Imperialism ppt

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Period 5: Industrialization and Global
Integration, c. 1750 to c. 1900
Key Concept 5.1 Industrialization and Global
Key Concept 5.2 Imperialism and Nation-State
Key Concept 5.3 Nationalism, Revolution, and
Key Concept 5.4 Global Migration
Analyze imperialism? How think
about categories to compare . . .
• Categories:
Key Concept 5.2 Imperialism and Nation-State Formation
As states industrialized during this period, they also expanded existing overseas
c________ and established new types of colonies and transoceanic empires. . . . The
process was led mostly by E_______, . . . The ________ ________and J______ also
participated in this process. The growth of new empires challenged the power of
existing ________-based empires of Eurasia.
New ideas about n____________, race, gender, class and culture also developed
that both facilitated the spread of transoceanic empires and new states, as well as
justifying anti-imperial resistance and the formation of new national identities.
I. Industrializing powers
Ottoman s___________ is undermined with the C____________which were
treaties granted by the Ottoman Empire conferring the privilege of extraterritorial jurisdiction within the empire on the subjects of other states,
Greek War for Independence:
I. A. States with existing colonies (such as the British in India or the Dutch
in Indonesia) strengthened their control over those colonies.
B. European states (such as the British, the Dutch, the French, the
Germans or the Russians) as well as the Americans and the Japanese
established empires throughout Asia and the Pacific, while Sp______ and
Po______________e influence declined.
The Dutch control Indonesia
By the early 19th century, the Dutch East India Company
established control of the 3,000 mile long chain of Islands known
as Indonesia and established plantations producing sugar cane,
coffee, cocoa, rubber, coconuts, bananas, and pineapple.
The British control Malaysia
In order to compete with the Dutch holdings in Indonesia, the
British sought to gain a foot hold in South East Asia.
Using Singapore as a trading base, Britain soon gained control of
the Malay Peninsula and Burma, where they developed
businesses based on rubber, tin, and teak.
The British encouraged the immigration of Chinese to Malaysia
to work in tin mines and tap rubber trees. As a result Malays
eventually became a minority in their own land and tensions
between Chinese and native Malays remains unresolved to this
The French control Indochina
The French began direct rule of Vietnam after seven French missionaries were killed during the reign of
an anti-Christian emperor.
Church leaders and French businesses interested in expanding overseas markets demanded military
The French military invaded Southern Vietnam and occupied it. Later they expanded their control to
include North Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, which collectively became French Indochina.
Rice became a cash-crop. The conversion to this cash crop economy was so large scale that despite four
times as much land being devoted to rice, due to exportation the native consumption of rice actually
Dutch in Java
Imperialism in
In the S_________J-______________War with
China, Japan successfully colonized Taiwan in
In 1905, Japan dealt a military and
psychological blow to R_________(and
watchful Western world) when the Japanese
soundly defeated the ‘great Russian’ in the
Russo-Japanese War.
By 1910, Japan colonized Korea as well.
Russo-Japanese War (1904)
Imperialism influenced state formation and contraction around the
A. The expansion of US and
European Influence over
Tokugawa Japan led to the
emergence of Meiji Japan
“Western Technology,
Japanese Spirit”
Tokugawa Art (before)…
(after…) Meiji Art
New Imperial Nation: United States
New Imperial Nation: United States
• Hawaii
• Spanish-American
• Monroe Doctrine
• Panama Canal
• Roosevelt Corollary
The Monroe Doctrine is a policy of
the United States introduced on
December 2, 1823. It stated that
further efforts by European
countries to colonize land or
interfere with states in the Americas
would be viewed as acts of
aggression requiring U.S.
In other parts of the world,
industrialized states
practiced economic
imperialism. (such as the
British and French
expanding their influence in
China through the Opium
Wars or the British and the
United States investing
heavily in _________
New Imperial Nation: United States
• Hawaii
• Spanish-American
• Monroe Doctrine
• Panama Canal
• Roosevelt Corollary
The Roosevelt Corollary was an extension of
the Monroe Doctrine by U.S. President Theodore
Roosevelt in 1904. Roosevelt's extension of the
Monroe Doctrine asserted a right of the United
States to intervene in order to "stabilize" the
economic affairs of small states in the Caribbean
and Central America, if they were unable to pay
their international debts
Speak Softly,
But Carry a Big Stick!
