PPT6_王亚男_PPT 中国环评中公众参与工作现状

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Transcript PPT6_王亚男_PPT 中国环评中公众参与工作现状

EU-China
Environmental Governance Programme
1st EGP Training Course
Public Participation in EIA, SEA and Environmental
Planning
Central Garden Hotel, Beijing
17 & 18 September 2012
中国环评中的公众参与现状
Strengths & Weaknesses of Public
Participation in EIA , SEA and EP
王亚男
By
Wang Yanan
1st EGP Training Course
17-18 / 09/ 2012
1
主要内容
Overview
1)中国环评中的公众参与发展历程
and evolution
Background
2)中国环评中的公众参与现状与制度框架
current regulatory framework
3)公众参与取得的成效
4)政策改进建议
development
1st EGP Training Course
17-18 / 09/ 2012
Status of
Effectiveness
Recommendations for policy
2
发展历程
环评中心内部环境分析
Background and evolution
发
展
历
程
改革开放初期
Post reform and opening period
1979-2003
环评制度建立于1979年
未提出公众参与的要求
探索期 Practicing period
2003-2006
《环境影响评价法》
evolution
成长期 Growth period
2006-2009
《环境影响评价公众参与暂行办法》
《规划环境影响评价条例》
持续完善期
Sustainable improvement period
2009-至今today
地方相关法规文件
发展历程
环评中心内部环境分析
Background and evolution
发
展
历
程
改革开放初期
EIA system was built in 1979
Post reform and opening period
No requirement for PP in EIA
1979-2003
探索期 Practicing period
2003-2006
evolution
成长期 Growth period
2006-2009
the Law of EIA
the Temporary Methods of
Public Consultation for EIA
持续完善期
Sustainable improvement period
2009-至今today
Local laws
法律、法规
Laws and administrative procedures
• 《中华人民共和国环境影响评价法》
Environmental Impact Assessment Act 2003
–首次明确了环评中公众参与的法律地位,并且对公众
参与的时段、方式和公众意见的处理进行了初步规定
。
– the methods of how to do it, and how to deal with the
comments from public have been prescribed
法律、法规
Laws and administrative procedures
• 《中华人民共和国环境影响评价法》
Environmental Impact Assessment Act 2003
–《中华人民共和国环境影响评价法》第五条规定“国
家鼓励有关单位、专家和公众以适当方式参与环境影
响评价”
– The Law of Environmental Impact Assessment states
in section 5 that “Government encourages relevant
stakeholders, experts and publics to participate in the
EIA process through appropriate means.”
法律、法规
Laws and administrative procedures
•
《中华人民共和国环境影响评价法》Environmental Impact Assessment Act
2003
– 第十一条规定“专项规划的编制机关对可能造成不良环境影响并直接涉及公众环
境权益的规划,应当在该规划草案报送审批前,举行论证会、听证会,或者采取
其他形式,征求有关单位、专家和公众对环境影响报告书草案的意见。但是,国
家规定需要保密的情形除外。编制机关应当认真考虑有关单位、专家和公众对环
境影响报告书草案的意见,并应当在报送审查的环境影响报告书中附具对意见采
纳或者不采纳的说明”。
– As for the Planning EIA, in section 11, it prescribes that “If the Special Planning
has potential effects on environment and the public environmental right will be
concerned, the drafting department should carry out public consultation, such as
technical review meetings, public hearings or other form of communication to
gather comments from stakeholders, experts, and the general public before the
draft of Special Planning is submitted, except for confidential projects identified
by the PRC government. The drafting department should consider suggestions
from stakeholders, experts, and the general public, and should state the reasons
of adoption or refusal in the final EIA report for review.
法律、法规
Laws and administrative procedures
• 《环境影响评价公众参与暂行办法》Temporary Methods
of Public Consultation for EIA 2006
– 就项目环评中公众参与的程序、公开的环境信息、征求公众意见
的方式、公众意见的处理等进行了详细的规定,标志着中国环评
的公众参与制度走向了规范化道路,是公众参与制度成长过程中
的重要文件。
– lists detailed requirements for public consultation for EIA
regarding public participation procedures, environmental
information disclosure, means of gathering the public’s opinion
and providing feedback, which indicates that the public
participation system in China has undergone changes to become
normative and professional. And it is one of key codes during the
growth phase of the public participation phase.
