What is Biotechnology?

Download Report

Transcript What is Biotechnology?

Biotechnology for Human Welfare

Naiyyum Choudhury Professor, BRAC University & Secretary, BAS


What is Biotechnology ?

Biotechnology may be defined as a set of modern tools that utilize living organisms or parts of it cell or tissue or genes/DNA to make or modify or improve plants or animals or develop microorganisms for specific use and their large scale production.

Industrial use of recombinant DNA

Trangenic plant development

Cell fusion

Novel bioprocess technologies and Bioremediation

Traditional and New Biotechnology

Traditional Biotechnology

Biotechnology has been employed by humans for millenia. Examples include production of beer, cheese ans bread

New Biotechnology

Recent development in molecular biology have given biotechnology a new meaning, new horizon and new potential through use of recombinant DNA technology

Gradients 0f Biotechnology -Traditional

Microbial Fermentation Biological nitrogen fixation Plant Tissue Culture Embryo Transfer Technology Monoclonal Antibody

Modern Biotechnology -cost rising!

Recombinant DNA Technology Genetic Engineering of Microbes Genetic Engineering of Plants Genetic Engineering of Animals

Milestones in Biotechnology

1950-1960- DNA Strucure unfolded 1960-1970- Plant Tissue Culture Plant Protoplast Reverse transcriptase 1970-1980- Restriction Enzymes Gene Cloning Agrobacterium in Plant transformation 1980-1990- PCR Technology GM Insulin 1990-2000- Dolly sheep, Animal Cloning, GM Crops Bt Cotton

Transgenic Plants

• • • • •

More than 4000 plants have been developed with GE methods with new characteristics Tolerant to freeze Modification of ripening or softening Shel life increase Modification of sweetening of fruits

Other Areas of application

• • • • • • • •

Food ingredients Starter culture Peptide growth hormone Nutritional quality improvement Trasngennic animals Heath And diagnostic products Recombinat dairy products Hazardous waste treatment

Food ingredients

• • • • • • •

Amino acids Vitamins Sweetening agents Organic acids Antimicrobial agents Flavouring agent i.e. MSG Various enzymes

Improvement of Nutritional quality by the Application of GE

Nutritional quality of food supply-Golden rice.

Potatoes with 30% higher solid content

Essential amino acids in cereal grain increased

Improvement of taste, texture, colour and processing charateristics

of agricultural products

Transgenic Animals

Transgenic animals for increased milk, meat and pharmaceutical products

Health and Diagnostics through GE -Cancer imaging agents -Recombinant dairy products - Autoimmune therapeutics - Diabetes therapy - Growth/healing proteins

Genetically Engineered Pharmaceuticals Human insulin Human growth hormone Alpha interferon Hepatitis B vaccine Interleukin AIDS treatment GE bacteria for agriculture

Agricultural Feedstocks & Chemicals

Biotech Wheels

Drugs & Pharmaceuticals Medical Devices & Equipment Hospitals & Laboratories

 Industrial inorganic chemicals  Fertilizers  Other agricultural chemicals  Medicinals & botanicals  Pharma ceutical preparations  Diagnostic substances  Biological products  Laboratory apparatus & furniture  Surgical, medical, dental, & analytical instruments & equipment  X-ray & electromedical equipment  General medical & surgical hospitals  Psychiatric hospitals  Specialty hospitals  Medical & dental laboratories

Research & Testing

 Biological research  Medical research  Food & seed testing laboratories  Veterinary testing laboratories

Product-Oriented Service-Oriented

Source: Battelle Memorial Institute

The Bioscience Subsectors

Agricultural Feedstock & Chemicals

Drugs & Pharmaceuticals

Medical Devices & Equipment

Research & Testing 33% 33%

Agricultural Feedstock & Chemicals Drugs & Pharmaceuticals Medical Devices & Equipment Research & Testing

Agri-biotechnology and Healthcare


GM Crops


GM Crop based Products

Global GM crop scenario

• • •

Area coverage Market value ~68 million hectare ~ US$ 5.0 billion Major crops in commerce : soybean, maize, cotton,canola, tomato, potato, rice

Major traits of interest : insect resistance, viral resistance, herbicide tolerance, drought/salinity tolerance, nutritional quality.

