Aspergers & PDD

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Transcript Aspergers & PDD

Aspergers & PDD Meeting The Challeges In Faith Formation Classes

Joanne Capuano Sgambati, Ph.D.,BCBA Clinical/School Psychologist The Genesis School for Autism 2012 [email protected]



Autistic Spectrum Disorder

 Pervasive Developmental Disorder  Characterized by severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development: • • • Social interactions Communication skills Presence of stereotyped behavior , interests, and activities.


What is ASD?

1. Social Interaction

– Failure to develop peer relationships – Impairment in use of non-verbal behaviors (e.g., gestures, eye contact) – Lack of seeking to share enjoyment – Impaired make-believe play

2. Communication

– Delay or lack of spoken language – If have language, deficient conversational skills – Repetitive use of language

3. Restricted repetitive & stereotypic behavior patterns

  Routines / rituals Repetitive motor mannerisms 4

• • • • • •

Sensory Issues

Touch, sight, hearing, smell, taste, body awareness.

May be tactile defensive May dislike loud noises, singing, sounds of talking.

May be awkward or clumsy when moving about.

May dislike crowds or lines.

May want to touch, look, or smell odd things 5

Auditory Processing Problems

• • • • Distorted comprehension May need directions repeated or written Hypersensitive or painful hearing Child may shut down or exhibit flight or fight response to certain sounds or certain voices.


Social-emotional Characteristics

• • • • • • High anxiety around others Low frustration tolerance Excessive fears Limited social interactions Panic Anger or rage 7

Behavioral Characteristics

• • • • • • • • Short attention span Impulsive Distractible Hyperactive Obsessions and Compulsions Inflexible Meltdowns Stereotypy and/or self stimulatory behavior 8

Think about behaviors

• Is it an

I can’t

(skill deficit – child needs to learn the skill) • Is it an

I won’t

(child has the skill in his/her repitor but motivation is needed) 9

accepting criticism compromising Eye contact


greetings asking for help Offering help Sitting quietly dealing with anger modesty interrupting staying on topic being flexible proximity initiating play dealing with winning/losing sharing starting a conversation 10

• • • • •

10 things every child with Autism wishes you knew

I am a child first My sensory perceptions are distorted Distinguish between what I can’t do and what I won’t do • • • Language is difficult for me so I am visually oriented Focus and build on what I can do Help me with social interactions I am a concrete thinker • Identify what triggers my meltdowns Be patient with my limited vocabulary • Love me unconditionally 11

• • • • •

10 things every student with Autism wishes you knew

Behavior is communication Never assume anything Look for sensory issues first • • • Have reasonable expectations Help me transition Don’t make a bad situation worse Provide breaks before I need one Tell me what you want me to do • • Criticize gently Offer real choices ****Ellen Notbohm 12

What parents want from their Church

• A Church that accepts their child the way God created him/her.

• A congregation that can tolerate their child’s inappropriate behavior, if it occurs.

• A congregation who welcomes and gives support.

• A place their child can learn about their religion as best they can and be part of their religious community.

• Patience, patience, patience 13

What our religion tells us

• • • • • • All creation is “good” and in the likeness of God.

Love one another Welcome everyone Help the less fortunate Treat others as you wish to be treated Spread the Good News 14

What “Inclusion” means - LRE



• • • • • •

Strategies for successful faith formation in individuals with ASD

Prepare students for transitions • Use handheld pictures and activity cards Have a routine and schedule Use repetition Use developementally and ability appropriate instruction • • • • Use learning centers Use peer mentors Start late and end early to avoid crowded halls Involve clergy,staff, and parish leaders Use visual supports (written or pictures) • Emphasize symbols and rituals Reduce clutter/distractions • Provide parent supports 17

• • •

Strategies before very first class

Welcome the children Meet with parents Learn all you can about your student (strengths and weaknesses) • Be well prepared (Know material, organize, have supplies, etc). You want to minimize down time and plan for smooth transitions.

• Provide structure - Have a routine, use visuals, keep class short (less than 1 hour) 18

• • • • • • •

Strategies During Class

• Create a positive environment Develop rapport Repetition in creative ways Multi-sensory lessons Use music/video/games Provide choices Connect material to interests Encourage peer interaction 19

Think about your language

• • • • • • • • Use concrete language Phrase comments in the positive Catch the “being good” and praise them Use behavior specific praise Give 5 affirmations for every 1 correction Offer a choice Don’t ask if its not a choice Name behavior you do want 20

Attend to transitions

• • • • Anticipate change (warnings and signals) Give advanced notice (2 more minutes) Transition signal (ring a bell) Follow a challenging transition with a rewarding activity (snack or playground) 21

• • • • • •

Sensory ideas

• Be vigilant for possible sensory triggers (crowds, lights, noise, temp, etc) Allow for “processing time” Wait before repeating yourself Allow child to have a “fidget” Create opportunities for movement allow breaks Think about enviornmental changes that could help 22


• • • • • • Arrival Times Consistent Times Sequencing and Length of Activities Planned Clean-up/Transitioning Routine Productive Learning Times Early Explaining Changes 23

For whom is a schedule useful?

