Biomechanics - Knox County Government

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Transcript Biomechanics - Knox County Government

Biomechanics in the
What Is Biomechanics?
• Definition: “The study of forces acting on
and generated within a body and the
effects of these forces on the tissues, fluid,
or materials used for the diagnosis,
treatment, or research purposes.”
• Biomechanics is a large field that combines
physics, calculus, anatomy, and physiology
for the study of human movement
Why is it Important?
• Fixing “problem jobs” reduces
musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and
injury related costs.
• Understanding of human movement
facilitates better teaching, successful
coaching, more observant therapy,
knowledgeable exercise prescription,
and new research ideas.
Musculoskeletal Disorders
• Work related injuries
• Typically develop over
time due to repeated
stresses tendons,
muscles, and nerves
• Common injuries: Neck
and back pain, carpal
tunnel syndrome,
Causes for MSD
• 1. Repetition: Using the same movement
over and over for a extended period of
• 2. Force: Using a lot of force for pushing,
lifting, or pulling heavy objects.
• 3. Work rate: Continuous labor, especially
if proper recovery time is not met.
• 4. Awkward Positions: Movements that
work muscles and joints past acceptable
movement angles.
Reducing the Risks of
Frequent stretching
Using proper movements
Good overall health
Staying hydrated
A good attitude
Biomechanics in the
• Working postures can greatly
influence strain on the lower back.
Both mobile and sedentary styles of
work present injury risk.
• Frequent bending, twisting, lifting,
pulling, and pushing are some of the
risk factors for back injuries, the
most common injury in the
Biomechanics in the
A presentation on: Staying safe at work
Biomechanics in the Office:
Sitting Posture
• When sitting down at a desk the worst
possible strain on the spine is a slouched
liked position.
• Higher seating height can decrease the
compressive force on the spine. Try to
maintain your back close to a 90° angle in
relation with your thigh.
• Generally several short breaks throughout
the day to stand and move will greatly
reduce muscle fatigue
Biomechanics in the Office:
Proper typing Posture
• 1. Place keyboard upright so your wrists
are in a neutral position when your fingers
are paced on the keys.
• 2. Avoid neck fatigue and headaches by
adjusting your monitor slightly below eye
level and approximately one arm length
from your body.
• 3. Avoid holding the mouse tightly
• 4. Use a document holder to position
paperwork next to your monitor.
Biomechanics in the Office:
Standing Posture
• While Standing or in motion, maintain an
erect but comfortable spinal position.
• Strain from standing can be greatly
reduced by using floor mats, using a foot
rest, making sure the work area has
adequate foot clearance, and wearing
proper shoes. Often sturdy, comfortable
soles help with posture
• One of the most important factors for both
standing and sitting is to avoid prolonged
static postures.
Most common workrelated injuries
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
• A pinched nerve in the
wrist that can cause
serious long term
• The tendons in the
wrist begin to swell
which puts pressure on
the median nerve.
• Signs of CTS are most
commonly a numbing
or tingling pain in the
hand and fingers.
Muscle Strain
• Majority of strains are caused by
overstretching in which small tears occur in
the muscle.
• Can be very minor or severe, such as a
torn tendon in the neck, back, or shoulder.
• Some common symptoms: Pain and
tenderness when moving, Swelling and
brusing, limited muscle movement, a bulge
or deformity underneath the skin.
• Recovery time varies depending on a
person’s age, health, and severity of
Biomechanics in the Field:
• Before attempting to lift ask yourself:
Can I lift this alone?
Is the load too big or too awkward?
Does the load have handles?
Could the contents of this load shift?
What objects are blocking the load?
Biomechanics in the field:
General lifting techniques
• The weight of the objects being lifted
should be lowered as lift frequency, lift
distance, and object size increase.
• Proper Lifting Technique:
• 1. Maintain a neutral spine
• 2. Lift with lower body with a controlled
• 3. Keep the load close to the pelvis.
• 4. Avoid leaning side to side, or front to
Importance of Stretching
• Most jobs usually involve long hours
each day and repetitive motions.
• Stretching reduces the risks of
injuries in the neck, arm, wrist,
back, hand, and legs
• For the millions of office employees it
is vital that you take a 5 minute
break every 30 minutes to avoid the
possibility of injury at work.
Need other reasons to
• Stretching increases flexibility. Flexible muscles can
improve your daily performance. Tasks such as lifting
packages, bending to tie your shoes or hurrying to catch
a bus become easier and less tiring.
• Stretching improves range of motion of your joints.
Good range of motion keeps you in better balance, which
will help keep you mobile and less prone to falls — and
the related injuries — especially as you age.
• Stretching improves circulation. Stretching increases
blood flow to your muscles. Improved circulation can
speed recovery after muscle injuries.
• Stretching can relieve stress. Stretching relaxes the
tense muscles that often accompany stress.
Stretching at work
Additional stretches