ESS 8.8.10 - OpenStudy

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Transcript ESS 8.8.10 - OpenStudy

HOW WEATHERING AND EROSION
AFFECT THE OCEANS SALINITY
ESS 8.8.10
OCEAN SALINITY
• OCEAN WATER CONTAINS MANY DIFFERENT
DISSOLVED SALTS.
• THESE SALTS COME FROM RIVERS AND
GROUNDWATER SLOWLY DISSOLVING ELEMENTS
SUCH AS CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, AND SODIUM
FROM ROCKS AND MINERALS.
• RIVERS TRANSPORT THESE ELEMENTS TO THE
OCEAN.
• ERUPTING VOLCANOS ADD ELEMENTS, SUCH AS
SULFUR AND CHLORINE TO THE ATMOSPHERE AND
OCEANS.
SALTS IN SEAWATER
CHLORIDE 55%
SODIUM 30.6%
SULFATE 7.7%
MAGNESIUM 3.7%
CALCIUM 1.2%
POTASSIUM 1.1%
OTHERS 0.7%
OCEAN SALINITY
• RIVERS THAT FLOW TO THE OCEAN DISSOLVE
SODIUM ALONG THE WAY.
• VOLCANOES ADD CHLORINE GAS.
• MOST OF THE SALT IN SEAWATER IS MADE OF
SODIUM AND CHLORINE.
• ALTHOUGH RIVERS, VOLCANOES, AND THE
ATMOSPHERE CONSTANTLY ADD SUBSTANCES TO
THE OCEAN, THE OCEANS ARE CONSIDERED TO
BE IN A STEADY STATE.
OCEAN SALINITY
• AS NEW SUBSTANCES COME IN, ELEMENTS ARE
REMOVED FROM SEAWATER BY BIOLOGICAL
PROCESSES AND BY BECOMING SEDIMENT.
• SEA ANIMALS AND ALGAE USED DISSOLVED
SUBSTANCES.
• MARINE ANIMALS USE CALCIUM TO FORM BONES.
• OTHER ANIMALS, SUCH AS OYSTERS AND CLAMS,
USE CACIUM TO FORM SHELLS.
OCEAN SALINITY
• SOME ALGAE, CALLED DIATOMS, HAVE SILICA
SHELLS.
• BECAUSE MANY ORGANISMS USE CALCIUM AND
SILICA, THESE IONS ARE REMOVED MORE
QUICKLY FROM SEAWATER THAN ARE SUBSTANCES
SUCH AS CHLORIDE OR SODIUM.
• IRON IS REMOVED MORE QUICKLY BECAUSE IRON
FORMS SOLIDS THAT FALL TO THE OCEAN FLOOR.
• VOLCANOES, GROUNDWATER AND RIVERS ADD
SALTS TO SEAWATER.
REVIEW FOR ESS 8.8.9 & 8.8.10
• 1. THE AMOUNT OF RAIN, THE TIME SPAN OVER WHICH IT FALLS, THE SLOPE OF
THE LAND, AMOUNT OF VEGETATION, AND WHAT TYPE OF SOIL IT RUNS ACROSS,
ARE ALL FACTORS AFFECTING _________.
• A. CREEP B. RUNOFF C. SALINITY D. GRAVITY
• 2. GULLY EROSION CAN TURN INTO A ____________.
• A. RILL B. RUNOFF C. MEANDER D. STREAM
• 3. EARTH’S __________ FORCE PULLS OBJECTS TOWARD IT’S CENTER OF MASS.
• A. SALINITY B. EROSION C. GULLY D. GRAVITATIONAL
• 4. THE LAND AREA FROM WHICH A STREAM GETS IT’S WATER IS CALLED A _____.
• A. MEANDER B. OXBOW LAKE C. DRAINAGE BASIN D. SALT MARSH
REVIEW
• 5. A CURVE THAT FORMS IN A STREAM IS CALLED A ____________.
• A. MEANDER B. BASIN C. SINKHOLE D. BOXBOW
• 6. THIS STREAM HAS WHITEWATER RAPIDS AND WATERFALLS.
• A. OLD AGE B. MATURE C. YOUNG D. DEAD
• 7. THE LARGEST DRAINAGE BASIN IN THE U. S. IS THE__________.
• A. OZARK B. MISSOURI C. COLORADO D. MISSISSIPPI
• 8. AS OBJECTS DROP TO EARTH’S SURFACE, YHEY PICK UP _______.
• A. POLLUTION B. SPEED C. WEIGHT D. MASS
• 9. SCARS LEFT ON SLOPES WHERE WATER ERODED THE PLANTS AND SOIL.