[ estimated global bio-pharma market ~US$ 15 b ]

Emerging plant-based new ventures other than GM crops

Plant based: r-therapeutics & diagnostics

• •

(human & veterinary applications) Metabolically engineered phytomedicines Value-added herbal products (new products from known herbs: target new disease/ more knowledge rich)

Important Biotech Healthcare products for molecular farming

• 1986


Human growth hormone in tobacco • 1989


• 1992


• 1992


• 1995


IgG in tobacco Hepatitis B surface antigen in tobacco Alpha amylase in tobacco IgA in tobacco • 1997


• 2001


Avidin in maize Vaccine in potato • 2003


Functional antibody in algae • 2005: Human anthrax antibodies in tobacco • It is estimated that by 2010 the market for this segment will touch US$ 100 billion

Commercial Scope: healthcare

• • • •

Biotech products

R-therapeutics & diagnostics: US$ 50b (2005); US$ 200b (2015); Phytomedicine, nutraceuticals & beauticeuticals: US$ 30b (2005); US$ 60b (2015); Dietetics food & enzymes: US$ 90b (2005); US$ 250b (2015); Bioinformatics & embeded systems: US$ 02b (2005); US$ 06b (2015).

Mass propagation industry: Major

• • • • • •


EOU vs domestic market High volume low value High risk on quality control & quarantine aspect Highly competitive Secured market based on IP is not possible Automated production for minimizing cost of production needs huge capital investment

Biotech and Electronics- A Double Helix

• •

The multidisplinary approach to Biotechnology has resulted in new and unique interdisciplinary area in which molecular biology, different branches of engineering, electronics etc have played pivotal role in making products, processes and services of the modern biotechnology within reach. of common man. From application point of view, like twin strands of a double helix, biotechnology and electronics are joining forces in a technological explosion that will dwarf what will be possible by either one of them. These aspects will be highlighted in the paper

GM Crops 2011

This is a historical landmark in that it is the first time for more than 160 million hectares of biotech crops to be grown in any one year. In order to appropriately account for the use of two or three "stacked traits", that confer multiple benefits in a single biotech variety, is 15% higher than the estimate of 160 million hectares.

Biotechnology and Developing Countries

-Interseted but directly not involved in Modern Biotechnology


Have National policy on Biotechnology and research programme; little in-country modern biotechnology


Have national policy, research programme and international collaboration


Have national policy, modern biotech research programme; storng overseas linkage in public and private sectors

Key Points

• • • • • Biology is in a fundamental revolution as knowledge acquisition is exponential Post genomic pharmaceutical (targeted drugs) are based on

Human genome at the chromosomal level Advent of computer power Robotics New automated models Nano technologies

Key Points

• • • • The biotechnology promise

Increase agricultural productivity Increase pharmaceutical specificity Reduce hunger Improve Healthcare

This technology will move therapeutic from symptomatic treatment to disease modifying new medicine

Key Points

Gene - environment interaction

Through knowledge of genomics and proteomics targeted drugs (not based on Symptoms) can be created


Key Points

The activation of research groups in the south promoted by major research institute based in developed countries by providing stable funding for these groups. This approach could make possible the development of new therapeutic drugs and vaccines designed specifically for LDCs related

Key Points

Technology transfer which seems to be a gateway to a new and promising economic development in those countries where a good level of entrepreneurship is already able to promote and produce innovations

Key Points

Public awareness has to be promoted to balance fears and opportunities. Each country should be able to sort out the benefits from the hazards of biotechnology; recognizing ethical concern and helping the public make more informed choices. This could help foster international cooperation in biotechnology research

Government initiatives for Biotechnology in Bangladesh

R&D Priorities for Biotechnology gineering in Bangladesh

Agriculture sector

Health sector

Industry sector

Energy sector

Environment sector

National Committee on Biotechnology Product Development

In September 1993, a National Committee on Biotechnology Product Development was formed and finally the following products were selected :

Rhizobial inoculants for use as biofertilizers

Yeasts as protein supplement of poultry feed

Tissue culture derived post exposure anti-rabies vaccine

Tissue culture based foot and mouth disease vaccine

Bamboo saplings by ex-vitro and in-vitro methods

Biogas technology for fuel, fertilizer and environmental Pollution control

Production of high quality potato seeds by using tissue culture


Concept initiated : 1984

NCST approval : 1993

Feasibility study : 1993

PCP approval : 1995

ECNEC approval : 1999

Project work initiated : July 2000

Estimated cost : 2768.24 Lakh Taka (Revised)

Project completed in 2008


Located in Ganobari, Savarin the campus of Atomic Energy Research Establishment

Total Floor space of the laboratories : 2250 sq. m.

