#### Transcript Signal Processing with Wavelets

```Chapter 11
Signal Processing with Wavelets
Objectives
• Define and illustrate the difference between a stationary
and non-stationary signal.
• Describe the relationship between wavelets and subband coding of a signal using quadrature mirror filters
with the property of perfect reconstruction.
• Illustrate the multi-level decomposition of a signal into
approximation and detail components using wavelet
decomposition filters.
• Illustrate the application of wavelet analysis using
MATLAB® to noise suppression, signal compression, and
the identification of transient features in a signal.
Motivation for Wavelet Analysis
• Signals of practical interest are usually nonstationary, meaning that their time-domain and
frequency-domain characteristics vary over short
time intervals (i.e., music, seismic data, etc)
• Classical Fourier analysis (Fourier transforms)
assumes a signal that is either infinite in extent
or stationary within the analysis window.
• Non-stationary analysis requires a different
approach: Wavelet Analysis
• Wavelet analysis also produces better solutions
to important problems such as the transform
compression of images (jpeg versus jpeg2000)
Basic Theory of Wavelets
• Wavelet analysis can be understood as a
form of sub-band coding with quadrature
mirror filters
• The two basic wavelet processes are
decomposition and reconstruction
Wavelet Decomposition
•
•
A single level decomposition puts a signal through 2 complementary low-pass and
high-pass filters
The output of the low-pass filter gives the approximation (A) coefficients, while the
high pass filter gives the detail (D) coefficients
Low-Pass
Filter
DownSample
2X
Approximation (A)
Signal
High-Pass
Filter
Decomposition Filters for Daubechies-8 Wavelets
DownSample
2X
Detail (D)
Wavelet Reconstruction
• The A and D coefficients can be used to
reconstruct the signal perfectly when run
through the mirror reconstruction filters of
the wavelet family
Wavelet Families
• Wavelet families consist of a particular set
of quadrature mirror filters with the
property of perfect reconstruction.
• These families are completely determined
by the impulse responses of the set of 4
filters.
Example:
Filter Set for the Daubechies-5 Wavelet Family
% Set wavelet name.
>> wname = 'db5';
% Compute the four filters associated with wavelet name given
% by the input string wname.
>> [Lo_D,Hi_D,Lo_R,Hi_R] = wfilters(wname);
>> subplot(221); stem(Lo_D);
>> title('Decomposition low-pass filter');
>> subplot(222); stem(Hi_D);
>> title('Decomposition high-pass filter');
>> subplot(223); stem(Lo_R);
>> title('Reconstruction low-pass filter');
>> subplot(224); stem(Hi_R);
>> title('Reconstruction high-pass filter');
>> xlabel('The four filters for db5')
Example:
Filter Set for the Daubechies-5 Wavelet Family
Decomposition low-pass filter
Decomposition high-pass filter
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Reconstruction low-pass filter
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Reconstruction high-pass filter
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The four filters for db5
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Example:
Filter Set for the Daubechies-5 Wavelet Family
>> fvtool(Lo_D,1,Hi_D,1)
>> fvtool(Lo_R,1,Hi_R,1)
Magnitude Response
Magnitude Response
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Magnitude
Magnitude
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Decomposition Filters
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Reconstruction Filters
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Multi-level Decomposition of a Signal with
Wavelets
Signal
A1
A2
A3
D1
D2
D3
The decomposition tree
can be schematically
described as:
Aj = Aj+ 1 + Dj+ 1
Multi-level Decomposition of a Signal with Wavelets
Frequency Domain (Sub-band Coding)
A2
D1
D2
fs/8
fs/4
fs/2
Example: One-level Decomposition of a Noisy Signal
>> x=analog(100,4,40,10000);
>> xn=x+0.5*randn(size(x));
>> [cA,cD]=dwt(xn,'db8');
% Construct a 100 Hz sinusoid of amplitude 4
% Compute the first level decomposition with dwt
% and the Daubechies-8 wavelet
>> subplot(3,1,1),plot(xn),title('Original Signal')
>> subplot(3,1,2),plot(cA),title('One Level Approximation')
>> subplot(3,1,3),plot(cD),title('One Level Detail')
Original Signal
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One Level Approximation
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One Level Detail
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Single level discrete
wavelet decomposition
with the Daubechies-8
wavelet family
One-Level Decomposition of a Non-Stationary Signal
>> fs=2500;
>> len=100;
>> [x1,t1]=analog(50,.5,len,fs); % The time vector t1 is
in milliseconds
>> [x2,t2]=analog(100,.25,len,fs);
>> [x3,t3]=analog(200,1,len,fs);
>> y1=cat(2,x1,x2,x3); % Concatenate the signals
>> ty1=[t1,t2+len,t3+2*len]; %Concatenate the time
vectors 1 to len, len to 2*len, etc.