• A. GULLIES B. STREAMS C. BASIN D. RILLS
REVIEW
•
10. LARGER STREAMS CAN MERGE, FORMING A LARGER BODY OF WATER CALLED A _________.
• A. GULLY B. RIVER C. RILL D. BASIN
•
•
11. RILL EROSION CAN TURN INTO ________ EROSION.
• A. BASIN B. GULLY C. GLACIAL D. RUNOFF
12. IN THIS STAGE OF STREAM DEVELOPMENT, THE STREAM IS STARTING TO FORM CURVES.
• A. OLD AGE B. YOUNG C. MATURE D. DEAD
•
13. A STREAM THAT FLOWS THROUGH A STEEP VALLEY WHICH HAS STEEP SIDES .
• A. OLD AGE B. YOUNG C. MATURE D. DEAD
•
•
14. ALL THE WATER IN A ___________ EVENTUALLY FLOWS TO A DRAINAGE BASIN.
A. OCEAN SYSTEM B. OLD AGE SYSTEM C. RIVER SYSTEM D. MEANDER SYSTEM
REVIEW
• 15. A YOUNG STREAM HAS MORE ENERGY OF MOTION , SO IT CAN __________ MORE.
• A. ERODE B. SLOW DOWN C. EVAPORATE D. MEANDER
• 16. THE LAST STAGE OF STREAM DEVELOPMENT.
• A. MATURE B. OLD AGE C. YOUNG D. DEAD
• 17. WATER FLOWING DOWN A SLOPE IS EVIDENCE OF ___________.
• A. GROUNDWATER B. CREEP C. MEANDERS D. GRAVITY
• 18. THE STAGE OF STREAM DEVELOPMENT WITH LOTS OF MEANDERS AND OXBOW
•
LAKES.
A. MATURE B. OLD AGE C. YOUNG
D. DEAD
• 19. OCEAN WATER CONTAINS MANY DIFFERENT SALTS THAT COMES FROM ______.
• A. THE OCEAN B. SHRIMP C. RIVERS D. GLACIERS
REVIEW
• 20. SOME ALGAE, CALLED ________, HAVE SILICA SHELLS.
• A. SHRIMP B. STARFISH C. DIATOMS D. ANEMONES
•
21. ERUPTING VOLCANOES ADD ELEMENTS SUCH AS ___________ TO THE OCEANS.
• A. SULFUR AND CHLORINE B. DIOXIDE AND OZONE
• C. MONOXIDE AND CARBON D. DIOXIDE AND RUBIDIUM
•
22. THE 2 MOST ABUNDANT SALTS IN SEAWATER ARE CHLORIDE AND _________.
• A. DIOXIDE B. RUBIDIUM C. CALCIUM D. SODIUM
•
•
•
•
•
23. THE CORRECT ORDER OF A DRAINAGE BASIN IS:
A. GULLY, RILLS, RIVER, STREAM B. RIVER, GULLY, STREAM, RILLS
C. RILLS, GULLY, STREAM, RIVER D. RIVER, RILL, STREAM, GULLY
•
24. A MEANDER THAT HAS BEEN CUT OFF BY DEPOSITION.
A. CROSSBOW LAKE B. OXBOW LAKE C. OXBOW RIVER D. CROSSOVER LAKE
25. THE BROAD, FLAT VALLEY FLOOR CARVED BY A MEANDERING STREAM IS CALLED A _____
• A. CROSSBOW LAKE B. CANYON C. RAPIDS D. FLOODPLAIN
REVIEW
• 26. WHAT STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
IS THIS STREAM IN?
• A. OLD AGE
• B. MATURE
• C. YOUNG
• D. DEAD
REVIEW
• 27. WHAT STAGE IS THIS STREAM?
• A. YOUNG
• B. DEAD
• C. OLD AGE
• D. MATURE
REVIEW
• 28. WHAT STAGE IS THIS STREAM?
• A. OLD AGE
• B. YOUNG
• C. DEAD
• D. MATURE
REVIEW
• 29. WHAT DOES THIS DIAGRAM
REPRESENT?
• A. OZARK PLATEAU
• B. NEW MADRID FAULT
• C. HIGHWAY 40 NORTH
• D. CROWLEY’S RIDGE
REVIEW
• 30. WHAT DOES THE LIGHT
COLORED AREA BELOW THE WHITE
LINE REPRESENT?
• A. SOUTHERN PLATEAU
• B. COASTAL PLAINS
• C. INTERIOR PLAINS
• D. ROCKY MOUNTAINS
REVIEW
• 31. WHAT DOES THIS AREA
•
•
•
•
REPRESENT?
A. INTERIOR PLAINS
B. CENTRAL PLATEAU
C. OZARK PLATEAU
D. COASTAL PLAINS
REVIEW
• 32. THIS PICTURE REPRESENTS A
•
______.
• A. PLATEAU
• B. MOUNTAIN
C. HIGHWAY MAP
• D. DELTA
REVIEW
• 33. THIS PICTURE REPRESENTS ____.