The US “Sphere of Influence”
The Philippines
After defeating the Spanish in the
Spanish Am War, the U.S. had only
maintained control over Manila and its
surrounding provinces. The rest of the
islands were controlled by the
Filipinos. President William McKinley
then ordered the War Department to
place the rest of the islands under
military control. He issued the
Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation
which, although outwardly expressing
friendship and offering guidance to the
Philippine people, was actually a
declaration asserting American
dominance of the islands.
Uncle Sam Invites the Hungry Philippines
to Share Its Prosperity
The Filipinos refuse to recognize American sovereignty.
On February 4, 1899, an American soldier shot at a Filipino soldier crossing a bridge onto American
territory. This marked the beginning of the Philippine-American War. At this time, the ratification of the
Treaty of Paris was pending, and McKinley used this event, stating that the Filipinos had instigated the
incident, to garner support for the treaty. It was ratified by the Senate within two days.
The Filipinos, led by Aguinaldo, waged a fierce battle against American troops for three years. Aguinaldo
resorted to guerilla warfare and despite being victorious in several battles, was eventually captured
President Theodore Roosevelt, who had become
president upon McKinley’s assassination, then issued
the official Peace Proclamation ending the war on
July 4, 1902. However, it wasn’t until 1913 that
resistance and guerilla warfare on the outskirts of the
Philippines officially subsided.
The casualties suffered on both sides during the
Philippine-American War were more numerous than
during the relatively peaceful Spanish-American War.
Over 4,000 American troops, 20,000 Filipino
soldiers, and 500,000 Filipino civilians died over the
course of the war.
U.S. military training at their fort in the
The _______ Canal
Panama was a province of C_________when negotiations opened for the US to pay for
permission to begin construction. A deal was signed by representatives of both nations,
but the C___________ Senate refused to ratify the treaty, hoping for more cash.
Roosevelt then facilitated a deal with P_____________ business interests to declare
independence. In November 1903, P____________declared its independence from
C______________ and had a draft constitution sent over from Washington. The
President of the Municipal Council became the new head of state, the US recognized the
new republic of P_________, and an invading contingent of C___________troops were
bribed $50 per soldier to surrender their arms and go home. Presto! A new nation was
In other parts of the world, industrialized states practiced ____________
imperialism (such as the British and French expanding their influence in
_______ through the _____ Wars or the British and the ______ ______
investing heavily in _____ America.
Dismemberment of China
In this political cartoon, China is being
divided up by the United Kingdom,
Germany, Russia, France, and Japan
In South Asia . . .
Timeline of British control of India
1615 British East India Company acquires its first territory
in Bombay and begins to rule trading areas in India
1756-1763 _________ year war
In South Asia . . .
Timeline of British control of India
1857-The Indian Mutiny or The First War of
Independence / / the __________ Rebellion
An 18th century political cartoon of
Benjamin Disraeli (1804–1881) making
Queen Victoria Empress of India. The
caption was "New crowns for old ones!"
An 1859 lithograph depicts the storming of
Delhi in 1857 by rebelling Indian troops, known
as sipahi, or sepoys.
Acorn: Increasing questions about
political authority and growing
nationalism contributed to anticolonial movements. (such as the
Indian Revolt of 1857 or the Boxer
Execution of Sepoys:
The India Act: power transferred to British Government.
Queen Victoria becomes the Empress of India.
Indian National Congress is formed.
Acorn: The rapid development of industrial
production contributed to the decline of
economically productive, agriculturally-based
economies. (such as textile production in India)
raw materials
markets for manufactured goods
overseas investment
B. The rapid development of industrial production contributed to the
decline of economically productive, agriculturally-based economies
(such as textile production in I_______).