• • • Children who have difficulties with transitions Children who need predictability and structure Children who need visual cues 24



• • • • • • 27

• • • • • • •

Environmental Considerations

Where the child is seated in the classroom Instructional areas for individual and small group lessons Classroom schedule Individual student schedule (picture, words etc..) Material accessibility Reduce distractions Schedules of staff responsibility 28


• • • • Schedule Transitions Staffing Patterns Classrooms Rules 29


• • • • Routine Clearly Outlined Cues/Prompts Practice Wait Time 30

Classroom Rules/Routines

• • • • • • • Few Concise Positive Posted Provide Consequences (+ & -) Apply Consistently Review Frequently 31


Curriculum Adaptations

Ensuring an individually appropriate curriculum • • Does the child have the skills to successfully complete the activity or task? Can the child follow directions?

Provide material on a skill level that is appropriate for the child • • • Reduce or change initial expectations, gradually increasing expectations Implement more frequent activity breaks Provide positive and appropriate reinforcement for appropriate behavior 33

Curriculum Adaptations

• • • • • Provide distraction free areas for children who need “quiet time” Vary teaching methods and activities Provide adult support when needed Develop materials so that the child can be independent Get additional information or training if you are unsure about how to address the challenging behavior 34

• • • •

Roles & Responsibilities- for the Teacher

1. Structured classroom with rules and routines. Provide a distraction free room.

2. Motivational system in place for good behavior (e.g., sticker charts, treasure chest).

3. Good ongoing communication with staff and parents (daily “report cards”).

4. Correction for inappropriate behavior and behavior specific praise.


Roles & Responsibilities- for the Teacher

• • • • • 5. Willingness to work closely with others as a team. Possibly a 1:1.

6. Open to new ideas and feedback.

7. Has plan time so that meetings or phone calls can occur.

8. Considers student a part of the classroom and treat him/her as such.

Modify the curriculum as needed 36

• • • • • • • • •

Teaching tips

Parent interviews and questionnaire for info.

IEP and BIP (ask for a copy) Meet and observe each child prior to class (classroom best place, then home, then office).

Behavior specific praise Tell them what they do.

should do not what they should not Talk to them - not about them or in front of them.

Learn and use familiar communication devices, token boards, or PECS.

Modify work and tasks Use visuals, dittos, social stories, songs, and crafts.


• • • • • • • • • •

Teaching tips continued…

Structure, predictability, and routines.

Clear and simple directions. Be concrete.

Hands on activities, audio tapes, movies, computer, and videos of past ceremonies/Mass etc.

Use visual calendar and schedules.

Social Stories and digital photo books.

Video modeling Communicate Pre-teach, practice, key ring cards Frequent breaks “What are you working for?” 38

Using Prompts

• • • • Prompts are the “bridge” to learning. When done correctly they will assist the child in responding correctly.

Try to use minimal prompts and fade as quickly as possible Verbal – Visual (picture, written, gesture, or sign) – Physical (facilitated touch or hand over hand guidance from behind) 39

Social Stories

• • • • • Social stories are short stories that may incorporate pictures and rules of how to behave in different social situations.

The wording is simple and positive and helps the child know what to expect and what is expected of him or her.

The child can help in creating the social story The stories can be kept in a binder and taken home to be read with parents.

The teacher and parent can rehearse the stories with the child.


I talk to God when I pray

When I pray, I can say…..

“I love you God.” “Thank you God for ________.” “You are great God!” “God, I am sorry for _______.” Or “God please help_______.” There are many ways to pray and talk to God! Try a new way each day!



We Celebrate Reconciliation

First we all gather in The Sienna Center.

We look and listen while the Priest tells us about God and how God loves us and forgives our sins. We all sing a song together.

Each child goes up to the Priest to tell him that he or she is “Sorry” for any sins. A sin is something that a person chooses to do, even if they know it is wrong.

When it is my turn, I will go up to the Priest too! I will sit with him and he will talk to me. We can say “Hello” and make the sign of the cross together. I will listen to the Priest talk. Then I will tell him my sins. I will say…..

“I am sorry that I _____________________ and I promise to try not to do it again.” The priest will give me a penance (prayers to say). Then we will pray the Act of Contrition together. The Priest will say special words of absolution and that means that I am forgiven! I say “Thank you” and go back to my seat with my class.

I did a good job and I am all forgiven!






• Anything that increases or maintains the behavior.

• What is reinforcing to one child may not be to another.

• Reinforcers need to be assessed, regularly. Assess by watching the child, asking the child, introducing a variety of things to the child, or more formal assessment tools.


Categories of Reinforcement

• • • • • • Verbal Statements/Praise Tangible Items Activities Social Contact Edible Items Advanced Motivational Systems 48

Advanced Motivational Systems

• • • • Token Boards Sophisticated token economies/menus Behavior contracts Self monitoring systems 49

Token Board

Quiet Working




Sample Token Board



Matt’s Self-Monitoring Form

5 min.  5 min.  down.

5 min.  5 min.  5 min.  5 min.  I will sit nicely.

I will keep my hands I will not hit anyone.

If I follow my rules, I get: _____________________ 54

Self Evaluation Form

1.I followed directions.

2. I answered questions.

3. I spoke nice to others.

Prayer Story time Ditto Pack-up Circle Yes or No YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO Do I earn my trip to vending machine?


Behavior Contract

I ___________, agree to my behavior contract.

“I must behave appropriately during religion class. This means I can not throw things or make silly sounds. If I behave appropriately during religion class, then I will get to play my Video games when I go home.” Child’s Signature____________________________ Adult’s Signature______________________ Date_____________ 56

Laura’s First Holy Communion 57

Laura 18 Jacki 14 58