• A. STREAM EROSION
• B. RILL EROSION
• C. RIVER EROSION
• D. GULLY EROSION
REVIEW
• 34. THIS PICTURE REPRESENTS____.
• A. GULLY EROSION
• B. RILL EROSION
• C. STREAM EROSION
• D. RIVER EROSION
REVIEW
• 35. THIS PICTURE REPRESENTS A
______.
• A. PLATEAU
• B. PLAINS
• C. SWAMP
• D. SHORELINE
REVIEW
• 36. WHAT IS THE CONTOUR
INTERVAL ON THIS MAP?
• A. 400 M
• B. 100 M
• C. 200 M
• D. 600 M
REVIEW
•
•
37. HOW TALL IS BAKER HILL?
A. 10M B. 30M C. 50M D. 20M
•
38. WHAT IS THE CONTOUR INTERVAL ON
THIS MAP?
• A. 5M B. 10M C. 20M D. 50M
•
39. APPROXIMATELY HOW TALL IS ABLE
HILL?
• A. 10M B. 20M C. 30M D. 40M
•
40. WHAT IS THE NAME OF THIS TYPE OF
MAP?
• A. HYROGLYPHIC B. TOPOGRAPHIC
• C. ROBINSON D. CONIC
TEST FOR ESS 8.8.9 & 8.8.10
• 1. THE AMOUNT OF RAIN, THE TIME SPAN OVER WHICH IT FALLS, THE SLOPE OF
THE LAND, AMOUNT OF VEGETATION, AND WHAT TYPE OF SOIL IT RUNS ACROSS,
ARE ALL FACTORS AFFECTING _________.
• A. CREEP B. GRAVITY C. SALINITY D. RUNOFF
• 2. GULLY EROSION CAN TURN INTO A ____________.
• A. RILL B. RUNOFF C. MEANDER D. STREAM
• 3. EARTH’S __________ FORCE PULLS OBJECTS TOWARD IT’S CENTER OF MASS.
• A. GRAVITATIONAL B. EROSION C. GULLY D. SALINITY
• 4. THE LAND AREA FROM WHICH A STREAM GETS IT’S WATER IS CALLED A _____.
• A. MEANDER B. DRAINAGE BASIN C. OXBOW LAKE D. SALT MARSH
TEST 4
• 5. A CURVE THAT FORMS IN A STREAM IS CALLED A ____________.
• A. BOXBOW B. BASIN C. SINKHOLE D. MEANDER
• 6. THIS STREAM HAS WHITEWATER RAPIDS AND WATERFALLS.
• A. OLD AGE B. MATURE C. DEAD D. YOUNG
• 7. THE LARGEST DRAINAGE BASIN IN THE U. S. IS THE__________.
• A. OZARK B. MISSISSIPPI C. COLORADO D. MISSOURI
• 8. AS OBJECTS DROP TO EARTH’S SURFACE, THEY PICK UP _______.
• A. SPEED B. POLLUTION C. WEIGHT D. MASS
• 9. SCARS LEFT ON SLOPES WHERE WATER ERODED THE PLANTS AND SOIL.
• A. RILLS B. STREAMS C. BASIN D. GULLIES
TEST 4
•
10. LARGER STREAMS CAN MERGE, FORMING A LARGER BODY OF WATER CALLED A _________.
• A. GULLY B. RILL C. RIVER D. BASIN
•
•
11. RILL EROSION CAN TURN INTO ________ EROSION.
• A. GULLY B. BASIN C. GLACIAL D. RUNOFF
12. IN THIS STAGE OF STREAM DEVELOPMENT, THE STREAM IS STARTING TO FORM CURVES.
• A. MATURE B. YOUNG C. OLD AGE D. DEAD
•
13. A STREAM THAT FLOWS THROUGH A STEEP VALLEY WHICH HAS STEEP SIDES .
• A. OLD AGE B. MATURE C. YOUNG D. DEAD
•
•
14. ALL THE WATER IN A ___________ EVENTUALLY FLOWS TO A DRAINAGE BASIN.
A. OCEAN SYSTEM B. OLD AGE SYSTEM C. RIVER SYSTEM D. MEANDER SYSTEM
TEST 4
• 15. A YOUNG STREAM HAS MORE ENERGY OF MOTION , SO IT CAN __________ MORE.
• A. EVAPORATE B. SLOW DOWN C. ERODE D. MEANDER
• 16. THE LAST STAGE OF STREAM DEVELOPMENT.
• A. MATURE B. DEAD C. YOUNG D. OLD AGE
• 17. WATER FLOWING DOWN A SLOPE IS EVIDENCE OF ___________.