C. The rapid increases in productivity caused by industrial production
encouraged industrialized states to seek out new con__________
markets for their finished goods (such as British and French attempts
to “open up” the Chinese market during the nineteenth century)
D. The need for specialized and limited metals for industrial
production, as well as the global demand for gold, silver and diamonds
as forms of wealth led to the development of extensive mining centers
(such as copper mines in Mexico or gold and diamond mines in
________ _________).
In 1870, diamond diggers discovered stones at the Bultfontein, Du Toits Pan, and
Vooruitzight farms, and in 1871, an 83.50 carat diamond was found on the slopes
of Colesberg Kopje, leading to the first 'diamond rush' into the area. Miners began
arriving by the thousands, and the hill at Colesberg Kopje began to disappear,
replaced by a gigantic open-pit mine that became known as the "Big Hole.”
The Suez Canal gives ‘the lion’s
share’ to the British with the key to
Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002 © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Cotton exports from agrarian economies to industrial
Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2002 © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Textile exports from industrial to agrarian
In the Pacific
Hawaii – 1770s
- Kamehameha works with British
- royalty adopts western ways
- encourage export & western business
- Christianity
- Americans take over 1898 how?
Liliʻuokalani, was the last monarch and only queen regnant of the
Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.
Kamehameha I (c. 1758–May 8, 1819), also known as
Kamehameha the Great, conquered the Hawaiian
Islands and formally established the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi
in 1810. By developing alliances with the major Pacific
colonial powers, Kamehameha preserved Hawaiʻi's
independence under his rule
Figure 1.3. On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawaii
over Iolani Palace was lowered and the American flag was raised
The ____________ for Africa
Imperialism In Africa
The Boer Wars in South Africa
The Boers opposed the British rule in the Cape Colony, especially after 1833, when
the British government made slavery illegal in the Cape Colony.
This forced the Boers to emigrate from the Cape Colony. Piet Retief and his
followers established the Republic of Natalia.
In May 1842, British forces invaded the Republic of Natalia and converted it into a
British colony.
From Natal, many Boers again trekked northwards to the Orange River, where they
established two states, namely Transvaal and the Orange Free State, respectively.
However, as a result of the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902), both Transvaal and the
Orange Free State became British colonies.
______________ Conference
What decade again??????
________________________ provided both the
motive and means for imperialism
As much as Europeans might have wanted to conquer Africa in the 16th,
17th and 18th centuries it couldn't. European guns were not sufficient to
overcome the _diseases that the Africans had. Africa's m_____________,
and p_______________
were too much for them. So
what changed all that ?
(1) __________
ships allowed them to travel inland. “No horses? No
(2) Q__________
medicine which moderates effects of malaria
(3) Guns were the most important, especially with the invention of the
Maxim machine
_________ gun.
In some parts of their empires, Europeans established
settler colonies. (such as the British in southern
Africa, Australia and New Zealand, or the French in Algeria)
• foreign family units “settle” in
• tended to stay permanently
• Focus more on farming/ranching not extracting raw
in settler colonies “the invading Europeans (or their
descendants) annihilated, displaced and/or
marginalized the indigenes to become a
majority non-indigenous population
As opposed to . . .
exploitation colonies
• European ‘settlers' consisted of a
relatively small but powerful group
of white planters
• concerned mainly with managing
and supervising the exploitation of
resources as well as safeguarding
the geo-political interests of the
• Europeans seldom remained on
after the end of their mission.
• Nigeria and India are examples of
colonies of occupation where
although indigenous people were
the majority, they were ruled by a
foreign power
Motives for Imperialism
Industrial rev
Economic – Because of the __________ ___________, a need for
materials (cotton, copper, iron and rubber), __________
markets, cheap labor, investment opportunities because of all the
which was generated.
