Topic 6 - Instructional Strategies (ch7)

download report

Transcript Topic 6 - Instructional Strategies (ch7)

Instructional Strategies for
Adapted Physical Education
Chapter 7
Preparation for
Successful Inclusion


Awareness of general characteristics of
disabilities, teaching strategies, and
behavior management considerations
Know the individual student
–

Read the IEP or school-wide student reports,
communicate with parents and colleagues
Differentiate instruction
– Adjusting instruction
for the unique needs of
students
Preparation for
Successful Inclusion

Preparing general education students
–

How and when should you prepare students
without disabilities?
Preparing support personnel (later lecture)
–
–
What support personnel do APE teachers interact
with on a regular basis?
How should they be prepared?
Teaching Styles
The teaching styles used varies by students but often the
best styles are either command or exploration.
 Reproductive Styles
–
–
–
–
–

Command
Practice/station
Reciprocal
Self-check
Self-selection
Productive Styles
–
–
–
Guided discovery
Problem solving
Individual Program
Teaching Formats

Earlier we talked about the Continuum of
Alternative Placements (ch2)
–

Remember, in consultation with out PPT members, you
can adjust a students placement
Reverse inclusion (formerly reverse
mainstreaming) – when students without disabilities
are incorporated into a class of mostly special
needs students.
Where to Start Instruction?

Based upon your assessment of a student’s
PLP, you must formulate goals, activities,
and assessment that are based upon
individual needs.
–
–
Assessment is based upon Brockport Test,
TGMD2, Observation, Rubric, or other tools
Keep in mind the annual goals and short-term
objectives (remember activity with Peter)
Where to Start – depends on the child
of course (relates to function, not age!)
Think of what is important for the welfare of the child!!!
More
advanced
Less
advanced
Learning Motor Skills
1.
Reinforcement and repetition are needed when
learning a new skill.
1.
2.
3.
2.
3.
ESPECIALLY with APE students
Progress happens more slowly and sometimes not at all,
be patient and persistent. You are helping change
happen.
Dr. Frangione – Repetition is the mother of all learning
Better to break learning into smaller but more
frequent episodes
Motor skills that are over-learned are retained
longer.
For example

You identified three AG’s goals for Jeremiah (11th
grader) based upon his PLP and interests
–
–
–
Improve cardiovascular function – walk continually for 15
minutes (currently 5 minutes)
Improve basketball skills: dribble and not lose the ball 3
of 4 times and shoot 25% within 15 feet (currently cannot
keep control and shoots below 10%)
Bowling:


Keep score with three or fewer errors per game (adds #’s only)
Bowl demonstrating a 3-step approach, low-level release, and a
pendulum release pattern (Currently bowls with 2 hands, no
approach)
General APE Instructional
Strategies



Modify or avoid elimination-type games
Reduce play areas if movement capabilities are
limited.
Modify activities to highlight their abilities rather than
their disabilities
–

Cooperative activity to find partner on other side of gym for a
visually impaired student
May also modify some activities in a way that students
assume disability (empathy activities).
–
What are some examples of empathy activities?
General APE Instructional
Strategies


Permit the sharing, substitution, or interchange of duties in
an activity (co-sport ed captains, runner’s aide in softball)
– Be careful not to exclude!!
– For example, having a special needs student keep score
instead of being a part of the game does not move
him/her towards a lifetime of activity.
Modify or select activities in which contact is made and
maintained with an opponent, partner, or small group.
– Small sided games prevent the “fishbowl” effect
General APE Instructional
Strategies

Physical prompts are much more accepted in APE unless
the student has tactile anxiety. This may include
physically manipulating a student through the motions of a
skill, orienting them in a desired location, ‘nudging’ them
towards a desired outcome.
–
There are of course exceptions so individualize your response
based on the student. Some disabilities, autism for example, may
not respond well to physical contact.
General APE Instructional
Strategies

Ask the student
–
Example: “What can I do to help you?” Students often know
successful modifications and their own limitations.


Be enthusiastic – it is contagious.
–

Christina asked a student with CP how he would like assistance serving
in a volleyball game. He asked her to hold the ball a certain way,
positioned her, and then struck it out of her hands
Examples include high fives, encouraging words, upbeat demeanor.
Special needs students are often well attuned to non-verbal
language. If you’re down, it brings them down.
Provide a choice of activities, all of which are related to your
instructional goals for the goal
General APE Instructional
Strategies

Do not assume that since a student has a
disability or uses a wheelchair that they are
intellectually impaired. Avoid speaking in a more
elementary fashion (higher voice, facial
expressions, word choice etc) until you know it is
appropriate.
–
Can offend some students
General APE Instructional
Strategies

Remember
–
You must include EVERY student with a
disability as meaningfully as possible. This may
necessitate modifying the activity or the
equipment.


You will be continually challenged from day 1 to
retirement to make an experience as close to that of
students without disabilities as possible.
This is an assumed responsibility of being a physical
educator.
Communication/Socialization

Do not allow a student to become socially isolated from
his or her peers.
–

Involve them with consistent groups, integrate them into
activities, make appropriate modifications, insist on
positive interactions, and especially be on guard for
derogatory language.
Often you must use FREQUENT verbal and nonverbal reminders to prompt students to stay on
task. This is normal.
Communication/Socialization

Socialization – Some special needs students will have
below average communication skills. For example,
they may utilize few words, use poor diction, or merely
grunt. Continually try and improve their communication
skills. Some strategies include:
–
–
Require them to communicate needs or desires instead
of just making sounds, gestures, or pointing.
Select activities where they must communicate with their
peers (deciding upon equipment to use for a cooperative
task, responding to a greeting to get unfrozen in tag).
Communication/Socialization

Communication delays may also include normal social
conventions such as greeting and parting. Insist, as
much as possible, that students say hello or shake
your hand while looking at your face. Similarly,
exchange appropriate goodbyes when parting
–
Reinforcing and modeling communication strategies will
help them interact in the future, at home and possibly
work.
Communication/Socialization

Communication – Teachers may use a
communication board consisting of pictures or a dryerase board which the teacher may draw upon.
–
–
Example
Example
Report Strategies
- School Health Policies and Program Study (CDC, 2006)
Inappropriate Behaviors

APE students may exhibit behaviors which are not
socially acceptable such as referring to someone
as their girlfriend, repeatedly entering personal
space, hugging repeatedly, or kissing on the
cheeks.
–
Remind students of appropriate behavior and desist if it
continues. One hug is quite all right but ignoring or allowing
problem behaviors is harmful in the long run. It is important
to teach and reinforce socially acceptable standards of
behavior.
Linked Files





General suggestions for APE programs
Teaching Tips-general and disability specific
Teaching Tips-general and disability
specific2
Teaching Tips for PE-specific disabilities
General modifications
Practice

We’re teaching 1st graders to jump rope over a
series of 3 lessons.
–

Let’s map out what we want to cover each day
We have two students with special needs in class:
–
–
–
Ricardo – does not have a hand on either arm
Margo – uses a wheelchair
In groups, break down each activity you’ve mapped out in
terms of appropriate instructional strategies and
modifications.

NASPE forum answers to the scenario

Practicum Check Up
–
–
How is it going?
Give some examples