Chapter 36 Insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents

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Transcript Chapter 36 Insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents

Chapter 37 Insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents

diabetes mellitus

Metabolic disorder of multiple etiology characterized by hyperglycemia (insulin resistance).

with carbohydrates, fat, and protein metabolic alterations that result from a decrease in the circulating concentration of insulin (insulin deficiency) and a decrease in the response of peripheral tissues to insulin

Characteristics of DM

 

hyperglycemia disturbance in metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins

Symptoms of diabetes

   

Polyuria (urinating frequently) Polydipsia (very thirsty) Continuous hunger Weight loss

Other diabetes symptoms

    

Fatigue Dry skin Frequent infections Feet ulceration Loss of sensibility in inferior extremities (legs)

Classification of DM

type type

DM (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM)

DM (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM) Other type: secondery

Treatment and control

   


(insulin vs. hypoglycaemic agents) Increase physical activity

at least walk for 30 min. most days Appropriate diet


 

fruit low in fat and carbohydrates Lifestyle changes

Classification of drugs (1) Insulin (2) Orally hypoglycemic agents Insulin sensitizers Sulfonylureas Biguanides Inhibitor of

-glycosidase Chinese herbs

PART 1 insulin


: small protein with a MW of 56 KD (in human) Two chains (A and B) 


: once from bovine and porcine pancreas, now by recombinant DNA techniques


will be degraded in the gastrointestinal tract if taken orally.

often administered by subcutaneous injection.

 

Half life:9-10 min Elimination in liver and kindney


分类 制剂 短效 中效 半慢胰岛素锌混悬 液 低精蛋白锌混悬液 长效 正规胰岛素 慢胰岛素锌混悬液 精蛋白锌胰岛素 特慢胰岛素锌混悬 液 给药途径 皮下 脉 皮下 皮下 皮下 皮下 皮下


静 起效


7 0.5~1.

0 1~2 1~2 4~6 4~6


2~4 2~8 6~12 6~12 14~20 16~18


5~8 12~16 18~24 18~24 24~36 20~36

给药时间、 次数 餐前




日, 急症 餐前




日 早餐前





日 早餐前





日 早





日 早





Pharmacological effects

The main effects of insulin are affecting metabolism of glucose, lipids and protein.

1.Effects on glycometabolism (hypoglycemia)

  Increase the synthesis and storage of glycogen stimulating the uptake and metabolism of glucose by muscle and adipose tissue

Pharmacological effects

2.Effects on lipometabolism

  inhibiting the hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue→ inhibiting the hydrolysis of triglycerides Increasing transfer of fatty acid →stimulates synthesis of fat

Pharmacological effects of insulin

Pharmacological effects

3.Effects on protein metabolism

(positive nitrogen balance)   stimulating amino acids uptake and protein synthesis inhibiting protein degradation in muscle and other tissues

4.Influence on kalium in blood Decrease kalium in blood 5.HR (heart rate), increase the contractility of myocardium, decrease renal blood flow [Mechanism of action]

Clinical uses

The goal is the normalization not only of blood glucose but also of all aspects of metabolism.


:the only effective drug Patient with IDDM must rely on injected insulin daily in order to control hyperglycemia all his lifetime.

The most common site of subcutaneous injection is abdomen.

 


: not adequately controlled by diet and oral hypoglycemic agents (Weight reduction, exercise and dietary modification can correct the hyperglycemia in some patients) For NIDDM patients, the goal is to maintain blood glucose concentrations within normal limits and to prevent the development of long-term complications of the disease.

3.DM associated with acute or serious

complications: Ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar nonketotic coma

4.DM patients under stress conditions:

serious infection, consumptive diseases, pregnancy, trauma, operation

5. Hyperkalemia and intracellular hypokalemia GIK: 10


I 20u

Kcl3g ivdrip

Adverse reactions

1.Hypoglycemia : most common may result from an inappropriately large dose of insulin or delayed food intake.

Short effect agents: sweating, hunger, palpitations, tremor and anxiety, Long effect agents: neuroglycopenic symptoms (such as difficulty in concentrating, confusion, weakness, drowsiness, even loss of consciousness)

Adverse reactions

2.Insulin allergy: The most frequent allergic manifestations are IgE-mediated local cutaneous reactions.