>> [A1,D1]=dwt(y1,'db8');
>> subplot(3,1,1),plot(y1),title('Original Signal')
>> subplot(3,1,2),plot(A1),title('One Level
Approximation')
>> subplot(3,1,3),plot(D1),title('One Level Detail')
Original Signal
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One Level Approximation
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The detail
coefficients reveal
the transitions in the
non-stationary signal
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One Level Detail
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De-Noising a Signal with Multilevel Wavelet Decomposition
>> x=analog(100,4,40,10000);
>> xn=x+0.5*randn(size(x));
>> [C,L] = wavedec(xn,4,'db8'); % Do a multi-level
analysis to four levels with the
% Daubechies-8
wavelet
>> A1 = wrcoef('a',C,L,'db8',1); % Reconstruct the
approximations at various levels
>> A2 = wrcoef('a',C,L,'db8',2);
>> A3 = wrcoef('a',C,L,'db8',3);
>> A4 = wrcoef('a',C,L,'db8',4);
>> subplot(5,1,1),plot(xn),title('Original Signal')
>> subplot(5,1,2),plot(A1),title('Reconstructed
Approximation - Level 1')
>> subplot(5,1,3),plot(A2),title(' Reconstructed
Approximation - Level 2')
>> subplot(5,1,4),plot(A3),title(' Reconstructed
Approximation - Level 3')
>> subplot(5,1,5),plot(A4),title(' Reconstructed
Approximation - Level 4')
Original Signal
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-5
Significant de-noising occurs
with the level-4 approximation
coefficients (Daubechies-8
wavelets)
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Reconstructed Approximation - Level 1
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Reconstructed Approximation - Level 2
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Reconstructed Approximation - Level 3
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Reconstructed Approximation - Level 4
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Finding Signal Discontinuities
>> x=analog(100,4,40,10000);
>> x(302:305)=.25;
>> [A,D]=dwt(x,'db8');
>> subplot(3,1,1),plot(x),title('Original Signal')
>> subplot(3,1,2),plot(A),title('First Level Approximation')
>> subplot(3,1,3),plot(D),title('First Level Detail')
3 sample discontinuity
at sample 302
Original Signal
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Daubechies-8 wavelets
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First Level Approximation
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First Level Detail
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Discontinuity response
in the 1st level detail
coefficients (sample
151 because of the 2X
down-sampling)
Simple Signal Compression Using a Wavelet
Approximation
>> x=leleccum;
>> w = 'db3';
>> [C,L] = wavedec(x,4,w);
>> A4 = wrcoef('a',C,L,'db3',4);
>> A3 = wrcoef('a',C,L,'db3',3);
>> A2 = wrcoef('a',C,L,'db3',2);
>> A1 = wrcoef('a',C,L,'db3',1);
>> a3 = appcoef(C,L,w,3);
>> subplot(2,1,1),plot(x),axis([0,4000,100,600])
>> title('Original Signal')
>> subplot(2,1,2),plot(A3),axis([0,4000,100,600])
>> title('Approximation Reconstruction at Level 3 Using
the Daubechies-3 Wavelet')
>> (length(a3)/length(x))*100
ans =
12.5926
Original Signal
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Approximation Reconstruction at Level 3 Using the Daubechies-3 Wavelet
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The wavelet approximation at
level-3 contains only 13 % of the
original signal values because of
the wavelet down-sampling, but
still retains the important signal
characteristics.
Compression by Thresholding
>> x=leleccum;
>> w = 'db3'; % Specify the Daubechies-4 wavelet
>> [C,L] = wavedec(x,4,w); % Multi-level decomposition to 4 levels.
>> a3 = appcoef(C,L,w,3); % Extract the level 3 approximation coefficients
>> d3 = detcoef(C,L,3);
% Extract the level 3 detail coefficients.
>> subplot(2,1,1), plot(a3),title('Approximation Coefficients at Level 3')
>> subplot(2,1,2), plot(d3),title('Detail Coefficients at Level 3')
Approximation Coefficients at Level 3
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Detail Coefficients at Level 3
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These are the A3 and D3
coefficients for the signal.
Many of the D3
coefficients could be
“zeroed” without losing
much signal information or
power
Compression by Thresholding
>> x=leleccum; % Uncompressed signal
>> w = 'db3';
% Set wavelet family
>> n=3;
% Set decomposition level
>> [C,L] = wavedec(x,n,w); % Find the decomposition
structure of x to level n using w.
>> thr = 10; % Set the threshold value
>> keepapp = 1; %Logical parameter = do not threshold
approximation coefficients
>> sorh='h'; % Use hard thresholding
>> [xd,cxd,lxd, perf0,perfl2]
=wdencmp('gbl',C,L,w,n,thr,sorh,keepapp);
>> subplot(2,1,1), plot(x),title('Original Signal')
>> subplot(2,1,2),plot(xd),title('Compressed Signal
(Detail Thresholding)')
>> perf0 % Percent of coefficients set to zero
>> perfl2 % Percent retained energy in the compressed
signal
perf0 =
83.4064
perfl2 =
99.9943
Original Signal
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In this compression
83% of the coefficients
were set to zero, but
99% of the energy in
the signal was
retained.
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Compressed Signal (Detail Thresholding)
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Compression by Thresholding
>> D1 = wrcoef('d',C,L,w,1);
>> D2 = wrcoef('d',C,L,w,2);
>> D3 = wrcoef('d',C,L,w,3);
>> d1 = wrcoef('d',cxd,lxd,w,1);
>> d2 = wrcoef('d',cxd,lxd,w,2);
>> d3 = wrcoef('d',cxd,lxd,w,3);
Original Detail - Levels 3 to 1
>> subplot(3,2,1),plot(D3),title('Original Detail - Levels 3
to 1')
>> subplot(3,2,2),plot(d3),title('Thresholded Detail Levels 3 to 1')
>> subplot(3,2,3),plot(D2)
>> subplot(3,2,4),plot(d2)
>> subplot(3,2,5),plot(D1)
>> subplot(3,2,6),plot(d1)
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Thresholded Detail - Levels 3 to 1
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Zeroing of coefficients
by thresholding
results in effective
signal compression
Summary
• Wavelet processing is based on the idea of subband decomposition and coding.
• Wavelet “families” are characterized by the lowpass and high-pass filters used for
decomposition and perfect reconstruction of
signals.
• Typical applications of wavelet processing
include elimination of noise, signal compression,
and the identification of transient signal features.
```