Political- N_____________, expand your territory and beat other
nations there, military and naval ____________/ports,
get more
soldiers, outlet for unhappy population so they don’t rebel at home
Cultural: religious-so missionaries can p____________,
to spread
European values and moral beliefs, to educate peoples of other
cultures, social ____________
(those barbarians aren’t fit to rule
themselves); W___________
_________ to “civilize” the
man’s burden
uncivilized; Gain knowledge desire to explore "unknown" or
uncharted territory, conduct s_______research,
medical searches
for the causes and treatment of diseases, to go on an adventure,
and to investigate "unknown" lands and cultures, nationalism.
Rudyard Kipling, "The White Man's
_____________" published in McClure's
Magazine, Feb. 1899
Take up the White Man's burden-Send forth the best ye breed-Go, bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives' need;
To wait, in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild-Your new-caught sullen peoples,
Half devil and half child.
Take up the White Man's burden-In patience to abide,
To veil the threat of terror
And check the show of pride;
By open speech and simple,
An hundred times made plain,
To seek another's profit
And work another's gain.
Take up the White Man's burden–
And reap his old reward-The blame of those ye better
The hate of those ye guard-The cry of hosts ye humour
(Ah, slowly!) toward the light:-"Why brought ye us from bondage,
Our loved Egyptian night?"
Take up the White Man's burden-Ye dare not stoop to less-Nor call too loud on Freedom
To cloak your weariness.
By all ye will or whisper,
By all ye leave or do,
The silent sullen peoples
Shall weigh your God and you.
Oooh here we see
_____________ as a
motive for imperialism
The rapid development
of industrial production
contributed to the
decline of economically
economies. (such as
textile production in
Responses to Imperialism
Indirect Rule: “Rule
by and Thru the
intermediaries and
John Green in India fewer than 1000 ruling of 300 million Indians
Indian National Congress
(formed in 1885)
Educated Indians, predominantly Hindu,
demanded increasing equality & self-gov't—
Increasing questions about political authority and growing
nationalism contributed to anti-colonial movements. (such as
the Indian Revolt of 1857 or the Boxer Rebellion)
Boxer Uprising (1900-01)
• Developed in response to bad
economic conditions & rise of foreign
• A secret society whose signal was the
clenched fist.
• Encouraged by Empress Cixi!
• Besieged the capital’s Legation
Quarter, where foreign diplomats lived
and worked.
• Killed several diplomats and
missionaries; looting & violence thru out
• Attacked railroads and telegraph offices
Boxer Rebellion (GY’s perspective)
An allied force of British, American, French, German, and Japanese troops
entered Beijing and defeated the Boxers. Russian forces used as an excuse to
occupy Manchuria
• Last extensive group of foreigners’ demands imposed
on imperial China.
• Erected monuments in foreign
• Suspended civil service
examinations in all places where
foreigners had been
manhandled or killed.
• Chinese government posted
edicts in all district towns
discouraging anti-foreign
• indemnity of $333.9 million
Captured Boxer Prisoners
guarded by soldiers of
the Sixth United States
Cavalry, 1901
Increasing discontent with imperial rule and the spread of
Enlightenment ideas propelled reformist and revolutionary
It is very important to remember that Africans did not meekly acquiesce
to European hegemony. They resisted, often violently, to a
technologically superior enemy. Like the Chinese and Vietnamese and
Indians. . .
The development and spread of nationalism as an ideology fostered new
communal identities
(such as the German nation, Filipino nationalism or Liberian nationalism).
Anglo–Zulu War
New states (such as the Cherokee nation, Siam, Hawai’i or the Zulu
kingdom) developed on the edges of empire.
A depiction of the
Battle of
Isandlwana, taken
from the Illustrated
London News.
The Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879 was the first major encounter in the between the
British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. Eleven days after the British commenced their invasion of
Zululand in South Africa, a Zulu force of some 20,000 warriors attacked a portion of the British main
column consisting of about 1,800 British, colonial and native troops and perhaps 400 civilians.The
Zulus were equipped mainly with the traditional assegai iron spears and cow-hide shields, but also
had a number of muskets and old rifles[13] though they were not formally trained in their use.[14] The
British and colonial troops were armed with the state-of-the-art[15] Martini-Henry breech-loading rifle
and two 7 pounder artillery pieces as well as a rocket battery. Despite a vast disadvantage in
weapons technology,[16] the numerically superior Zulus ultimately overwhelmed the poorly
led and badly deployed[17] British, killing over 1,300 troops, including all those out on the
forward firing line.
