (when workers
are given extrinsic rewards for achieving their
Solid Goal Characteristics
S – Specific
M – Measurable
A – Achievable
R – Result – based
T – Time specific
• Major Dimensions of Goal Setting
• Research on the Impact of Goal Setting
– The Importance of Specific Goals
– The Importance of Difficult and Challenging Goals
– Goal Acceptance, Participation, and Commitment
– Self-Efficacy and Goals
– Objective and Timely Feedback
Characteristics of Motivating Goals
– Often quantitative
– Should be hard but not impossible for most
workers to achieve
– Especially important when managers set goals for
– So that workers know how well they are doing
Specific, Difficult Goals Affect Motivation
and Performance by:
• Directing workers’ attention and action
toward goal-relevant activities
• Causing workers to exert higher levels of
• Causing workers to develop action plans to
achieve their goals
• Causing workers to persist in the face of
obstacles or difficulties
Limits to Goal Setting Theory
• There are two circumstances under which
setting specific, difficult goals will not lead to
high motivation and performance:
– When workers lack the skills and abilities needed
to perform at a high level.
• (never forget: performance = ability * motivation * support)
– When workers are given complicated and
difficult tasks that require all of their attention
and require a considerable amount of learning.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
• A goal-setting process in which a manager meets
with his or her supervisor to set goals and
evaluate the extent to which previously set goals
have been achieved.
• Although less common, MBO can also be used as
a motivational tool for nonmanagers.
• Necessary characteristics for MBO success:
– Set goals should contribute to organizational
– Goals should be specific and difficult.
– A certain amount of trust and rapport must exist
between managers and their supervisors.
Advice to Managers
1. Be sure that a worker’s goals are specific and
difficult, whether set by you, by the worker, or
by both of you.
2. Express confidence in your subordinates’
abilities to attain their goals, and give
subordinates regular feedback on the extent of
3. When workers are performing difficult and
complex tasks that involve learning, do not set
goals until the workers gain some mastery over
Personal Goal Framing and Development
James B. Avey PhD
Develop Your Goal
• Take a moment and think about something
you want to accomplish in the next 6 months.
Can be personal, work, school, whatever
domain is salient. Make it YOUR goal,
something that REALLY matters to you.
• Write it down
• “Frame” it in the following ways:
– Reasonably difficult- some chance of failure
– Approach vs. avoidance (something to do; not
something to avoid)
– Clearly measurable
Develop Your Goal
• List 3-5 milestones or “sub-goals” that you will
need to accomplish along the way. Maybe
draw it in a sequence if you wish.
• Take a moment and think about what will
prevent you from accomplishing the goal.
These are obstacles.
– Write down 3-5 of these obstacles.
– Write down what you will do to overcome the