Personal Protective Equipment

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Transcript Personal Protective Equipment

Personal Protective
Equipment and Tool
Safety
Joe Nail
4/13/2015
Industrial Safety Lecture Two
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Introduction to PPE
Employees must be protected from harm.
Common methods for doing this are
Engineering Controls, Work Practices,
Administrative Controls and, Personal
Protective Equipment (PPE). Sometimes
one or more of the above is used and at
times all are used to provide adequate
protection. When only PPE is used, the
PPE is the only thing protecting the
employee from the danger. This unit
discusses basic types of PPE and the
employer requirements.
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What is personal protective
equipment?
 Personal protective equipment, or PPE, is
designed to protect employees from serious
workplace injuries or illnesses resulting from
contact with chemical, radiological, physical,
electrical, mechanical, or other workplace hazards.
Besides face shields, safety glasses, hard hats, and
safety shoes, PPE includes a
variety of devices and garments such as goggles,
coveralls, gloves, vests, earplugs, and respirators.
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Employer’s Responsibilities
(OSHA Subpart I:1910.132-140)
What Kind of PPE
Maintained PPE
Approved PPE
Training to use PPE
OSHA’s primary PPE standards are in Title 29 of the Code of Federal
Regulations (CFR), Part 1910 Subpart I, and equivalent regulations in states
with OSHA-approved state plans, but you can find PPE requirements
elsewhere in the General Industry Standards. For example, 29 CFR 1910.156,
OSHA’s Fire Brigades Standard, has requirements for firefighting gear. In
addition, 29 CFR 1926.95-106 covers the construction industry. OSHA’s
general PPE requirements mandate that employers conduct a hazard
assessment of their workplaces to determine what hazards are present that
require the use of PPE, provide workers with appropriate PPE, and require
them to use and maintain it in sanitary and reliable condition. As an employer,
you must assess your workplace to determine if hazards are present
that require the use of PPE.
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1910.132(d) Hazard Assessment
 (2)The employer shall verify that the required workplace
hazard assessment has been performed through a written
certification that identifies:
 The workplace evaluated;
 The person certifying that the evaluation has been
performed;
 The date(s) of the hazard assessment; and,
 Which identifies the document as a certification of hazard
assessment
New Employee Orientation
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Employer’s Responsibilities
1910.132(f) Training
 If such hazards are present, you must select PPE and require employees to
use it, communicate your PPE selection decisions to your employees, and
select PPE that properly fits your workers. You must also train employees
who are required to wear PPE on how do the following:
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Use PPE properly,
Be aware of when PPE is necessary,
Know what kind of PPE is necessary,
Understand the limitations of PPE in
protecting employees from injury,
Don, adjust, wear, and care for PPE, and
Maintain PPE properly.
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Employee’s Responsibilities
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Inspect Maintain Report Defects
Employees should look at their equipment on a daily basis to
make sure it is good working order. This is the responsibility of
each employee.
PPE, especially eye wear and face masks, should be cleaned
daily by the person who wears it.
The employee must reports any problems with PPE, as well as
other protective equipment, as soon as it is detected.
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1910.132(f) Training
 (2)Workers must demonstrate an
understanding of the training and the ability to
use PPE properly, before being allowed to
perform work requiring the use of PPE:
 (4)Verify that each employee has received and
understood the required training through a written
certification that contains:
 The name of each employee trained,
 The date(s) of training, and that
 Identifies the subject of the certification
1910.138(a) General requirements
 Employers shall select and require employees
to use appropriate hand protection when
employees' hands are exposed to hazards such
as those from:
 Skin absorption of harmful substances;
 Severe cuts or lacerations;
 Severe abrasions;
 Punctures;
 Chemical burns;
 Thermal burns; and
 Harmful temperature extremes
Introduction to PPE
 Hand Protection
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Introduction to PPE
 Head
Protection
Early Hard Hats were made
of metal
Webbing: 1 inch
clearance
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1910.135(a) General requirements
 (1)Ensure that each
employee wears a protective
helmet when working in areas
where there is a potential for
injury to the head from falling
objects
Classes and types of Hard hats
 Type I hard hats - intended
to reduce the force of
impact resulting from a
Classes
 G (old A)
 General
 2,200 volts
blow to the top of the head
 Type II hard hats designed to provide
 E (old B)
 Electrical
 20,000 volts
protection against both side
impact (lateral) and blows
to the top of the head
 C (same)
 Conductive
1910.135(b) Criteria for protective
helmets
 (1)Protective
helmets purchased
after July 5, 1994
shall comply with
ANSI Z89.1-1986
Introduction to PPE
 Care of a Hard Hat
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Introduction to PPE
 Eye Protection
 Glasses
 Goggles
Z 87.1-1989
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Introduction to PPE
 Face Protection
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PPE 1910.95
Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be
provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in
Table G-16.