项目环评公众参与的流程示意图
the general process of Project Public participation
确定评价单位
后7日内
环评报告书
报送前
第一次信息公示
第二次信息公示
公示10天
第二次公示后
征集公众意见后
1.建设项目的名称及概要;
2.建设项目的建设单位的名称和联系方式;
3.承担评价工作的环境影响评价机构的名称和联系方式;
4.环境影响评价的工作程序和主要工作内容;
5.征求公众意见的主要事项;
6.公众提出意见的主要方式。
1.建设项目情况简述
2.建设项目对环境可能造成影响的概述
3.预防或者减轻不良环境影响的对策和措施的要点
4.环境影响报告书提出的环境影响评价结论的要点
5.公众查阅环境影响报告书简本的方式和期限
6.征求公众意见的范围和主要事项
7.征求公众意见的具体形式
8.公众提出意见的起止时间
征求公众意见
1.意见征求对象:受建设项目影响的公民、法人或者其他
组织的代表
2.意见征求途径:调查公众意见、咨询专家意见、座谈会、
论证会、听证会等
公众意见处理
1.反馈意见的原始资料存档备查
2.企业或评价单位,应当认真考虑公众意见,并在环境影
响报告书中附具对公众意见采纳或者不采纳的说明
3.环境保护行政主管部门判断其合理性并提出处理建议
4.政府公布审核结果
项目环评公众参与的流程示意图
the stage
general process
of Project Public
participation
step
Main work
Within 7 days
after undertaking
the EIA activities
Prior to
submission
of the EIA report
First Public announcement
second public announcement
a. Name and Overview of the Project
b. Name and Contact Information of the Owner
c. Name & Contact Information of the EIA organization
d. EIA Work Procedures and Major Work Contents
e. The major proceedings to collect public opinions
f. The way for publics to deliver opinions
a. Overview of the Project
b. Overview of the potential effect on local environment caused by project.
c. Summary of key pollution control and measurement to reduce the environmental effect
d. Summary of key conclusion drawn in the EIA report
e. The expired date of simplified EIA report disclosure,
f. The major proceedings and scope to collect public opinions
g. The way for localness to deliver opinions
h. Starting and ending date for public comments
10 days
After the second
Public
announcement
After collection of
public comments
collection of public comments
incorporating public
comments into decisionmaking
a. Concerned public : All citizens, legal entities or representative from
organizations
b. method: conducting public survey, expert survey, technical review meeting,
public hearing
a. The original documents on the comments by public should be filed
b. Project proponent and the appointed EIA organization should state the
reason why they will or will not adapt the opinions put forward by public in
the EIA report.
c. Environmental Protection Department can carry out public consultation
d. informing the public about the project decision
法律、法规
Laws and administrative procedures
• 《规划环境影响评价条例》 Regulation of Planning
Environmental Impact Assessment 2009
– 就规划环评中的公众参与做了更具体的规定prescribed detailed
requirement for participation work in planning EIA.
• 《环境信息公开办法(试行)》Methods of Environmental
Information Disclosure (Trial Version) 2008
– 第十一条 环保部门应当在职责权限范围内向社会主动公开以下政府环
境信息:……(八)建设项目环境影响评价文件受理情况,受理的环境
影响评价文件的审批结果……
– Section 11: The Environmental Protection Authority should disclose
following government environmental information within their
responsibility….(paragraph 8) The EIA reports received, and final
decisions made…
地方性法规
regional public participation regulations
• 广东省相关规定:广东省建设项目环保管理公众参与实施
意见(2007 ) Relevant regulations Guangdong
Province
– 对问卷调查、座谈会、论证会、听证会等公众参与的形式提出了
参会人数等方面的具体要求。
– Regarding the different methods of involving the public such as
questionnaires, technical review meetings, hearings, etc.
requirements about the exact numbers of the concerned public
for the different methods are specified.
– 扩大了开展公众参与的项目范围。
– The Guangdong relevant requirements also expanded the scope
of projects requiring public participatio
地方性法规
regional public participation regulations
• 浙江省相关规定:关于切实加强建设项目环境影响评价公
众参与工作的实施意见”(2008) Relevant
regulations in Zhejiang Province
– 项目变更报告应开展公众参与。 project alternation report should
develop public participation
– 对于其他编制环境影响报告表的建设项目,负责审批的环保部门
认为有必要,也可以要求建设单位组织公众参与。
– For the preparation environmental impact forms of other
construction projects, the construction unit can be requested to
carry out public participation activities if the environmental
protection department which is in charge of the project approval
considers it is necessary.
地方性法规
regional public participation regulations
•
浙江省相关规定:关于切实加强建设项目环境影响评价公众参与工作的实施
意见”(2008) Relevant regulations in Zhejiang Province
– 进一步明确公众调查对象和要求 :项目环评确定的评价范围内的敏感对象和保护
目标必须全部列入调查对象,并按比例随机确定具体被调查者。团体调查对象,
包括项目所在地的管理机构、社会团体、科研教育单位以及调查范围内的村(居)
民委员会(社区委员会)、企业单位等,原则上调查数量应不少于20家;个人调查
对象,包括调查范围内的居(村)民,原则上调查数量应不少于50人。
– To further clarify the public investigation targets and requirements: the sensitive
objects and protection objectives determined by the EIA must be included in the
investigation objects, and randomly determine the specific subjects in proportion.
Group investigation objects, including the local management institutions, social
organizations, scientific research institutions and the village (neighborhood )
Commission (community committee ), enterprises and other units, the
investigation number should not be less than 20 principally; individual
respondents, including residence (Village) people within the scope, principally the
investigation number should not be less than 50.