The Battle of Adwa (also known as Adowa, or sometimes by the Italian name Adua) was
fought on 1 March 1896 between the Ethiopian Empire and the Kingdom of Italy near the
town of Adwa, Ethiopia, in Tigray. It was the climactic battle of the First Italo-Ethiopian
War, securing Ethiopian sovereignty.
Resistance in the Pacific
In a small number of states, governments promoted their own
state-sponsored visions of industrialization. (such as the
economic reforms of Meiji Japan, the development of
factories and railroads in Tsarist Russia, China’s SelfStrengthening program or Muhammad Ali’s development of
a cotton textile industry in Egypt)
1870’s, “self-strengthening” movement.
“Learn the superior technology of the barbarian
in order to control him,”
new plans for a modern army and navy,
industrialization and changes within the diplomatic
Increasing discontent with imperial rule and the spread
of Enlightenment ideas propelled reformist and
revolutionary movements.
Some of the rebellions were influenced by
religious ideas and millenarianism,. (such
as the Taiping Rebellion, the Ghost Dance
or the Xhosa cattle killing)
Taiping Rebellion
drawing of Hong
Xiuquan, dating
from about 1860
• Lasted 15 years; 1850-1864 Led by Hung Xiuquan (peasant who
repeatedly failed examinations & recently converted to Christianity)
• Developed form of Sinicized Christianity (said had met God & that Jesus
was his elder brother). Started as a religious movement that stressed a
strict morality (no opium, gambling, alcohol, prostitution, & foot binding),
gender equality!, & economic egalitarianism
• Believed in a mandate to unite the world & establish peace. --to a PREConfucian world as “when God created earth, both barbarian & Chinese
walked together”
• Appealed to growing anti-Manchu sentiment (high taxes, unequal treaties,
foreign influence, etc). Wanted to get rid of Confucian elite to purify
Chinese society .
• The Tai Pings controlled most of southern China for over a decade.
Established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
• Western military forces (esp Fr and Brits) were sent by their governments
to help the Qing emperor put down the rebellion. After Taiping, MORE
foreign influence: now 90 ports opened, modern banks, libraries, hospitals,
paved/lit streets, newspapers, etc.
• 20-30 million die
India in mid-18c
Painting from Le Figaro of French commander Cousin-Montauban
leading a charge during the Second Opium War in China, 1860.
Also in east Asia . . .
Treaty of Annexation
(August 22, 1910)
The Proclamation
Notwithstanding the earnest and laborious work of reforms in the administration of Korea
in which the Governments of Japan and Korea have been engaged for more than four years
since the conclusion of the Agreement of 1905, the existing system of government in that
country has not proved entirely equal to the duty of preserving public order and
tranquillity; and in addition, the spirit of suspicion and misgiving dominates the whole
In order to maintain peace and stability in Korea, to promote the prosperity and welfare of
Koreans, and at the same time to ensure the safety and repose of foreign residents, it has
been made abundantly clear that fundamental changes in the actual regime of government
are absolutely essential. The Governments of Japan and Korea, being convinced of the
urgent necessity of introducing reforms responsive to the requirements of the situation and
of furnishing sufficient guarantee for the future, have, with the approval of His Majesty the
Emperor of Japan and His Majesty the Emperor of Korea, concluded, through their
plenipotentiaries, a treaty providing for complete annexation of Korea to the Empire of
Japan. By virtue of that important act, which shall take effect on its promulgation on
August 29, 1910, the Imperial Government of Japan shall undertake the entire government
and administration of Korea, and they hereby declare that the matters relating to foreigners
and foreign trade in Korea shall be conducted in accordance with the following rules:
Address to the Senate