Hearing Protection: Reusable and Disposable
Reusable Ear Plugs
Ear Muffs
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Ear Protection and
Communication
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Table G-16
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Exposure Hours per Day
Sound Level in dBA
8
90
6
92
4
95
3
97
2
100
1 1/2
102
1
105
1/2
110
¼ or less
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1910.136(a) General requirements
 Ensure that each affected
employee uses protective
footwear when working
in areas where there is:
 A danger of foot injuries due to
falling or rolling objects, or
 Objects piercing the sole, and
 Where such employee's feet are
exposed to electrical hazards
Introduction to PPE
 Foot Protection
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1910.136(b) Criteria for protective footwear
 (1)Protective footwear purchased after July 5,
1994 shall comply with ANSI Z41-1991,
"American National Standard for Personal
Protection-Protective Footwear,"
Introduction to PPE
 Foot Protection(continued)
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Introduction to PPE
 Foot Protection(continued)
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Safety Harness
 Limits a fall to only a feet
 Must be supplied by employer
 Employee MUST be trained on how to use
 Requires a written program
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Introduction to PPE
 Respiratory Protection
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Respiratory Protection
 Filter Respirators
 Air-Purifying-particles and gases
 Particulate-dusts and mists
Atmosphere-Supplying-Respirators
Supplied Air
Self Contained
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1910.134(c)(1) Respiratory
protection program
 Where respirators are required you need:
 Written program
 Worksite-specific procedures
 Required elements:
 Training
 Fit testing
 Medical evaluations
 Care and maintenance
 Procedures for respirator selection
 Procedures for routine & emergency use
1910.134(c)(2) Where respirator use is not
required:
 (i)If voluntary respirator use is permissible, provide
the respirator users with the information contained
in Appendix D and,
 (ii)Establish and implement those elements of a
written respiratory protection program* necessary to
ensure that any employee using a respirator
voluntarily is medically able to use that respirator
 (ii)That the respirator is cleaned, stored, and
maintained so that its use does not present a health
hazard to the user
*Written program not required for voluntary use of dust masks
Introduction to PPE
 Atmosphere Supplying
Respirators
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SCBA
 Self Contained Breathing Apparatus
 Used in Low Oxygen Environments like
Confined Spaces as defined by OSHA
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Part Two-Hand Tools
 Defective Tools
 Wrong Tool for the Job
 Improperly Maintained Tool
 Tool in the Wrong Place
 Incorrect Body Positioning
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Hand Tools
 Defective Tools
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Hand Tools
 Wrong Tool for the Job
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Hand Tools
 Incorrect Use
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Hand Tools
 Wrong Place (storage practices)
 Wrong Body Positioning
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Hand Tools
 Screwdrivers
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Hand Tools
 Wrenches
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Hand Tools
 Pliers
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Hand Tools
 Hammers and Mallets
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Hand Tools
 Chisels and Punches
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Hand Tools
 Knives
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Hand Tools
 Electric Tools and Electrical Safety
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Hand Tools
 Pneumatic Tools
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Hand Tools
 Gasoline Powered Tools and
Equipment
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General Safety Precautions
 Keep all tools in good condition
with regular maintenance
 Use the right tool for the right job
 Inspect each tool for damage
before use
 Operate according to the
manufacturer’s instructions
 Provide and use proper personal
protective equipment
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General Safety Precautions
Responsibility of the employer
 PPE provision and monitoring
 Safe work procedures
 Safe condition of tools including
personal tools
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Hand Tools
 Non powered
 Largest hazard
 Misuse
 Improper maintenance
 Safe use
 Direction of knives and blades
 Sharp knives and blades
 Safe working surfaces
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Power Tools
 Classification by power source
 Electric
 Pneumatic
 Liquid Fuel
 Hydraulic
 Powder Actuated
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Power Tools (cont.)
 1926.304(d)
 Upper blade guard
 Lower blade guard
 Automatically returns to
starting position
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Power Tools (cont.)
 1926.300(d)(2)
 Equipped with a momentary
contact “on-off” control and
may have a lock-on control
provided.
 However, that turnoff must be
accomplished by a single
motion of the same finger or
fingers that turn it on.
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Power Tools (cont.)