Number of Laboratory : 6

Total number of scientists to work : 100 at the moment less than 10 scientists

THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY Bangladesh has adopted the National Biotechnology Policy in July 2006 to accelerate multidimensional biotechnological research for augmenting human welfare in all respects such as food security, health and a sound environment in particular. The NIB is intended for the application of biotechnology based technologies as per guidelines of National Biotechnology Policy. The tools of biotechnology are currently being applied across the biological sciences to address problems in agricultural crop improvement, marine sciences and aquaculture, environment, pharmacy, forensics and public health.

THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OFBIOTECHNOLOGY National Institute of Biotechnology is situated at Ganakbari beside Shreepur Kasampur road, at a total area of 11.5 acre of land. NIB will act as a National focal point to co-ordinate biotechnological activities in the country. The institute deserves its contribution for upgrading the socioeconomic development of the country through developing of high yielding varieties of crops, generation of employment, poverty alleviation, women empowerment, human resource development and awareness creation about the importance of application of biotechnology in agriculture, environment, health and industrial sectors.Research Divisions of NIB

Research Divisions of National Institute of BiotechnologyIB

1. Plant Biotechnology Division Plant tissue culture for large-scale multiplication of rare, endangered, flower and fruit plant. Development of pathogen free, insect-pest and environment stress resistant plant through tissue culture and genetic transformation. Molecular characterization of local plant species • • • • • • Plant Tissue Culture Plant GeneticTransformation Plant Breeding DNA fingerprinting of plants Marker aided selection of plants Management of crops pest and pathogens

2. Microbial biotechnology Division • • • • Genetic improvement of industrial microorganisms Production of enzymes, chemicals and other biotech products of industrial importance Development of biotech pharmaceutical products Protein Engineering

3. Animal Biotechnology Division • Characterization, selection, conservation and genetic improvement of animal through modern biotechnological methods • Production of biotech-derived therapeutics / diagnostic kits, antibiotics and vaccines • >Improvement of feed quality through biotechnological approaches • Preservation technique of animal products.

4. Fisheries Biotechnology Division • • • • • • • • • Gene library construction of critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable fishes of Bangladesh Pure Gene line (Inbreeding) preparation for carp and other fishes.

Development of improved strains of fish through selective Breeding Production of Sustainable variety (out breeding) of Critically Endangered Fish Production of transgenic fish through gene manipulation Selective production of Monosex fish populations (all male or all female) Storage of fish sperms and embryos by freezing Characterization of fish using molecular markers Production of Biotech improved fish feed

Environmental Biotechnology Division • • • • • • • • • • Development of biopesticides, biofertilizer and bioremediation agents Development of appropriate waste management programme Evaluation of ecological impacts of transgenic organisms Preservation, development and long term conservation of bioresources Alternative energy from renewable bioresources Biofertilizer for different crops Alternative energy from renewable bioresources bio-remediation agents Bio-mineralization process bio-indicators and bio-pesticides

Molecular Biology Division • • • • • • Vector preparation Cloning Gene expression study DNA fingerprinting and profiling cDNA library, genomic DNA library and gene bank construction Sequencing of genes and DNA of interest

• • • NIB will play a very important role in the filed of biotechnological research for agricultural, environmental, medical, food and industrial development of the country. The Institute is intended for the application of biotechnology-based technologies as per guidelines of National Biotechnology Policy. The tools of biotechnology are currently being applied across the biological sciences to address problems in agricultural crop improvement, marine sciences and aquaculture, environment, pharmacy, forensics and public health.