• A. GROUNDWATER B. GRAVITY C. MEANDERS D. CREEP
• 18. THE STAGE OF STREAM DEVELOPMENT WITH LOTS OF MEANDERS AND OXBOW
• A. OLD AGE
LAKES.
B. MATURE C. YOUNG
D. DEAD
• 19. OCEAN WATER CONTAINS MANY DIFFERENT SALTS THAT COME FROM ______.
• A. RIVERS B. SHRIMP C. THE OCEAN D. GLACIERS
TEST 4
• 20. SOME ALGAE, CALLED ________, HAVE SILICA SHELLS.
• A. SHRIMP B. STARFISH C. ANEMONES D. DIATOMS
•
21. ERUPTING VOLCANOES ADD ELEMENTS SUCH AS ___________ TO THE OCEANS.
• A. MONOXIDE AND CARBON B. DIOXIDE AND OZONE
• C. SULFUR AND CHLORINE D. DIOXIDE AND RUBIDIUM
•
22. THE 2 MOST ABUNDANT SALTS IN SEAWATER ARE CHLORIDE AND _________.
• A. DIOXIDE B. SODIUM C. CALCIUM D. RUBIDIUM
•
•
•
•
•
23. THE CORRECT ORDER OF A DRAINAGE BASIN IS:
A. GULLY, RILLS, RIVER, STREAM B. RIVER, GULLY, STREAM, RILLS
C. RIVER, RILL, STREAM, GULLY D. RILLS, GULLY, STREAM, RIVER
•
24. A MEANDER THAT HAS BEEN CUT OFF BY DEPOSITION.
A. OXBOW LAKE B. CROSSBOW LAKE C. OXBOW RIVER D. CROSSOVER LAKE
25. THE BROAD, FLAT VALLEY FLOOR CARVED BY A MEANDERING STREAM IS CALLED A _____
• A. CROSSBOW LAKE B. CANYON C. FLOODPLAIN D. RAPIDS
TEST 4
• 26. WHAT STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
IS THIS STREAM IN?
• A. OLD AGE
• B. DEAD
• C. YOUNG
• D. MATURE
TEST 4
• 27. WHAT STAGE IS THIS STREAM?
• A. OLD AGE
• B. DEAD
• C. YOUNG
• D. MATURE
TEST 4
• 28. WHAT STAGE IS THIS STREAM?
• A. YOUNG
• B. OLD AGE
• C. DEAD
• D. MATURE
TEST 4
• 29. WHAT DOES THIS DIAGRAM
REPRESENT?
• A. OZARK PLATEAU
• B. NEW MADRID FAULT
• C. CROWLEY’S RIDGE
• D. HIGHWAY 40 NORTH
TEST 4
• 30. WHAT DOES THE LIGHT
COLORED AREA BELOW THE WHITE
LINE REPRESENT?
• A. SOUTHERN PLATEAU
• B. COASTAL PLAINS
• C. INTERIOR PLAINS
• D. ROCKY MOUNTAINS
TEST 4
• 31. WHAT DOES THIS AREA
•
•
•
•
REPRESENT?
A. CENTRAL PLATEAU
B. INTERIOR PLAINS
C. OZARK PLATEAU
D. COASTAL PLAINS
TEST 4
• 32. THIS PICTURE REPRESENTS A
•
______.
• A. PLATEAU
• B. MOUNTAIN
C. HIGHWAY MAP
• D. DELTA
TEST 4
• 33. THIS PICTURE REPRESENTS ____.
• A. GULLY EROSION
• B. RILL EROSION
• C. RIVER EROSION
• D. STREAM EROSION
TEST 4
• 34. THIS PICTURE REPRESENTS____.
• A. GULLY EROSION
• B. STREAM EROSION
• C. RILL EROSION
• D. RIVER EROSION
TEST 4
• 35. THIS PICTURE REPRESENTS A
______.
• A. PLATEAU
• B. PLAINS
• C. SHORELINE
• D. SWAMP
TEST 4
• 36. WHAT IS THE CONTOUR
INTERVAL ON THIS MAP?
• A. 400 M
• B. 200 M
• C. 100 M
• D. 600 M
TEST 4
•
•
37. HOW TALL IS BAKER HILL?
A. 10M B. 30M C. 20 M D. 50 M
•
38. WHAT IS THE CONTOUR INTERVAL ON
THIS MAP?
• A. 5M B. 10M C. 20M D. 50M
•
39. APPROXIMATELY HOW TALL IS ABLE
HILL?
• A. 10M B. 20M C. 40 M D. 30 M
•
40. WHAT IS THE NAME OF THIS TYPE OF
MAP?
• A. HYROGLYPHIC B. TOPOGRAPHIC
• C. ROBINSON D. CONIC