 Momentary Contact “on/off” switch
 Drills
 Tappers
 Fasteners
 Drivers
 Grinders – Greater than 2” in dia.
 Disc and Belt Sanders
 Reciprocating Saws
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Power Tools (cont.)
 Positive “on/off” controls
 Disc Sanders – w/ discs 2” in dia. Or less
 Routers
 Trimmers
 Shears
 Jig Saws – w/ blade ¼” wide or less
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Power Tools (cont.)
ON POSITION
OFF POSITION
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Power Tools (cont.)
 Never carry tools by cords
 Never pull cords to disconnect
 Disconnect tools when not in use
or during maintenance
 Secure work with vice or clamp
 Allows two hands for working
 Follow users manual instructions
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Power Tools (cont.)
 Proper apparel
 NO loose clothing, hair, or jewelry
 Tag all damaged tools “Out of Service” or discard them
 Keep blades and knives sharpened
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Electric Tools (cont.)
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Electric Tools (cont.)
Double-Insulated Marking
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Powered Abrasive Wheels
 Flying fragments
 Wear proper PPE
 Ring test – 1926.303(c)(7)
 Mounting
 Follow manufacturer’s instructions
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Abrasive Wheels (cont.)
Maximum RPM
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Abrasive Wheels (cont.)
180 deg
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Powder Actuated Tools
 1926.302(e)
 Meet ANSI A10.3 – 1970
 PPE
 Eye Protection
 Head and face depending on conditions
 Proper training required
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Powder Actuated Tools (cont.)
 1926.302(e)
 Fasteners used in tool
specifically designed
for that tool
 Designed for the
material that is being
driven into
Concret
e
Concrete/wo
od
Wood
Specific size = Specific operation
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Charges used in
powder actuated tools
Right size charge with right size fastener
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Powder Actuated Tools (cont.)
 Tools must be inspected before use
 Defective tools taken out of service immediately
 Tools not loaded until just before intended firing
Loaded or empty tools are never to be pointed at anyone
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Powder Actuated Tools (cont.)
 1926.302(e)(7) Fasteners not driven into:
 Very hard or brittle materials
 Cast iron
 Glazed tile
 Surface-hardened steel
 Glass block
 Live rock
 Face brick
 Hollow tile
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Powder Actuated Tools (cont)
 Inspection:
 Make sure it’s clean
 All parts must operate freely
 The barrel is free from obstructions
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Powder Actuated Tools (cont)
 Firing
 Keep hands clear of the barrel
 5 pounds of force against working material
 Misfires
 Wait 30 seconds
 Try firing again
 Wait another 30 sec.
 Remove the cartridge
 Place in water
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Powder Actuated Tools (cont)
 Defects
 Tag “do not operate”
 Remove from service
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“FATAL FACT”
Employee killed when struck in head by a nail fired from a powder
actuated tool. Tool operator was attempting to anchor a plywood form
in preparation for pouring a concrete wall.
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“FATAL FACT”
Employees performing remodeling operations building a wall.
Operator was attempting to anchor plywood to a 2”x 4” stud. The
nail penetrated the stud and struck the victim. One worker killed
when struck by a nail from a powder-actuated tool.
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Pneumatic Tools
 Appropriate PPE
 Eye Protection
 Hearing Protection
 Other Employees
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Pneumatic Tool
Connections
UNACCEPTABLE
ACCEPTABLE
HOSE CLAMP
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REVIEW
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1. What must your employer provide in addition to the appropriate PPE?
2. What is the employee’s responsibility before using PPE?
3. What is the greatest danger when wearing loose fitting clothing on the job?
4. How long should you shower if you come into contact with a dangerous chemical?
5. How much clearance should a hard hat webbing provide between your head and the top
of
the shell?
6. Give the type of eye protection that protects from debris approaching from multiple
angles?
7. What units are used to measure noise?
8. In what areas should disposable ear plugs NOT be used?
9. Before entering a confined space, the workers safety harness is attached to a
__________.
10. What kind of respirator is worn in areas that contain little or no oxygen?
11. What is the first thing to do before using any tool?
12. Which of the “jaws” is the strongest on the crescent wrench?
13. What is the name given to the wrench that IS meant to be struck with a hammer?
14. What do you call the condition of wear that refers to a badly worn striking surface?
15. When should you use a mallet in place of a hammer?
16. What is the difference between a regular knife and a safety knife?
17. What is the most important feature of an electrical power tool?
18. What is the greatest hazard with electrical tools?
19. State the purpose of a dead man switch.
20. When using compressed air for removing dirt, what should the maximum pressure be?
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