• •

National Executive Committee on Biotechnology with Proncipal Secretary to the Prime Minister as Chair

12 Members including two expert members Secretary, S&T is the member Secretary, NECB

• • • •

Ploicy Directions, Monitoring and Implementation Mechanism National Task Force on Biotechnology Development formed with Hon’ble Prime Minister as the Chairperson State Minister for Science and Technology- Vice Chairman 25 Members including Secretaries of relevant mninistries, Chairman, BCSIR,BAEC and BARC and one expert member on Biotechnology by name Secretary, S&T is member Secretary of the NTBB

National Technical Committee NBT Policy 2006

• • • • •

NTC for Biodiversity NTC for Biosafety NTC for Crop Biotechnology NTC for Livestock and Fisheries NTC for Medical Biotechnology

NTC as per National Biotechnology Policy 2012

• • • • • • • •

1. NTC Agricultural Biotechnology 2. NTC Animal Biotechnology 3. NTC on Fisheries Biotechnoology 4. NTC on Env. Biotechnology 5. NTC on Medical Biotechnology 6. NTC on Industrial Biotechnology 7. NTC on Human Resource Development 8. NTC on Biosafety

Coordination and Management Committee as per NBT Policy 2012

• • •

18 Member Coordination and Management Committee with Secretary, S&T as Chair and DG NIB as member Secretary Experts from relevant disciplines and representatives from relevant ministries

Ministry of Science and Information & Communication Technology

Focal Ministry for coordinating activities of all the National Technical Committees

Secretary, MOSICT is the Member Secretary of the National Task Force and also the National Executive Committee


• • •

It is encouraging to note that Biotechnology has been take as a thrust area like ICT by the present government.

The initiatives at the highest level of the Policy makers may result in some fruitful biotechnology work at all levels Promotion of appropriate Biotechnology will play a significant role in Poverty alleviation, Food security, improved health and environment and overall socioeconomic development of the country

Draft National Biotechnology 2012

National Biotechnology Policy updated and a draft National Biotechnology Policy 2012 is in the process of approval by the government.

Strategic Roadmap

Strategic Roadmap to implement National Biotechnology Policy has been drafted containing strategic goals, policy support, human development and research and innovations in some selected areas of biotechnology with short, medium and long term activities by the relevant agencies

• • • • • • • •

Research and Innovation

Plant biotechnology Animal biotechnology Fisheres biotechnology Medical biotechnology Industrial biotechnology Environmental biotechnology Nano biotechnology Bioinformatics and IT enabled biotechnology

Strategic Roadmap

• • •

In each of these areas action plans for short, medium and long term implementation have been developed with strategy actions like regulatory measures institutional capacity building and strengthening and Priority research programmes for the implementing agencies

Strategic Roadmap

Also includes biotech entrepreneurship development, awareness creation programme

Recent initiatives by the NIB

Establishment of Gene Bank at the NIB

• • •

Campus To conserve existing plants, animals, fish and microbial genetic resources To make available gentic resources and relevant information to different organizations for research and development purposes Human resource development awarenesws creation and formulate necessary guidelines for conservation of genetic resources

Biotechnology Incubator

• •

Objective; Establishment of internationally acceptable GMO testing and certifying centre

Establishment of an analytical facilities and providing necessary assistance for commercialization of biotechnology resarch


National Biotechnology Policy 2006 and Draft National Biotech Policy 2012

Time frame set for the draft

• • • • • • • • • • •

National Biotechnology Policy Formulation Committee formed on

May 17, 2004

First Meeting of the Committee held on May 22, 2004 Decisions: A Working Group formed to prepare a draft of the NBP National Technical Committees will send respective Committee’s input to the Working Group by June 05, 2004 Working Group will submit the first draft by June 12, 2004 Next Meeting of the Committee will be held on June 19, 2004(today) Second draft will be submitted by the Working Group on May 26,


3 rd Meeting of the Committee to consider the 2 nd draft will be held on

July 01, 2004

Final draft will be submitted by the Working Group based on comments received on July10, 2004

Working Committee for preparation of the Draft National Biotechnology Policy

• Dr. Naiyyum Choudhury, BAS • Dr. Md Abdur Razzaque, BARC • Dr. M.S. Islam, NIB • Dr. Kh. Md. Nasiruddin, BAU • Dr. Mustafizur Rahman, D.U.

• Dr. Haseena Khan, D.U.

• Dr. Md. Mokbul Hosain, BAEC.