地方性法规
regional public participation regulations
• 上海市相关规:关于开展环境影响评价公众参与活动的指
导意见(暂行)(2009),关于进一步完善环评公众参与
中信息发布工作的通知 (2010) Relevant regulations
in Shanghai
– 针对公众参与的实施主体、调查量等明确了相关要求。
– clarify the relevant requirements regarding the main subject of
investigation and minimum quantities of people involved in public
participation.
地方性法规
regional public participation regulations
• 山东省相关规定:“山东省环境保护厅关于加强建设项目
环境影响评价公众参与监督管理工作的通知”(2012)
Relevant regulations in Shandong province
• 北京市、山西省相关规定:北京市环境保护局关于加强建
设项目环境影响评价公众参与有关问题的通知 (2007)
,山西省环境保护公众参与办法 (2009)Relevant
regulations in Beijing and Shanxi province
公众参与产生的效果
effectiveness
• 提升了公众环保意识
Public environmental protection
awareness improvement
–公众:Public
–建设单位:The project proponent
工作中的亮点
Strengths of the current EIA work
• 国家层面National level
–执行率高High implementation ratio
–各项程序落实较好Followed the procedure
–不断引入新的与公众交流的平台Building new
public communication platform
工作中的亮点
Strengths of the current EIA work
• 地方层面Regional level
–细化了公众参与操作环节More details in
procedures
–扩大了公众参与范围Expand the scope of
Participation work
–严格了公众参与责任及处罚Responsibility and
punishment
–延伸了信息公开环节Additional
announcement
on information
工作中的不足
Gaps in current EIA work
• 程序落实上的困难Difficulty during work procedures
• 相关制度之间缺少配合Lack of support from other
related institutions
• 评价机构和企业重形式轻效果 More validity and less
efficiency
• 公众参与的热情和能力不足Stakeholders
passion and ability to participate
lake of
政策改进建议
Recommendations for policy development
• 进一步明确公众的知情权和参与决策权
Identify the public right to participate decision-making
• 加强公众参与相关方的能力建设
The Public ability building in participation
• 增加其它管理制度的信息公开环节
Information announcement of other related institutions
公众的知情权和参与决策权
participate decision-making
• 加大信息公开力度
Information Announcement on Project
Approval
• 及时公开项目监管结果
Information announcement
加强公众参与相关方的能力建设
The Public ability building
• 培养公众参与能力和水平
To improve public ability in participation
• 制定公众参与推荐导则
Guideline of public participation
• 公开公众参与优秀范例
Sharing the Successful cases
增加其它管理制度的信息公开环节
Information announcement of other related
institutions
• 由于其它行业主管的行政审批不需要进行公众参与工作,使得环评
中的公众参与成为当前社会矛盾的集中发泄口。近年多起涉及环保
的社会群体性事件中,很多是公众以环境问题为借口,发泄对于征
地拆迁、各类补偿款不到位等问题的不满。真正解决这些问题,仅
靠完善环评中的公众参与是远远不够的。
• Since there is no requirement for Participation work in the official
approval work of other department, the Participation work in EIA
work is the only legislative method for the public to express their
dissatisfaction. As for some social events in recent years, the
public reject the land usage and resettlement, and compensation
loss through environmental issues. It is not enough to solve the
social problem only by improving the Participation work in EIA.
增加其它管理制度的信息公开环节
Information announcement of other related
institutions
• 建议在土地、水利、建设等多领域均应
设置公众参与环节,对于征地、补偿等
社会矛盾多的热点问题,在审批过程中
也进行信息公开,充分听取公众意见,
避免社会矛盾。
• It is suggested that for those
department, such as land usage, water
conservancy and construction
department should carry out the
Participation work before the approval.
The information of key social issues,
such as land requisition, compensation
should be disclosed to collection the
opinion of public to avoid further
conflict.
环评EIA
其它管理制度
related institutions
• 关于切实加强风险防范严格环境影响评价
管理的通知,环发[2012]98号Notices on
strengthen environmental risk
prevention and implement strict EIA management ,
Huanfa [2012] NO.98
–进一步加大环境影响评价公众参与和政务信息公开力
度,切实保障公众对环境保护的参与权、知情权和监
督权
– Strength the execution of EIA Public participation and
government information announcement, ensure public
right of participation, knowing and supervision in
environmental protection.
• 关于切实加强风险防范严格环境影响评价管理的
通知,环发[2012]98号Notices on strengthen environmental
risk prevention and implement strict EIA management , Huanfa
[2012] NO.98
– 需编制环境影响报告书的项目,报告书简本作为受理条件之一,
与建设项目环境影响评价文件受理情况同时在具有审批权限的环
保部门网站上公布(涉密项目除外)
– As for the project required to compile EIA report, simplified EIA
report must be attached with the EIA report for final approval.
Simplified EIA report will be available for public in the
environmental management Authority website, where the EIA
reports received are announced. (except for the confidential
projects )
Thanks for Attention
Questions?
1st EGP Training Course
17-18 / 09/ 2012
28