Adverse reactions

3.Insulin Resistance

Acute resistance: stress Chronic resistance: 1) AIRA (antiinsulin receptor autoantibody) 2) down regulation of receptor 3) dysfunction of glucose transfer

4. others

Preparations of insulin

   Portable pen injection Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion devices (CSII, insulin pumps) Inhaled insulin

Injection pen


胰岛素制剂比较 分类 药物 给药途经 作用时间 开始 高峰 维持 给药时间

Short-acting Moderate -acting Regular iv


0.5 2


insulin sc 0.5 2-3 6-8



Neutral protamine 2-4 8-12 18-24 Hagedorn sc


h.tid 1-2


sc 2-4 6-10 12-18 Protamine zinc insulin 3-6 16-18 24-36



Long-acting insulin


h.tid 1-2


Part 2 Oral hypoglycemic agents

   Common characteristics (1) Orally effective and convenient (2) Slow and weak (3) NIDDM

insulin sensitizer



) Englitazone (

恩 格列酮)

Pioglitazone (


) Troglitazone

( 曲格列酮 )


(环 格列酮)

Pharmacological action 1.Improve insulin resistance, lower hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia

Limosis and after-meal BS

Blood insulin and blood fatty acid

used in combination with other drugs

Low incidence of hypoglycemia

2.Correct lipodystrophy ↓

TG,↑TC and ↑HDL-C

3.Improve complication of NIDDM anti-atherosclerosis effect delay occurrence of albuminuria 4.Improve β-cell function


(PPARγ )过氧化物酶增殖体受体γ

Clinical use


Adverse reaction

general reaction heptic toxicity

. Sulfonylureas


  

The first generation

: Tolbutamide(甲苯磺丁脲), chlorpropamide(氯磺丙脲).

The second generation

美脲) : glyburide(格列本脲), glipizide(格列 吡嗪), gliquidone, glimepiride(格列

The third generation

: gliclazide


    Absorption: P.O

Distribution: PPBR Elimination: liver Excretion:kidney

Pharmacological effects

    Hypoglycemic action: weaker than Insulin (1)Increasing the release of Insulin from pancreatic βcell: (2) Enhancing the sensitivity of target cell to insulin ① Increasing the numbers of insulin receptors ② Increasing the affinity of insulin receptors

 (3) Decreasing the release of glucagons from pancreatic A cell by stimulating the release of somatostatin

2.Antidiuretic action:


↑secretion of ADH 3.Effects on coagulation ↓adhesion and agregation of PLT ↑synthesis of plasminogen ↓sensitivity of microvessel to CA

Clinical uses

 


control hyperglycemia in NIDDM who can not achieve appropriate control with exercise and dietary modification alone.

(1)alone (2)plus insulin 2.Diabetes insipidus

( 尿崩症 )

Adverse reactions

1. Hypoglycemia reactions 2. Gastrointestinal tract reactions: 3. Anaphylactic reaction 4.Hepatic damage

[Drugs interaction] 1.Some drugs increase actions of sulfonylureas (1)Aspirin.butazolidin.SNS.coumarins (2) Penicillin.probenecid



(3) Chloromycetin


(4) Alcohol

2.Some drugs decrease actions of sulfonylureas Glucocorticoids.



thiazides dilantin


 

metformin phenformin introduced in 1957 and were widely used. Phenformin was withdrawn in many countries during the 1970s because of an association with lactic acidosis .

Metformin has been associated only rarely with that complications and has been widely used in Europe and Canada. It became available in the United States in 1995.

Pharmacological effects

       1.Hypoglycemic action: (2) Slowing the absorption of glucose (3) Promoting the use of glucose (3) inhibiting release of glucagon (1) Promoting the effects of insulin 2.Regulating blood lipid 3.Antiplatelet effects

Clinical uses

 NIDDM patients with obesity

Side effects


2.Ketonuria and acidemia phenformin

lactic acidosis

α-glycosidase inhibitors



Mechanism of action :Inhibiting α-Glycosidase

 (1)decreasing the formation of glucose  (2) slowing the absorption of glucose

Clinical uses

used in combination with other oral anti-diabetic agents and/or insulin

Side effects

: 1.gastrointestinal reaction: 60%, mal-absorption, flatulence, diarrhea, abdominal bloating 2.hypoglycemia: 3%

Ⅴ 

Other types agents: Repaglinide

 

stimulating the pancreas to release insulin Mimicking physiological secretion of insulin

The others

Chinese traditional medicine xiaokewan [Actions] 1.Absorption

2.Expansive action 3.Increase intestine peristalsis 4.Nourishing action [Uses]

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