• • •

Biotechnology includes Any technological application that uses biological system, living organisms or derivatives thereof to make or modify products or processes for specific use Has helped increase productivity in crops, livestock, fisheries and forestry Spectacular development has taken place in medical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology and fermentation technology

World Scenario

• • •

Last 20-25 years have been the golden age of Biotechnology DNA technology has strongly captured the market in pharmaceutical field with hitherto unknown genetically engineered drugs, In agriculture, animal health, fermentation and environment protection significant achievement has taken place globally

Status of Biotechnology in Bangladesh


• •

Bangladesh has made some strides in traditional Biotechnology like tissue culture ,traditional fermentation Yet to start in real earnestness new Biotechnology for improvement of plants, animals industrial microorganisms etc.


• • •

Sustained food ,health and livelihood and health security through environment friendly biotechnology research and development Establishing research-extension-end user linkage and public-private-partnership Meet millennium Development Goals through promotion of conventional and modern Biotechnologies for socio-economic development


The main goal of the NAIONAL BIOTECHNOLOGY POLICY would be to ensure sustainable development of agriculture-food, nutrition, health, environment and livelihood of people through strengthening national capacity in conventional as well as modern biotechnology, biosafety, bioethics, IPR and biosurveillance


• • • • • • • •

Bio-resources Inventory Infrastructure development Human resource development Bioinformatics Bio-safety, Bioethics, IPR Entrepreurship development Public –Private -Partnership

Opportunity Areas of Biotechnology

• Agriculture-Food • Animal and Fish • Medical/ Human and Animal Health care • Environment • Biotech Products and Processes • Biodiversity Conservation

Policy Statements

• • •

Infrastructure Development Human Resource Development Identification of priority areas of Biotechnology Research and Development

Funding Mechanisms for Biotechnology Research

Policy Statement(contd) Infrastructure Development

• •

Optimum utilization of existing facilities Strengthening of existing biotechnology laboratories in R&D organizations and academic institutions

Creation of Centre(s) of Excellence

• • • • •

Policy Statement-contd.

Human Resource Development

Academic Programme Short Term Training for biotech Researchers Training of Policy Makers Training on IPR Training on Risk Analysis and Risk Management in biotech Research and Applications

Policy Statement Identification of Priority Areas

• • • • • • • • • • •

Plant Biotechnology Animal Biotechnology Aquaculture Medical Biotechnology Industrial Biotechnology Environmental Biotechnology Biodiversity Conservation Human Genetics and Genomics Bioinformatics Biosafety and Bioethics IPR related Issues

• • • • • •

Policy Statement Funding Mechanisms for Biotechnology

Government Funding Self Reliance and Sustainability Contract Research Innovation incentives for Researchers Public-Private Sector Partnership International Funding

Policy Statements (Cont.)

• • • • • • •

Creation of Enabling Environment for Biotechnology Enterprise Commercialization Management of Intellectual Property Indigenous Community Knowledge and IPR Bio-safety, Bio-surveillance and Bio-ethics Regional and International Collaboration Public Awareness measures For Transparency in Biotechnology Work

Creation of Enabling Environment for Biotechnology Enterprise

Establishment of Biotechnology Enterprise (Bio-Valley)

Biotech Incubators

Policy Statements(contd.)

• • • • • •

Commercialization Management of Intellectual Property Indigenous Community Knowledge and IPR Bio-safety, Bio-surveillance and Bio-ethics Regional and International Collaboration Public Awareness measures For Transparency in Biotechnology Work

Implementation and Monitoring

• • • •

Immediate Action Programme Formation of National Task Force National Executive Committee on Biotechnology National Authority on


Priority Plan for different Areas of Biotechnology (

Twenty Year Perspective Plan for Priority Programme)

, Funding for Human Resource Development, Institutional development, Centre(s) of Excellence

Organizational Arrangement for the Policy Document

Ministry Of Science and Information & Communication Technology being the focal Ministry for promoting Biotechnology will review the National Policy from time to time for updating, harmonizing and standardizing the Policy document in the light of global development in this field keeping in view our national needs and interest.

National Taskforce Meeting, July 19, 2006

The TF Meeting chaired by Ho’ble Prime Minister approved the National Biotechnology Policy for Bangladesh National Biosafety Guidelines Guidelines for programmes on Crop Biotechnology; Medical Biotechnology and Livestock and Fisheries Biotechnology

Biosafety Aspects

• • • •

Ministry of Environment and Forest is the Focal Ministry for dealing with all aspects related to biosafety The Biosafety Guidelines has been re-examined and updated Work in progress on Biosafety Framework Biosafety Act formulation may take some time